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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 



NFPA 1 (2000), the Fire Prevention Code, 
as Incorporated and Mandated by the States 
and Municipalities, including Frederick 
County (Maryland) , Marquette Township 
(Mississippi), et. alia. 





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2000 Edition 






National Fire Protection 
Association 




National Fire Protection 
Association 



IMPORTANT NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS CONCERNING NFPA DOCUMENTS 

Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerning the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of which the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the develop- 
ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

The NFPA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether 
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published herein. 

In issuing and making this document available, the NFPA is not undertaking to render professional or other services 
for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the NFPA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity 
to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, 
seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. 

The NFPA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. 
Nor does the NFPA list, certify, test or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. 
Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to 
the NFPA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. 

Important Notices and Disclaimers continued on inside back cover. 



10/03 



1-1 



Copyright © 2000 NFPA, All Rights Reserved 

NFPA1 
Fire Prevention Code 

2000 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 1 , Fire Prevention Code, was prepared by the Technical Committee on 
Fire Prevention Code and acted on by the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., at its 
November Meeting held November 14-17, 1999, in New Orleans, LA. It was issued by the 
Standards Council on January 14, 2000, with an effective date of February 1 1 , 2000, and super- 
sedes all previous editions. 

This edition of NFPA 1 was approved as an American National Standard on February 11, 
2000. 

Origin and Development of NFPA 1 

This code was originally developed as a result of the requests of many members of the 
National Fire Protection Association for a document covering all aspects of fire protection 
and prevention that used the other developed NFPA codes and standards. NFPA staff initiated 
this work in 1971 upon a directive from the NFPA Board of Directors. 

The original code was written around a format that served as a guide for the develop- 
ment of a local fire prevention code. Prerogatives of local officials were excluded from the 
main text of the document but included within appendices as guidance for exercising 
desired prerogatives. 

In the late 1980s, the Fire Marshals Association of North America undertook the task of 
developing a code that was more self-contained, adding administrative sections and extract- 
ing heavily from other NFPA codes and standards. The draft was submitted to the Fire Pre- 
vention Code Committee. The Committee examined changes in the built environment as it 
is affected by fire and incorporated significant portions of the Life Safety Code®. A special task 
group on hazardous materials examined technological changes in the handling, storage, and 
use of flammable and combustible materials. Chapters extracting hazardous material require- 
ments placed a greater emphasis on protection of life and property from chemical products 
made and used in the environment. A major rewrite resulted in the 1992 edition of the Fire 
Prevention Code. 

The 1997 edition updated the text extracted from other NFPA codes and standards and 
added compliance with additional NFPA codes and standards as part of the requirements of 
NFPA 1. 

The 2000 edition of NFPA 1 is a complete revision that updates the text extracted from 
other NFPA codes and standards. Additional direct references from NFPA codes and stan- 
dards that are essential to a code official's use of the document were added. The Committee 
also added a new section on performance-based design as a valuable tool for code officials 
and design professionals. NFPA 1 was restructured to be more functional with respect to 
administration, code enforcement, and regulatory adoption processes. 

The extracts contained in NFPA 1 reflect the technical knowledge of the originating com- 
mittees who are responsible for the codes and standards from which the text is extracted. This 
Code is intended to provide local jurisdictions with an effective local fire prevention code. 



1-2 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Technical Committee on Fire Prevention Code 



Walter Smittle, Chair 

State Fire Marshal, WV [E] 

Rep. Int'l Fire Marshals Assn. 



Scott W. Adams, Park City Fire District, UT [E] 
Tracey D. Bellamy, Tomes, Van Rickley and Assoc, GA 
[SE] 

John F. Bender, Maryland Office of State Fire Marshal, MD 
[E] 

Denis Bergeron, Nat'l Research Council of Canada, ON, 
Canada [RT] 
David F. Bibber, City of Dover Fire & Rescue, NH [E] 

Rep. Int'l Assn. of Fire Chiefs 
D. Edwin Blehschmidt, West Virginia University, WV [U] 

Rep. NFPA Health Care Section 
James W. Bowman, The DuPont Co., DE [U] 
William J. Bradford, Brookfield, CT [SE] 
Lawrence Brown, Nat'l Assn. of Home Builders (NAHB), 
DC [IM] 
Craig C. Campbell, Harleysville Insurance Co., PA [I] 

Rep. American Insurance Services Group Inc. 
Jeffrey P. Collins, Palm Beach County Fire/Rescue, FL [E] 
Brian J. Denk, Sara Lee Corp., IL [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 
Gene B. Endthoff, Nat'l Fire Sprinkler Assn., IL [M] 
Ronald R. Farr, Kalamazoo Township Fire Dept., MI [E] 

Rep. Int'l Fire Marshals Assn. 



Alfred J. Hogan, Reedy Creek Improvement District, FL 

[E] 

Howard Hopper, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA [RT] 

Roland J. Huggins, American Fire Sprinkler Assn., Inc. , TX 

[IM] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Assn., Inc. 
Thomas W.Jaeger, Gage-Babcock & Assoc, Inc., VA [SE] 
Richard S. Kraus, Petroleum Safety Consultants, VA [U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Inst. 
Ronald K. Mengel, Pittway Systems Technology Group, IL 
[M] 

Rep. Nat'l Electrical Mfrs. Assn. 
Wayne D. Moore, Hughes Assoc, Inc., RI [M] 

Rep. Automatic Fire Alarm Assn., Inc. 
Joseph L. Navarra, Potomac Electric Power Co., DC [U] 

Rep. Edison Electric Inst. 
Michael A. O'Hara, The MountainStar Group, MN [SE] 
Richard Oggero, The Weitz Co. Inc., IA [C] 
Kenneth R. Quick, Jr., City of Culver City Fire Dept., CA 
[E] 

Rep. South Bay Section Fire Prevention Officer Assn. 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engr Corp., NC [SE] 
Stanley Wheeler, Livermore, CA [E] 

Rep. NFPA/AEBO,ICBO 
Peter J. Gore Willse, HSB Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 



Alternates 



Anthony C. Apfelbeck, City of Oviedo Fire/Rescue, FL [E] 

(Alt. to W. Smittle) 
Carl F. Baldassarra, Schirmer Engr Corp., IL [SE] 

(Alt. to C. W. Schirmer) 
Samuel S. Dannaway, S. S. Dannaway Assoc, Inc., HI [M] 

(Alt. to G. B. Endthoff) 
Kenneth A. Ford, Nat'l Assn. of Home Builders (NAHB), 
DC [IM] 

(Alt. to L. Brown) 
William Hopple, Simplex Time Recorder Co., CA [M] 

(Alt. to R. K. Mengel) 



Gerald E. Lingenfelter, American Insurance Services 
Group Inc., NY [I] 

(Alt. to C. C. Campbell) 
Keith A. Timper, Alliant Techsystems/Ferrulmatic Opera- 
tions, NJ [U] 

(Alt. to B.J. Denk) 
Patrick C. Ward, Gage-Babcock & Assoc, Inc., CA [SE] 

(Alt. to T.W.Jaeger) 
Robert J. Williams, HSB Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 

(Alt. to P.J. G. Willse) 



Nonvoting 



Donald P. Bliss, New Hampshire Dept. of Safety, NH [E] 
Rep. Northeast Regional Fire Code Development Com- 
mittee 
James E. Everitt, Tualatin Valley Fire/Rescue [E] 

Rep. Western Regional Fire Code Development Committee 



Dan Hodge, Rapid City Fire Dept., SD [E] 

Rep. North Central Regional Fire Code Development 
Committee 
Steven E. Randall, Altamonte Springs Fire Dept., FL [E] 

Rep. Southeast Regional Fire Code Development 
Committee 



Martha H. Curtis, NFPA Staff Liaison 

This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that 
time, changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document. 

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association 
or any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on a Fire Prevention 
Code that includes appropriate administrative provisions, to be used with the National Fire Codes for the 
installation, operation, and maintenance of buildings, structures, and premises for the purpose of providing 
safety to life and property from fire and explosion. This includes development of requirements for, and 
maintenance of, systems and equipment for fire control and extinguishment. Safety to life of occupants of 
buildings and structures is under the primary jurisdiction of the Committee on Safety to Life. 



2000 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-3 



Contents 



Chapter 1 Administration and Enforcement .... 

1-1 Title 

1-2 Purpose 

1-3 Scope 

1-4 Authority 

1-5 Application 

1-6 Equivalencies and Alternatives 

1-7 Performance-Based Design 

1-8 Board of Appeals 

1-9 Occupancy 

1-10 Maintenance and Testing 

1-1 1 Records and Reports 

1-12 Duties and Powers of the Incident 

Commander 

1-13 Owner/Occupant Responsibilities 

1-14 Fire Reporting and False Alarms 

1-15 Tampering With Fire Safety Equipment 

1-16 Permits and Approvals 

1-17 Certificates of Fitness 

1-18 Plans Review 

1-19 Notice of Violations and Penalties 

1-20 Units 



Chapter 2 Definitions . 

2-1 Definitions . . . 



Chapter 3 General Provisions 

3-1 Fundamental Requirements 

Fire Drills 

Smoking 

Open Outdoor Fires, Incinerators, and 

Outdoor Fireplaces 

Fire Lanes 

Access Boxes 

Fire Protection Markings 

Vacant Buildings 

Combustible Vegetation 

Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, 
and Fairs 



3-2 
3-3 
3-4 

3-5 
3-6 
3-7 
3-8 
3-9 
3-10 



4-2 
4-3 
4-4 
4-5 
4-6 
4-7 
4-8 
4-9 



Chapter 4 Means of Egress 

4-1 Application 

Minimum Width 

Number of Means of Egress 

Arrangement of Means of Egress . 

Occupant Load 

Illumination of Means of Egress. . 

Emergency Lighting 

Marking of Means of Egress 

Means of Egress Reliability 



9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

11 

12 

12 

12 

13 
13 

20 
20 
20 
20 

20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 

- 22 

23 
23 
25 
26 
26 
26 
28 
28 
28 
29 



Chapter 5 Features of Fire Protection 1- 30 



5-1 General 

5-2 Construction 

5-3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies 

5-4 Fire Doors and Windows 

5-5 Interior Finish 

5-6 Furnishings, Contents, Decorations, and 

Treated Finishes 

5-7 Smoke Partitions 

Chapter 6 Building Services 

6-1 Electrical Fire Safety 

6-2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air 

Conditioning 

6-3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors 

6-4 Utilities 

6-5 Heating Appliances 

6-6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry 

Chutes 

6-7 Emergency and Standby Power 

6-8 Smoke Control 

Chapter 7 Fire Protection Systems 

7-1 General 

7-2 Standpipe Systems 

7-3 Automatic Sprinklers 

7-4 Fire Pumps 

7-5 Water Supply 

7-6 Portable Extinguishers 

7-7 Detection, Alarm, and Communication 

Systems 

7-8 Other Fire Protection Systems 

Chapter 8 Occupancy Fire Safety 

8-1 Assembly Occupancies 

8-2 Educational Occupancies 

8-3 Day-Care Occupancies 

8-4 Health Care Occupancies 

8-5 Residential Board and Care Occupancies . . 

8-6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers 

8-7 Detention and Correctional Occupancies . . 

8-8 Hotels and Dormitories 

8-9 Apartment Buildings 

8-10 Lodging or Rooming Houses 

8-1 1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and 

Manufactured Housing 

8-12 Mercantile Occupancies 

8-13 Business Occupancies 

8-14 Industrial Occupancies, Application 

8-15 Storage Occupancies 

8-16 Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings, 

Application 

8-17 Historical Buildings 



30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

30 
30 

31 
31 

31 
31 
31 
31 

32 
32 
32 

33 
33 
33 
33 
40 
42 
42 

46 

57 

59 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 
67 

67 
67 
67 
67 
67 

68 
68 



2000 Edition 



1-4 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Chapter 9 Aerosol Products 1- 69 

9-1 Application 1- 69 

Chapter 10 Airports and Heliports 1- 69 

10-1 Hangars 1- 69 

10-2 Terminals 1- 69 

10-3 Roof-Top Heliport Construction and 

Protection 1- 69 

Chapter 1 1 Cleanrooms 1- 71 

11-1 General 1- 71 

11-2 Applicability 1- 71 

Chapter 12 Combustible Waste, Refuse, 

and Fibers 1- 71 

12-1 Combustible Waste and Refuse 1- 71 

12-2 Combustible Fibers 1- 71 

Chapter 13 Commercial Cooking Equipment 1- 73 

13-1 Commercial Cooking Equipment 1- 73 

13-2 Portable Fire Extinguishers 1- 74 

13-3 Extinguishing Systems for Commercial 

Cooking Equipment 1- 74 

Chapter 14 Drycleaning 1- 76 

14-1 General 1- 76 

14-2 Permits 1- 76 

Chapter 15 Dust Explosion Prevention 1- 76 

15-1 General 1- 76 

15-2 Permits 1- 76 

Chapter 16 Fireworks, Model Rocketry, 

and Explosives 1- 77 

16-1 Fireworks Displays 1- 77 

16-2 Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate 

Audience 1- 77 

16-3 Flame Effects Before an Audience 1- 77 

16-4 Fireworks Manufacturing 1- 77 

16-5 Model Rocketry 1- 77 

16-6 Rocketry Manufacturing 1- 77 

16-7 High Power Rocketry 1- 77 

16-8 Explosives 1- 77 

16-9 Ammonium Nitrate 1- 77 

16-10 Sale, Handling, and Storage of 

Consumer Fireworks 1- 77 

Chapter 17 Flammable and Combustible Liquids .... 1- 78 

17-1 General 1- 78 

17-2 Storage, Handling and Use 1- 78 

17-3 Spray Application Using Flammable or 

Combustible Materials 1- 78 

17-4 Dipping and Coating Processes 1- 86 

17-5 Solvent Extraction 1- 86 



17-6 Handling Underground Releases of 

Flammable and Combustible Liquids 1- 86 

Chapter 18 Hot Work Operations 1- 87 

18-1 General 1- 87 

18-2 Fire Prevention Precautions 1- 87 

18-3 Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems 1- 88 

Chapter 19 Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 1- 89 

19-1 General 1- 89 

19-2 Location 1- 89 

19-3 Safety Controls 1- 89 

Chapter 20 Laboratories Using Chemicals 1- 89 

20-1 General 1- 89 

20-2 Laboratories in Health Care Occupancies. . . 1- 89 

20-3 Permits 1- 89 

Chapter 21 Liquefied Petroleum Gases and 

Liquefied Natural Gases 1- 90 

21-1 General Provisions 1- 90 

21-2 LP-Gas Equipment and Appliances 1- 90 

21-3 Installation of LP-Gas Systems 1- 91 

21-4 LP-Gas Liquid Transfer 1- 99 

21-5 Storage of Portable Containers Awaiting 

Use or Resale 1-100 

21-6 Vehicular Transportation of LP-Gas 1- 101 

21-7 LP-Gases at Utility Plants 1-103 

21-8 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1-103 

Chapter 22 Marinas, Boatyards, Marine Terminals, 

Piers, and Wharves 1-103 

22-1 Marinas and Boatyards 1- 103 

22-2 Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves 1-103 

22-3 Construction, Repair, and Lay-Up 

of Vessels 1-103 

Chapter 23 Mechanical Refrigeration 1-104 

23-1 General 1-104 

23-2 Classifications 1-104 

23-3 Maintenance and Installation 1-104 

23-4 Emergency Discharge of Ammonia 

Refrigerant 1- 104 

Chapter 24 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1- 105 

24-1 General 1-105 

24-2 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 1-105 

24-3 Organic Peroxide Formulations 1-110 

Chapter 25 Parking Garages 1-114 

25-1 General 1-114 

Chapter 26 Pesticides and Herbicides 1-114 

26-1 General 1-114 



2000 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-5 



26-2 Application 1-114 

26-3 Applicability of Other Documents 1-114 

26-4 Hazard Identification 1-114 

26-5 Temporary Storage 1-114 

Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and Recreational 

Vehicle Sites 1-114 

27-1 Manufactured Home Sites 1- 114 

27-2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and 

Campgrounds 1-114 

Chapter 28 Refueling 1-115 

28-1 General 1-115 

28-2 Automotive Fuel Servicing 1-115 

28-3 Aircraft Fuel Servicing 1-122 

28-4 Marine Service Stations 1- 124 

28-5 Alternate Fuels 1-127 



Chapter 29 Safeguards During Building Construction, 
Alteration, and Demolition 

Operations 

29-1 General Requirements 

29-2 Fire Safety During Construction 

29-3 Fire Safety During Demolition 

29-4 Torch-Applied Roofing Systems 

29-5 Tar Ketdes 

Chapter 30 Service Stations and Repair Garages . . . 

30-1 Service Stations 



128 
-128 

128 
-129 
-129 

129 

131 
131 



30-2 Repair Garages 1-131 

Chapter 31 Grandstands and Bleachers, Folding and 
Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane 

Structures 1-133 

31-1 General 1- 133 

31-2 Permanent Membrane Structures 1-133 

31-3 Temporary Membrane Structures 1- 134 

31-4 Tents 1-135 

31-5 New Grandstands 1-136 

31-6 Existing Grandstands 1-137 

31-7 New Folding and Telescopic Seating 1-138 

31-8 Existing Folding and Telescopic Seating. ... 1-139 

31-9 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands 1- 139 

31-10 Maintenance and Operation of Folding 

and Telescopic Seating 1- 139 

Chapter 32 Referenced Publications 1-140 

Appendix A Explanatory Material 1- 143 

Appendix B Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1-180 

Appendix C Sample Ordinance Adopting the Fire 

Prevention Code 1-188 

Appendix D Referenced Publications 1-189 

Index 1-190 



2000 Edition 



1-6 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



NFPA1 
Fire Prevention Code 

2000 Edition 

NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter des- 
ignating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on 
the paragraph can be found in Appendix A. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 32 and Appendix D. 

A reference in parentheses () following a section or para- 
graph indicates material that has been extracted from another 
NFPA document. The complete title and edition of the docu- 
ment the material is extracted from is found in Chapter 32. 
Editorial changes to extracted material consist of revising ref- 
erences to an appropriate division in this document or the 
inclusion of the document number with the division number 
when the reference is to the original document. Requests for 
interpretations or revisions of extracted text shall be sent to the 
appropriate technical committee. 

Chapter 1 Administration and Enforcement 

1-1 Title. The title of this Code shall be NFPA 1, Fire Preven- 
tion Code, of the National Fire Protection Association. The 
short title of this Code shall be the NFPA Fire Prevention Code. 

1-2 Purpose. 

1-2.1 The purpose of this Code is to prescribe minimum 
requirements necessary to establish a reasonable level of fire 
safety and property protection from the hazards created by 
fire and explosion. 

1-2.2 This Code is partially comprised of limited text refer- 
ences extracted from other NFPA codes and standards in an 
effort to bring together information useful during field 
inspections. (See 1-5.4 relative to conflicts of application.) 

1-3 Scope. The scope covers the construction, maintenance, 
and use of property to the extent that such is not covered by 
other existing NFPA codes and standards. When other codes 
and standards are applicable to the scope of this Code, they 
are referenced herein. The provisions of this Code are appli- 
cable to the following: 

(1) The inspection of buildings, processes, equipment, sys- 
tems, and other fire and related life safety situations 

(2) The investigation of fires, explosions, hazardous materi- 
als incidents, and other related emergency incidents han- 
dled by the fire department 

(3) The review of construction plans, drawings, and specifica- 
tions for life safety systems, fire protection systems, 
access, water supplies, processes, and hazardous materi- 
als and other fire and life safety issues 

(4) The fire and life safety education of fire brigades, 
employees, responsible parties, and the general public 

(5) Existing occupancies and conditions, the design and con- 
struction of new buildings, remodeling of existing build- 
ings, and additions to existing buildings 

(6) The storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site trans- 
portation of hazardous materials 

(7) The design, alteration, modification, construction, mainte- 
nance, and testing of fire protection systems and equipment 

(8) Access requirements for fire department operations 

(9) Hazards from outside fires in vegetation, trash, building 
debris, and other materials 



(10) The regulation and control of special events including but 
not limited to exhibits, trade shows, amusement parks, 
haunted houses, and other similar special occupancies 

(11) The interior finish, decorations, furnishings, and other 
combustibles that contribute to fire spread, fire load, and 
smoke production 

(12) The storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site trans- 
portation of flammable and combustible gases, liquids, 
and solids 

1-4 Authority. 

1-4.1 This Code shall be administered and enforced by the 
authority having jurisdiction designated by the governing 
authority. 

1-4.2 Police and other enforcement agencies shall have 
authority to render necessary assistance in the enforcement of 
this Code when requested to do so by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

1-4.3 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to 
delegate to other qualified individuals such powers as neces- 
sary for the proper administration and enforcement of this 
Code. 

1-4.4 The authority having jurisdiction shall be authorized to 
inspect, at all reasonable times, any building or premises for 
dangerous or hazardous conditions or materials as set forth in 
this Code. The authority having jurisdiction shall have author- 
ity to order any person (s) to remove or remedy such danger- 
ous or hazardous condition or material. Any person (s) failing 
to comply with such order shall be in violation of this Code. 

1-4.5 Where conditions exist and are deemed hazardous to 
life and property by the authority having jurisdiction, the 
authority having jurisdiction shall have the authority to sum- 
marily abate such hazardous conditions that are in violation of 
this Code. 

1-4.6 To the full extent permitted by law, any authority having 
jurisdiction engaged in fire prevention and inspection work 
shall be authorized at all reasonable times to enter and exam- 
ine any building, structure, marine vessel, vehicle, or premises 
for the purpose of making fire safety inspections. Before enter- 
ing a private dwelling, the authority having jurisdiction shall 
obtain the consent of the occupant thereof or obtain a court 
warrant authorizing entry for the purpose of inspection 
except in those instances where an emergency exists. As used 
in this section, emergency means circumstances that the author- 
ity having jurisdiction knows, or has reason to believe, exist 
and that reasonably can constitute immediate danger to life 
and property. 

1-4.7 Persons authorized to enter and inspect buildings, struc- 
tures, marine vessels, vehicles, and premises as herein set forth 
shall be identified by proper credentials issued by this govern- 
ing authority. 

1-4.8 Persons shall not interfere with an authority havingjuris- 
diction carrying out any duties or functions prescribed by this 
Code. 

1-4.9 Persons shall not use a badge, uniform, or other creden- 
tials to impersonate the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-4.10 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to investigate the cause, origin, and circumstances of any 
fire, explosion, or other hazardous condition. The authority 
havingjurisdiction shall have the authority to take custody of 



2000 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



1-7 



all physical evidence relating to the cause of the fire, explo- 
sion, or other hazardous condition. Information that could be 
related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of 
the public record except as might be directed by a court of law. 

1-4.1 1 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to require plans and specifications to ensure compliance 
with applicable codes and standards. 

1-4.12 Whenever any installation subject to inspection prior 
to use is covered or concealed without having first been 
inspected, the authority having jurisdiction shall have the 
authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection. 
The authority having jurisdiction shall be notified when the 
installation is ready for inspection and shall conduct the 
inspection within a reasonable period of time. 

1-4.13 When any construction or installation work is being 
performed in violation of the plans and specifications as 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction, a written notice 
shall be issued to the responsible party to stop work on that 
portion of the work that is in violation. The notice shall state 
the nature of the violation, and no work shall be continued on 
that portion until the violation has been corrected. 



W.14 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to order the immediate evacuation of any occupied building 
deemed unsafe when such building has hazardous conditions 
that present imminent danger to building occupants. 

1-4.15 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to develop and implement a public fire safety education 
program as deemed necessary for the general welfare with 
respect to the potential fire hazards within the jurisdiction. 

1-4.16 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to ensure that appropriate or duly authorized public fire 
safety education programs or public fire safety messages are 
disseminated to the general public. 

1-5 Application. 

1-5.1 This Code shall apply to both new and existing conditions. 

1-5.2 Details regarding processes, methods, specifications, 
equipment testing and maintenance, design standards, per- 
formance, installation, or other pertinent criteria contained 
in those standards and codes listed in Chapter 32 of this Code 
shall be considered a part of this Code. 

1-5.3 Applicable provisions of documents listed in Appendix 
D are not required but shall be permitted to be used by the 
authority havingjurisdiction as appropriate criteria for meet- 
ing the intent of this Code when specific provisions do not 
exist within this Code or other nationally recognized codes or 
standards. 

1-5.4 Where the requirement differs between this Code and 
referenced documents, the requirements of the referenced 
documents shall apply. 

1-5.5 Buildings in existence or permitted for construction 
prior to the adoption of this Code shall comply with the provi- 
sions stated herein or referenced for existing buildings. 

Existing buildings or installations that do not comply with 
the provisions of the publications referenced in 32-1.1 shall be 
permitted to be continued in use unless the authority having 
jurisdiction determines that the lack of conformity with these 
codes and standards presents an imminent danger. 



Exception: A limited but reasonable time shall be allowed for compli- 
ance with any part of this Code for existing buildings, commensurate 
with the magnitude of expenditure, disruption of services, and degree 
of hazard. Occupied existing buildings shall comply with 1-9.2. 

1-5.6 Buildings permitted for construction after the adoption 
of this Code shall comply with the provisions stated herein for 
new buildings. 

1-5.7 When in fixed locations and occupied as buildings, vehi- 
cles, vessels, or other similar conveyances, as described by Sec- 
tion 11-6 of NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, shall be treated as 
buildings and comply with this Code. 

1-5.8 Additions, alterations, or repairs to any building shall 
conform to that required of a new building without requiring 
the existing building to comply with all the requirements of 
this Code. Additions, alterations, or repairs shall not cause an 
existing building to become unsafe or adversely affect the per- 
formance of the building as determined by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

1-5.9 Where two or more classes of occupancy occur in the 
same building or structure and are so intermingled that sepa- 
rate safeguards are impracticable, means of egress facilities, 
construction, protection, and other safeguards shall comply 
with the most restrictive fire safety requirements of the occu- 
pancies involved. 

1-6 Equivalencies and Alternatives. 

1-6.1 Nothing in this Code is intended to prevent the use of 
systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, 
strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety to 
those prescribed by this Code, provided technical documenta- 
tion is submitted to the authority havingjurisdiction to dem- 
onstrate equivalency and the system, method, or device is 
approved for the intended purpose. 

1-6.2 The specific requirements of this Code shall be permit- 
ted to be modified by the authority havingjurisdiction to allow 
alternative arrangements that will secure as nearly equivalent 
fire safety as practical, but in no case shall the modification 
afford less fire safety than, in the judgment of the authority 
havingjurisdiction, that which would be provided by compli- 
ance with the corresponding provisions contained in this 
Code. 

1-6.3 Buildings with alternative fire protection features 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction shall be consid- 
ered as conforming with this Code. 

1-6.4 Each application for an alternative fire protection fea- 
ture shall be filed with the authority havingjurisdiction and 
shall be accompanied by such evidence, letters, statements, 
results of tests, or other supporting information as required to 
justify the request. The authority havingjurisdiction shall keep 
a record of actions on such applications, and a signed copy of 
the authority having jurisdiction's decision shall be provided 
for the applicant. 

1-7* Performance-Based Design. 

1-7.1* When a performance-based design is submitted to the 
authority havingjurisdiction for review and approval, the sub- 
mitter shall document, in an approved format, each perfor- 
mance objective and applicable scenario, including any 
calculations methods or models, used in establishing the pro- 
posed design's fire and life safety performance. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



1-7.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall make the final 
determination as to whether the performance objectives have 
been met. 

1-7.3 The design features required for the building to meet 
the performance goals and objectives shall be maintained and 
readily accessible to the authority havingjurisdiction for the 
life of the building. The building shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with all documented assumptions and design specifica- 
tions. Any proposed changes or variations from the approved 
design shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction 
prior to the actual change. 

1-7.4 Where a performance-based design is approved and 
used, the property owner shall annually certify that the design 
features and systems have been maintained in accordance with 
the approved performance-based design and assumptions. 

1-8 Board of Appeals. 

1-8.1 A Board of Appeals shall be established consisting of 
members and alternate members who shall be appointed by 
the appointing official of the jurisdiction by reason of educa- 
tion, experience, and knowledge and are deemed to be com- 
petent to sit in judgment on matters concerning NFPA 1, Fire 
Prevention Code, and its enforcement. The members shall serve 
for a term of three years, except for the initial appointees who 
shall serve as follows: two for a term of one year, two for a term 
of two years, and three for a term of three years. 

1-8.2 Board members shall not be officers, agents, or employ- 
ees of the jurisdiction. All members and any alternate members 
shall be appointed and shall serve in accordance with the terms 
and conditions of the authority having jurisdiction. The Board 
shall establish rules and regulations for conducting its business 
and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the 
authority having jurisdiction, with a copy to the appellant. 

1-8.3 No more than one of said members or their alternates 
shall be engaged in the same business, profession, or line of 
endeavor. No member of the Board of Appeals shall sit in 
judgment on any case in which the member, personally, is 
directly interested. 

1-8.4 The Board of Appeals shall provide for reasonable inter- 
pretation of the provisions of this Code and rule on appeals 
from decisions of the authority having jurisdiction. 

1-8.5 The Board of Appeals shall meet whenever directed by 
the appointing authority to interpret the provisions of this 
Code and to consider and rule on any properly filed appeal 
from a decision of the authority having jurisdiction, giving at 
least five days' notice of hearing, but in no case shall it fail to 
meet on an appeal within 30 calendar days of the filing of 
notice of appeal. All of the meetings of the board shall be 
open to the public. 

1-8.6 Means of Appeals. 

1-8.6.1 Any person shall be permitted to appeal a decision of 
the authority havingjurisdiction to the Board of Appeals when 
it is claimed that any one or more of the following conditions 
exist: 

(1) The true intent of the codes or ordinances described in 
this Code has been incorrectly interpreted. 

(2) The provisions of the codes or ordinances do not fully 
apply. 

(3) A decision is unreasonable or arbitrary as it applies to 
alternatives or new materials. 



1-8.6.2 An appeal shall be submitted to the authority having 
jurisdiction in writing within 30 calendar days of notification 
of violation outlining the Code provision from which relief is 
sought and the remedy proposed. 

1-9 Occupancy. 

1-9.1 No new construction or existing building shall be occu- 
pied in whole or in part in violation of the provisions of this 
Code. 

1-9.2 Existing buildings that are occupied at the time of adop- 
tion of this Code shall remain in use provided that the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

(1) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(2) There exists no condition deemed hazardous to life or 
property that would constitute an imminent danger. 

1-9.3* Buildings or portions of buildings shall not be occu- 
pied during construction, repair, or alteration without the 
approval of the authority havingjurisdiction if required means 
of egress are impaired or required fire protection systems are 
out of service. 

Exception: Routine maintenance or repair. 

1-9.4* Changes of Occupancy. 

1-9.4.1 In any building or structure, whether or not a physical 
alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classifica- 
tion to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, 
building, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements 
of this Code or NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, that apply to new 
construction for the proposed new use or, where specifically 
permitted elsewhere in this Code or NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 
existing construction features shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in use in conversions. (/0/.-4.6.11) 

1-9.4.2 Occupancy and subclassifications, as defined, shall be 
in accordance with NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

1-10 Maintenance and Testing. 

1-10.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, 
condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other fea- 
ture is required for compliance with the provisions of this 
Code or NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, such device, equipment, 
system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or other 
feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accor- 
dance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by 
the authority havingjurisdiction. (i0/:4.6.12.1) 

1-10.2* Any nonrequired system that creates an unsafe or haz- 
ardous condition shall be removed. 

1-10.3* Existing life safety features obvious to the public, if 
not required by this Code or NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, shall 
be either maintained or removed. (101A.6.12.2) 

1-10.4 Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to 
ensure its maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified 
elsewhere in this Code or in NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, or as 
directed by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-10.5 Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervi- 
sion of a responsible person who shall ensure that testing and 
maintenance are made at specified intervals in accordance 
with applicable NFPA standards or as directed by the authority 
havingjurisdiction. (/0/:4.6.12.4) 



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1-9 



1-11 Records and Reports. 

1-11.1 A record of examinations, approvals, and variances 
granted shall be maintained by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion and shall be available for public inspection during busi- 
ness hours in accordance with applicable laws. 

1-1 1.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall keep a record of 
all fire prevention inspections, including the date of such 
inspections and a summary of any violations found to exist, the 
date of the services of notices, and a record of the final dispo- 
sition of all violations. 

1-11.3 All records required to be kept shall be maintained 
until their usefulness has been served or as otherwise required 
by law. 

1-12 Duties and Powers of the Incident Commander. 

1-12.1 The incident commander conducting operations in 
connection with the extinguishment and control of any fire, 
explosion, hazardous materials incident, natural disaster, res- 
cue, and/or other emergency shall have authority to direct all 
operations of fire extinguishment, mitigation of a hazardous 
materials incident, natural disaster, rescue, and/or control 
and to take the necessary precautions to save life, protect 
property, and prevent further injury or damage. During such 
operation, including the investigation of the cause of such 
emergency, the incident commander shall be permitted to 
control or prohibit the approach to the scene of such emer- 
gency by any vehicle, vessel, or person. 

1-12.2 No person shall obstruct the operations of the fire 
department in connection with extinguishing or control of 
any fire, or actions relative to other emergencies, or disobey 
any lawful command of the incident commander in charge of 
the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a 
police officer assisting the fire department. 

1-12.3 The incident commander in charge of an emergency 
scene shall have the authority to establish barriers to control 
access in the vicinity of such emergency and to place, or cause 
to be placed, ropes, guards, barricades, or other obstructions 
across any street or alley to delineate such emergency scene 
barrier. No person, except as authorized by the incident com- 
mander in charge of the emergency, shall be permitted to 
cross such barriers. 

1-13 Owner/Occupant Responsibilities. 

1-13.1 The owner, operator, or occupant shall be responsible 
for compliance with this Code. 

1-13.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to 
require tests or test reports as proof of compliance with the 
intent of this Code. 

1-13.3 The owner, operator, or occupant of a building that is 
deemed unsafe by the authority having jurisdiction shall abate, 
through corrective action approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction, the condition causing the building to be unsafe 
either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition, or other corrective 
action approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-14 Fire Reporting and False Alarms. 

1-14.1 The person discovering any unwanted fire, regardless 
of magnitude, shall take the following actions: 



(1) Immediately notify the person in charge of the premises 
and all occupants and guests in the immediate vicinity of 
the fire. 

(2) Notify the fire department. 

Exception: This shall not apply to firms that have established on-premises 
fire-fighting organizations and have coordinated and arranged proce- 
dures approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-14.1.1* The owner, manager, occupant, or any person in 
control of such building or premises, upon discovery of an 
unwanted fire, or evidence of there having been an unwanted 
fire, even though it has apparentiy been extinguished, shall 
immediately cause notice of the existence of such fire, circum- 
stances of same, and the location thereof to be given to the fire 
department. 

1-14.1.2 No person shall make, issue, post, or maintain any 
regulation or order, written or verbal, that would require any 
person to take any unnecessary delaying action prior to report- 
ing a fire to the fire department. 

1-14.2 No person shall deliberately or maliciously turn in an 
alarm of fire when in fact that person knows that no fire exists. 

1-14.3 It shall be a violation of this Code for any person to will- 
fully make to the fire department any false, fraudulent, mis- 
leading, or unfounded report or statement or to willfully 
misrepresent any fact for the purpose of interfering with the 
orderly operation of the fire department or with the intention 
of misleading any fire department personnel. 

1-15 Tampering With Fire Safety Equipment. 

1-15.1 No person shall render any portable or fixed fire- 
extinguishing system or device or any fire warning system 
inoperative or inaccessible. 

Exception: As necessary during emergencies, maintenance, drills, pre- 
scribed testing alterations, or renovations. 

1-15.2 No person shall render a system or device inoperative 
during an emergency unless by direction of the incident 
commander. 

1-15.3 No person, except a person authorized by the authority 
havingjurisdiction, shall remove, unlock, destroy, or tamper 
with in any manner any locked gate, door, or barricade; chain; 
enclosure; sign; tag; or seal that has been required by the 
authority havingjurisdiction pursuant to this Code. 

1-16 Permits and Approvals. 

1-16.1 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be authorized 
to establish and issue permits, certificates, notices, and approv- 
als, or orders pertaining to fire control and fire hazards pursu- 
ant to this section. 

1-16.2 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
revoke a permit or approval issued if any violation of this Code 
is found upon inspection or in case there have been any false 
statements or misrepresentations submitted in the application 
or plans on which the permit or approval was based. 

1-16.3 Any attempt to defraud or otherwise deliberately or 
knowingly design, install, service, maintain, operate, sell, rep- 
resent for sale, falsify records, reports, or applications, or 
other related activity in violation of the requirements pre- 
scribed by this Code shall be a violation of this Code. Such vio- 
lations shall be cause for immediate suspension or revocation 
of any related licenses, certificates, or permits issued by this 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



jurisdiction. In addition, any such violation shall be subject to 
any other criminal or civil penalties as available by the laws of 
this jurisdiction. 

1-16.4 Revocation shall be constituted when the permittee is 
duly notified by the authority having jurisdiction. 

1-16.5 Any person who engages in any business, operation, or 
occupation, or uses any premises, after the fire permit issued 
therefore has been suspended or revoked pursuant to the pro- 
visions of this Code, and before such suspended permit has 
been reinstated or a new permit issued, shall be in violation of 
this Code. 

1-16.6 A permit shall be predicated upon compliance with the 
requirements of this Code and shall constitute written author- 
ity issued by the authority having jurisdiction to maintain, 
store, use, or handle materials, or to conduct processes that 
could produce conditions hazardous to life or property, or to 
install equipment used in connection with such activities. Any 
permit issued under this Code shall not take the place of any 
other license or permit required by other regulations or laws 
of this jurisdiction. 



1-16.7 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to require an inspection prior to the issuance of a permit. 

1-16.8 A permit issued under this Code shall continue until 
revoked or for the period of time designated on the permit. 
The permit shall be issued to one person or business only and 
for the location or purpose described in the permit. Any 
change that affects any of the conditions of the permit shall 
require a new or amended permit. 

1-16.9 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to grant an extension of the permit time period upon pre- 
sentation by the permittee of a satisfactory reason for failure to 
start or complete the work or activity authorized by the permit. 

1-16.10 Applications for permits shall be made to the author- 
ity having jurisdiction on forms provided by the jurisdiction 
and shall include the applicant's answers in full to inquiries set 
forth on such forms. Applications for permits shall be accom- 
panied by such data as required by the authority havingjuris- 
diction and fees as required by the jurisdiction. 

1-16.11 The authority having jurisdiction shall review all 
applications submitted and issue permits as required. If an 
application for a permit is rejected by the authority having 
jurisdiction, the applicant shall be advised of the reasons for 
such rejection. Permits for activities requiring evidence of 
financial responsibility by the jurisdiction shall not be issued 
unless proof of required financial responsibility is furnished. 

1-16.12 A copy of the permit shall be posted or otherwise 
readily accessible at each place of operation or carried by the 
permit holder as specified by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-16.13 Any activity authorized by any permit issued under this 
Code shall be conducted by the permittee or the permittee's 
agents or employees in compliance with all requirements of 
this Code applicable thereto and in accordance with the 
approved plans and specifications. No permit issued under this 
Code shall be interpreted to justify a violation of any provision 
of this Code or any other applicable law or regulation. Any 
addition or alteration of approved plans or specifications shall 
be approved in advance by the authority havingjurisdiction, as 
evidenced-by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 



1-16.14* Permits shall be issued by the authority havingjuris- 
diction and shall bear the name and signature of the authority 
having jurisdiction or that of the authority having jurisdic- 
tion's designated representative. In addition, the permit shall 
indicate the following: 

(1) Operation or activities for which the permit is issued 

(2) Address or location where the operation or activity is to 
be conducted 

(3) Name and address of the permittee 

(4) Permit number and date of issuance 

(5) Period of validity of the permit 

(6) Inspection requirements 

1-16.15 Any application for, or acceptance of, any permit 
requested or issued pursuant to this Code shall constitute 
agreement and consent by the person making the application 
or accepting the permit to allow the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion to enter the premises at any reasonable time to conduct 
such inspections as required by this Code. 

1-16.16 The authority having jurisdiction shall have the 
authority to issue permits for the following operations within 
the jurisdiction: 

(1) Amusement Parks. Construction, alteration, or operation 
of amusement park fire protection safety features. 

(2) Automatic Fire Suppression Systems. Installation of or modi- 
fication to any automatic fire suppression system. Mainte- 
nance performed in accordance with this Code is not 
considered a modification and does not require a permit. 

(3) Bonfires and Outdoor Rubbish Fires. Kindling or maintaining 
any open fire or a fire in any public street, alley, road, or 
other public or private ground. Instructions and stipula- 
tions of permit shall be adhered to. Cooking fires are 
exempt and do not require a permit. 

(4) Bowling Lanes. Refinishing and resurfacing of bowling 
lanes and bowling pin refinishing. 

(5) Calcium Carbide. Storage in cylinders or containers. 

(6) Cellulose Nitrate Film. Storage, handling, or use of cellulose 
nitrate film. 

(7) Combustible Fibers. Storage or handling of combustible 
fibers covered by Section 12-2 of this Code. 

(8) Compressed Gases. Storage, handling, or use of compressed 
gases. Installation or modification of any compressed gas 
system. 

(9) Covered Mall Buildings. Permit required annually for facil- 
ities that utilize the mall area for exhibits or displays. 
Exhibits and displays include community service 
projects, sidewalk sales, and holiday sales. Other trade 
shows and exhibits held in the mall shall require a sepa- 
rate trade show/ exhibit permit. 

(10) Cutting and Welding. Cutting or welding operations within 
the jurisdiction. 

(11) Dust Explosion Prevention. Installation, modification, or 
operation of the following: 

a. Grain bleacher or elevator 

b. Starch, flour, or feed mill 

c. Malt house 

d. Wood flour manufacturing plant 

e. Aluminum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices, sugar, or 
other facility that pulverizes materials subject to dust 
explosion 

f. Any central dust collection system 

g. Any equipment that produces significant amounts of 
dust subject to explosion 



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ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



1-11 



(12) Exhibit and Trade Shows. Operation of all exhibits and 
trade shows held within the jurisdiction. 

(13) Explosives. Manufacture, sell, dispose, purchase, storage, 
use, possess, or transport of explosives within the jurisdic- 
tion. A separate permit, valid for no more than 90 days, 
shall be required to conduct blasting operations. 

(14) Fire Alarm and Detection Systems and Related Equipment. 
Installation of or modification to fire alarm and detection 
systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed 
in accordance with this Code is not considered a modifi- 
cation and does not require a permit. 

(15) Fire Pumps and Related Equipment. Installation of or modi- 
fication to fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey 
pumps, controllers, and generators. Maintenance per- 
formed in accordance with this Code is not considered a 
modification and does not require a permit. 

(16) Fireworks. Possession, storage, manufacture, sale, or dis- 
charge of fireworks within the jurisdiction. 

(17) Flammable and Combustible Liquids. 

a. Storage, use, handling, or transportation of Class I, 
Class II, or Class IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 

b. Installation, modification, removal, abandonment, 
defueling, or slurry fill of storage tanks 

c. Manufacture, processing, blending, or refining 

d. Operation of cargo tankers that transport flammable 
and combustible liquids 

(18) Flammable Finish Application. The spray application of 
flammable or combustible liquids. Installation or modifi- 
cation of any spray room or booth. 

(19) Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Mem- 
brane Structures. Construction, location, erection or place- 
ment of grandstands and bleachers, folding and 
telescopic seating, tents, and membrane structures. 

(20) Industrial Ovens and Furnaces. Operation of industrial 
ovens and furnaces covered by Chapter 19. 

(21) LP-Gas. 

a. Storage and use of LP-Gas 

b. Installation of or modification to any LP-Gas system 

c. Operation of any cargo tankers that transport LP-Gas 

(22) Lumber Yards and Woodworking Plants. Storage of lumber 
exceeding 100,000 board ft. 

(23) Magnesium. Storage, handling, or processing of magne- 
sium in quantities deemed significant by the authority 
having jurisdiction . 

(24) Organic Coatings. Operation and maintenance of a facility 
that manufactures organic coatings. 

(25) Outdoor Storage of Scrap Tires. Establish, conduct, or main- 
tain any outdoor storage of scrap tires that exceeds 2500 ft 3 
(18.7 m s ) of total volume of scrap tires. 

(26) Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides, Storage of, Regulated by 
Chapter 24. 

a. Materials classified as having more than one hazard 
category if the quantity limits are exceeded in any cat- 
egory 

b. Repair, abandonment, removal, placing temporarily 
out-of-service, closing, or substantial modification a 
storage facility 

c. Installation, modification, alteration, or addition to 
any stationary aboveground or underground hazard- 
ous materials storage tank, secondary containment 
system, ventilation system, exhaust treatment system, 
explosion venting or suppression systems, or gas 
detection systems 



d. Storage, handling, or use of chlorine 

e. Installation or modification to any chlorine gas system 

(27) Pesticides and Herbicides, Storage of. 

(28) Pyroxylin Plastics. Storage, handling, assembly, or manu- 
facture of pyroxylin plastics. 

(29) Private Fire Hydrants. Installation, modification, or 
removal from service of any private fire hydrants. 

(30) Repair Garages and Service Stations. Operation of repair 
garages and service stations. 

(31) Roof-Top Heliports. Construction, modification, or opera- 
tion of a roof-top heliport. 

(32) Tire Rebuilding Plants. Operation and maintenance of a 
tire rebuilding plant. 

(33) Standpipe Systems. Installation, modification, or removal 
from service of any standpipe system. Maintenance per- 
formed in accordance with this Code is not considered a 
modification and does not require a permit. 

(34) Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and Fairs. The location 
and operation of special outdoor events, carnivals, and 
fairs. 

(35) Tar Kettles. Permit shall be obtained at least two working 
days prior to the placement of a tar kettle. 

(36) Torch-Applied Roofing Systems, Installation of. 

1-17 Certificates of Fitness. 

1-17.1 The authority having jurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to require certificates of fitness for individuals or compa- 
nies performing activities related to fire safety within the 
jurisdiction such as the following: 

( 1 ) Use of explosive materials 

(2) Blasting or demolition operations 

(3) Fireworks displays 

(4) Inspection, servicing, or recharging of portable fire 
extinguishers 

(5) Servicing or recharging of fixed fire extinguishing systems 

(6) Servicing of fire alarm or fire communication systems 

(7) Servicing of gas- or oil-burning heating systems 

(8) Chimney sweep operations 

(9) Inspection or servicing of range-hood systems 

(10) Installation or servicing of chlorine systems 

1-17.2 Where certificates of fitness are required, the authority 
having jurisdiction shall be responsible for their issuance. 

1-17.3 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
revoke a certificate of Fitness issued if any violation of this 
Code is found upon inspection or where there have been any 
false statements or misrepresentations submitted in the appli- 
cation on which the approval was based. 

1-17.4 Revocation shall be constituted when the certificate 
holder is duly notified by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-17.5 All applications for a certificate of fitness shall be filed 
with the authority havingjurisdiction on forms provided by 
the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-17.6 Every person applying for a certificate of fitness shall 
furnish evidence to the authority havingjurisdiction of famil- 
iarity with the codes and standards for which the certificate of 
fitness is issued. 

1-17.7 The authority havingjurisdiction shall investigate every 
application for a certificate of fitness. The investigation shall 
include an examination of the applicant's experience and 
training in the field of the certificate of fitness for which appli- 
cation has been made. 



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1-17.8 When the authority having jurisdiction determines 
that an applicant is not fit to receive the certificate of fitness 
because of the applicant's inability to comply with the provi- 
sions of this Code, the authority having jurisdiction shall 
refuse to issue the certificate of fitness. If the refusal is based 
on the applicant's inability to pass an examination given to 
determine competency, the applicant shall not be permitted 
to apply again for the certificate of fitness within a 10-day 
period following the examination. 

1-17.9 Certificates of fitness shall not be transferable. 

1-17.10 Certificates of fitness shall be issued for the period of 
time as indicated on the certificate of fitness as determined by 
the authority having jurisdiction, but such period of time shall 
not exceed three years. 

1-17.1 1 Applications for renewal of a certificate of fitness shall 
be filed in the same manner as an application for an original 
certificate. 

1-17.12 Each person holding a certificate of fitness shall notify 
the authority having jurisdiction in writing of any address 
change within 10 days after such change. Failure on the part 
of a person to give such notification shall constitute grounds 
for revocation of the certificate of fitness. 

1-17.13 A certificate of fitness shall be in the form of an identi- 
fication card. The card shall contain the following information: 

(1) Purpose for which the certificate of fitness is issued 

(2) Date of expiration 

(3) Information necessary to properly identify the person to 
whom the certificate of fitness is issued 

(4) Signature of the person to whom the certificate of fitness 
is issued 

(5) Name and signature of the authority having jurisdiction 
or a designated representative 

(6) Printed thereon in bold type the following: 

THIS CERTIFICATE IS NOT AN ENDORSEMENT OF THIS 
PERSON BY THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION 

1-17.14 Any person to whom a certificate of fitness has been 
granted shall, upon request, produce and show proper identi- 
fication and the certificate of fitness to anyone for whom that 
person seeks to render services or to the authority havingjuris- 
diction. 

1-18 Plans Review. 

1-18.1 Where required by the authority havingjurisdiction for 
new construction, modification, or rehabilitation, construc- 
tion documents and shop drawings shall be submitted and 
reviewed as provided in this section. 

1-18.2 It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to ensure 
that the following conditions are met: 

(1) The construction documents include all of the fire pro- 
tection requirements. 

(2) The shop drawings are correct and in compliance with 
the applicable codes and standards. 

1-18.3 It shall be the responsibility of the authority having 
jurisdiction to promulgate rules that cover the following: 



(1) Criteria to meet the requirements of Section 1-18 

(2) Review of documents and shop drawings within estab- 
lished time frames for the purpose of acceptance or pro- 
viding reasons for nonacceptance 

1-18.4 Review and approval by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion shall not relieve the applicant of the responsibility of com- 
pliance with this Code. 



1-18.5 When required by the authority having jurisdiction, 
revised construction documents or shop drawings shall be pre- 
pared and submitted for review and approval to illustrate cor- 
rections or modifications necessitated by field conditions or 
other revisions to approved plans. 

1-18.6* Independent Review. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall be permitted to require a review by a mutually 
acceptable independent third party with expertise in the mat- 
ter to be reviewed at the submitter's expense. The indepen- 
dent reviewer shall provide an evaluation and recommend 
necessary changes of the proposed design, operation, process, 
or new technology to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

1-19 Notice of Violations and Penalties. 

1-19.1 Whenever the authority havingjurisdiction determines 
violations of this Code, a written notice shall be issued to con- 
firm such findings. 

1-19.2 Any order or notice issued pursuant to this Code shall 
be served upon the owner, operator, occupant, or other per- 
son responsible for the condition or violation, either by per- 
sonal service, by mail, or by delivering the same to, and leaving 
it with, some person of responsibility upon the premises. For 
unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of such order or 
notice shall be posted on the premises in a conspicuous place 
at or near the entrance to such premises and the order or 
notice shall be mailed by registered or certified mail, with 
return receipt requested, to the last known address of the 
owner, occupant, or both. 

1-19.3 Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of 
this Code or who fails to carry out an order made pursuant of 
this Code or violates any condition attached to a permit, 
approval, or certificate shall be subject to the penalties estab- 
lished by this jurisdiction. 

1-19.4 Failure to comply with the time limits of an abatement 
notice or other corrective notice issued by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction shall result in each day that such violation con- 
tinues being regarded as a new and separate offense. 

1-20 Units. 

1-20.1 SI Units. Metric units of measurement in this Code 
are in accordance with the modernized metric system known 
as the International System of Units (SI). (70/.-1-6.1) 

1-20.2 Primary and Equivalent Values. If a value for a mea- 
surement as given in this Code is followed by an equivalent 
value in other units, the first stated value shall be regarded as 
the requirement. A given equivalent value might be approxi- 
mate. (101:1-6.2) 



2000 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-13 



Chapter 2 Definitions 

2-1 Definitions. Words defined in this Code are intended 
only for use with sections of this Code. Definitions set forth 
in any document referenced by this Code shall be the accept- 
able definition for use of that document only. Where terms 
are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted 
meanings within the context with which they are used. Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, 
Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinary 
accepted meaning. 

2-1.1 Aboveground Storage Tank. A horizontal or vertical 
tank that is listed and intended for fixed installation, without 
backfill, above or below grade, and is used within the scope of 
its approval or listing. (30A:l-2) 

2-1.2 Access Box. A container of a type approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction installed in an accessible location 
for the purpose of containing keys or other devices to gain 
necessary access to areas of the premises. 

2-1.3 Addition. An extension or increase in the floor area or 
height of a building or structure. (702:3.3.3) 

2-1.4 Airport Ramp. Any outdoor area, including aprons and 
hardstands, where aircraft can be positioned, stored, serviced, 
or maintained, irrespective of the nature of the surface of the 
area. (415:14) 

2-1.5* Airport Terminal Building. A structure used primarily 
for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including ticket 
sales, flight information, baggage handling, and other neces- 
sary functions in connection with air transport operations. 
This term includes any extensions and satellite buildings used 
for passenger handling or aircraft flight service functions. Air- 
craft loading walkways and "mobile lounges" are excluded. 
(415:1-4) 

2-1.6 Alternative. A system, condition, arrangement, mate- 
rial, or equipment submitted to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion as a substitute for a code requirement. 

2-1.7 Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A building or por- 
tion thereof used to provide services or treatment simulta- 
neously to four or more patients that (1) provides, on an 
outpatient basis, treatment for patients that renders the 
patients incapable of taking action for self-preservation under 
emergency conditions without the assistance of others; or (2) 
provides, on an outpatient basis, anesthesia that renders the 
patients incapable of taking action for self-preservation under 
emergency conditions without the assistance of others. 
(201:3.3.134.1) 

2-1.8 ANS1/ASME. An American National Standards Insti- 
tute publication, sponsored and published by the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

2-1.9* Apartment Building. A building containing three or 
more dwelling units with independent cooking and bathroom 
facilities. (102:3.3.25.1) 

2-1.10* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having juris- 
diction. 

2-1.11 ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

2-1.12 ASME Container (or Tank). A container constructed 
in accordance with the ASME Code. (See Appendix D ofNFPA 
58.) (58:1-6) 

2-1.13* Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy (1) used for a 
gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, 
entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting trans- 



portation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement 
building, regardless of occupant load. (202:3.3.134.2) 

2-1.14* Authority Having Jurisdiction. The organization, 
office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, 
materials, an installation, or a procedure. 

2-1.15 Automatic Fire Extinguishing System. Any system 
designed and installed to detect a fire and subsequendy dis- 
charge an extinguishing agent without the necessity of human 
intervention. 

2-1.16 Basement. Any story that has more than 50 percent of 
the total area of the building's perimeter below grade. 

2-1.17 Board of Appeals. A group of persons appointed by 
the governing body of the jurisdiction adopting this code for 
the purpose of hearing and adjudicating differences of opin- 
ion between the authority havingjurisdiction and the citizenry 
in the interpretation, application, and enforcement of this 
Code. 

2-1.18* Building. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. (202:3.3.25) 

2-1.18.1* Building, Existing. A building erected or officially 
authorized prior to the effective date of the adoption of this 
edition of the Code by the agency or jurisdiction. 
(202:3.3.25.4) 

2-1.19 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. A building in 
which the sales area includes the storage of combustible mate- 
rials on pallets, in solid piles, or in racks in excess of 12 ft 
(3.7 m) in storage height. (202:3.3.25.2) 

2-1.20* Business Occupancy. An occupancy used for account 
and record keeping or the transaction of business other than 
mercantile. (202:3.3.134.3) 

2-1.21 Certificate of Fitness. A written document issued by 
authority of the authority havingjurisdiction to any person for 
the purpose of granting permission to such person to conduct 
or engage in any operation or act for which certification is 
required. 

2-1.22 CFR. The Code of Federal Regulations of the United 
States Government. 

2-1.23 Class A Fires. Fires in ordinary combustible materials, 
such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics. (10:1-3) 

2-1.24 Glass B Fires. Fires in flammable liquids, combustible 
liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints, solvents, 
lacquers, alcohols, and flammable gases. (10:1-3) 

2-1.25 Class C Fires. Fires that involve energized electrical 
equipment where the electrical nonconductivity of the extin- 
guishing media is of importance. (When electrical equipment 
is de-energized, fire extinguishers for Class A or Class B fires 
can be used safely.) (10:1-3) 

2-1.26 Class D Fires. Fires in combustible metals, such as 
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and potas- 
sium. (10:1-3) 

2-1.27 Class K Fires. Fires in cooking appliances that involve 
combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and 
fats). (10:1-3) 

2-1.28 Classification of I lazards for Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

2-1.28.1 Extra (High) Hazard. Extra hazard occupancies are 
locations where the total amount of Class A combustibles and 
Class B flammables present, in storage, production, use, fin- 
ished product, or combination thereof, is over and above 
those expected in occupancies classed as ordinary (moderate) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



hazard. These occupancies could consist of woodworking, 
vehicle repair, aircraft and boat servicing, cooking areas, indi- 
vidual product display showrooms, product convention center 
displays, and storage and manufacturing processes such as 
painting, dipping, and coating, including flammable liquid 
handling. Also included is warehousing of or in-process stor- 
age of other than Class I and Class II commodities as defined 
by NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 
(10:1-5.3) 

2-1.28.2 Light (Low) Hazard. Light hazard occupancies are 
locations where the total amount of Class A combustible mate- 
rials, including furnishings, decorations, and contents, is of 
minor quantity. This can include some buildings or rooms 
occupied as offices, classrooms, churches, assembly halls, 
guest room areas of hotels/ motels, and so forth. This classifi- 
cation anticipates that the majority of content items are either 
noncombustible or so arranged that a fire is not likely to 
spread rapidly. Small amounts of Class B flammables used for 
duplicating machines, art departments, and so forth, are 
included, provided that they are kept in closed containers and 
safely stored. (10:1-5.1) 

2-1.28.3 Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard. Ordinary hazard occu- 
pancies are locations where the total amount of Class A com- 
bustibles and Class B flammables are present in greater 
amounts than expected under light (low) hazard occupancies. 
These occupancies could consist of dining areas, mercantile 
shops, and allied storage; light manufacturing, research opera- 
tions, auto showrooms, parking garages, workshop or support 
service areas of light (low) hazard occupancies; and warehouses 
containing Class I or Class II commodities as defined by NFPA 
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (10:1-5.2) 

2-1 .29 Clean Zone. A defined space in which the concentration 
of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. (318: 1-4) 

2-1.30 Cleanroom. A room in which the concentration of air- 
borne particles is controlled to specified limits. Cleanrooms 
include areas below the raised floor and above the ceiling grid 
if these areas are part of the air path and within the rated con- 
struction. (318:1-4) 

2-1.31 Closed Container. A container as herein defined, so 
sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor 
vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures. (30A.T-2) 

2-1.32* Code. A standard that is an extensive compilation of 
provisions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for 
adoption into law independently of other codes and standards. 

2-1.33 Combustible. A material that, in the form in which it 
is used and under the conditions anticipated, will ignite and 
burn; a material that does not meet the definition of noncom- 
bustible or limited-combustible. (207:3.3.29) 

2-1.34* Combustible Dust. Any finely divided solid material 
420 microns or smaller in diameter (material passing a U.S. 
No. 40 standard sieve) that presents a fire hazard or a deflagra- 
tion hazard when dispersed and ignited in air. (650:1-5) 

2-1.35 Combustible Fiber. Any material in a fibrous or shred- 
ded form that will readily ignite when heat sources are 
present. 

2-1.36* Combustible Particulate Solid. Any combustible 
solid material comprised of distinct particles or pieces, regard- 
less of size, shape, or chemical composition that generates 
combustible dusts during handling. Combustible particulate 
solids include dusts, fibers, fines, chips, chunks, flakes, or mix- 
tures of these. (650:1-5) 



2-1.37 Combustible Refuse. All combustible or loose rub- 
bish, litter, or waste materials generated by an occupancy that 
are refused, rejected, or considered worthless and are dis- 
posed of by incineration on the premises where generated or 
periodically transported from the premises. 

2-1.38 Combustible Waste. Combustible or loose waste mate- 
rials that are generated by an establishment or process and, 
being salvageable, are retained for scrap or reprocessing on 
the premises where generated or transported to a plant for 
processing. These include, but are not limited to, all combus- 
tible fibers, hay, straw, hair, feathers, down, wood shavings, 
turnings, all types of paper products, soiled cloth trimmings 
and cuttings, rubber trimmings and buffings, metal fines, and 
any mixture of the above items, or any other salvageable com- 
bustible waste materials. 

2-1.39 Combustion. A chemical process that involves oxida- 
tion sufficient to produce light or heat. (202:3.3.30) 

2-1.40* Common Path of Travel. The portion of exit access 
that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths 
of travel to two exits are available. (102:3.3.32) 

2-1.41 Construction Documents. Documents that consist of 
scaled design drawings and specifications for the purpose of 
construction of new facilities or modification to existing facil- 
ities. (See also 2-1.141, Shop Drawings.) 

2-1.42* Consumer Fireworks. (Formerly known as Common 
Fireworks) Any small fireworks device designed primarily to 
produce visible effects by combustion that complies with the 
construction, chemical composition, and labeling regulations 
of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, as set forth 
in Tide 16, CFR, Parts 1500 and 1507. Some small devices 
designed to produce audible effects are included, such as whis- 
tling devices, ground devices containing 0.8 grains (50 mg) or 
less of explosive composition (salute powder), and aerial 
devices containing 2 grains (130 mg) or less of explosive com- 
position (salute powder) per explosive unit. (1124:1-4) 

2-1.43 Container. 

2-1.43.1 Container, Flammable or Combustible Liquid. Any 

vessel of 60 U.S. gal (227 L) or less capacity used for transport- 
ing or storing liquids. (30:1-6) 

2-1.43.2 Container, LP-Gas. Any vessel, including cylinders, 
tanks, portable tanks, and cargo tanks, used for the transport- 
ing or storing of LP-Gases. (58:1-6) 

2-1.44 Cylinder. A container constructed in accordance with 
U.S. Department of Transportation specifications (Title 49, 
Code of Federal Regulations) . (58:1-6) 

2-1.45* Day-Care Home. A building or portion of a building 
in which more than three but not more than 12 clients receive 
care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than their rela- 
tive (s) or legal guardians (s), for less than 24 hours per day. 
(207:3.3.39) 

2-1.46* Day-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in which four or 
more clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision, by 
other than their relatives or legal guardians, for less than 24 
hours per day. (702:3.3.134.4) 

2-1.47 Dedicated Smoke Control Systems. Systems that are 
intended for the purpose of smoke control only. They are sep- 
arate systems of air moving and distribution equipment that 
do not function under normal building operating conditions. 
Upon activation, these systems operate specifically to perform 
the smoke control function. 



2000 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-15 



2-1.48 Deflagration. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is less than the speed of sound in the unreacted 
medium. (68:1-4) 

2-1.49 Detached Storage. Storage in a separate building or in 
an outside area located away from all structures. 

2-1.50 Detectors. 

2-1.50.1 Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that con- 
sists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs from 
the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspiration fan 
in the detector housing draws air from the protected area back 
to the detector through air sampling ports, piping, or tubing. 
At the detector, the air is analyzed for fire products. (72:1-4) 

2-1.50.2 Line-Type Detector. A device in which detection is 
continuous along a path. Typical examples are rate-of-rise 
pneumatic tubing detectors, projected beam smoke detectors, 
and heat-sensitive cable. (72:1-4) 

2-1.50.3 Spot-Type Detector. A device in which the detecting 
element is concentrated at a particular location. Typical exam- 
ples are bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detectors, certain 
pneumatic rate-of-rise detectors, certain smoke detectors, and 
thermoelectric detectors. (72:1-4) 

2-1.51* Detention and Correctional Occupancy. An occu- 
pancy used to house four or more persons under varied degrees 
of restraint or security where such occupants are mostly incapa- 
ble of self-preservation because of security measures not under 
the occupants' control. (101:3.3.134.5) 

2-1.51.1 Detention and Correctional Use Condition. For 

application of the life safety requirements of this chapter, the 
resident user category shall be divided into the following five 
groups. 

(a) Use Condition I — Free Egress. Free movement is allowed 
from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress that 
meet the requirements of the Code. 

(b) Use Condition II — Zoned Egress. Free movement is 
allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke 
compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. 

(c) Use Condition III — Zoned Impeded Egress. Free move- 
ment is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such 
as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping 
rooms and a group activity space, with egress impeded by 
remote-controlled release of means of egress from such a 
smoke compartment to another smoke compartment. 

(d) Use Condition IV — Impeded Egress. Free movement is 
restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release 
is provided to allow movement from all sleeping rooms, activ- 
ity spaces, and other occupied areas within the smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

(e) Use Condition V — Contained. Free movement is 
restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual 
release at each door is provided to allow movement from all 
sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occupied areas 
within the smoke compartment to another smoke compart- 
ment. (101:22.1.4.1, 107:23.1.4.1) 

2-1.52 Detonation. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is greater than the speed of sound in the unre- 
acted medium. (68:1-4) 

2-1.53* Dormitory. A building or a space in a building in 
which group sleeping accommodations are provided for more 
than 16 persons who are not members of the same family in 
one room or a series of closely associated rooms under joint 



occupancy and single management, with or without meals, but 
without individual cooking facilities. (102:3.3.46) 

2-1.54 Dwelling Unit. A single unit, providing complete, 
independent living facilities for one or more persons, includ- 
ing permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, 
and sanitation. (101:3.3.48) 

2-1.55* Educational Occupancy. An occupancy used for edu- 
cational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or more 
persons for four or more hours per day or more than 12 hours 
per week. (201:3.3.134.6) 

2-1.56 Emergency. A fire, explosion, or hazardous condition 
that poses an immediate threat to the safety of life or damage 
to property. 

2-1.57* Existing. That which is already in existence on the 
date this edition of the Code goes into effect. (101:3.3.59) 

2-1.58 Existing Condition. Any situation, circumstance, or 
physical makeup of any structure, premise, or process that was 
ongoing or in effect prior to the adoption of this Code. 
(1141:2-1) 

2-1.59* Exit. That portion of a means of egress that is sepa- 
rated from all other spaces of a building or structure by con- 
struction or equipment as required to provide a protected way 
of travel to the exit discharge. (101:3.3.61) 

2-1.60 Exit Access. That portion of a means of egress that 
leads to an exit. (101:3.3.62) 

2-1.61 Exit Discharge. That portion of a means of egress 
between the termination of an exit and a public way. 
(101:3.3.63) 

2-1.62 Explosion. The bursting or rupturing of an enclosure 
or a container due to the development of internal pressure 
from a deflagration. (68:1-4) 

2-1.63* Fire Compartment. A space within a building that is 
enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. (102:3.3.71) 

2-1.64 Fire Door Assembly. Any combination of a fire door, a 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide 
a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. (80:1-4) 

2-1.65 Fire Hazard. Any situation, process, material, or con- 
dition that, on the basis of applicable data, can cause a fire or 
explosion or provide a ready fuel supply to augment the 
spread or intensity of the fire or explosion and that poses a 
threat to life or property. 

2-1.66* Fire Hydrant. A connection to a water main for the 
purpose of supplying water to fire hose or other fire protec- 
tion apparatus. 

2-1.67 Fire Lane. The road or other means developed to 
allow access and operational setup for fire-fighting and rescue 
apparatus. 

2-1.68 Fire Protection System. Any fire alarm device or sys- 
tem or fire extinguishing device or system, or their combina- 
tion, that is designed and installed for detecting, controlling, 
or extinguishing a fire or otherwise alerting occupants, or the 
fire department, or both, that a fire has occurred. (1141:2-1) 

2-1.69 Fire Retardants. Liquids, solids, or gases that tend to 
inhibit combustion when applied on, mixed in, or combined 
with combustible materials. 

2-1.70 Fire Watch. The assignment of a person or persons to 
an area for the express purpose of notifying the fire depart- 
ment and/or building occupants of an emergency, preventing 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



a fire from occurring, extinguishing small fires, or protecting 
the public from fire or life safety dangers. 

2-1.71 Flame Spread. The propagation of flame over a sur- 
face. (707:3.3.78) 

2-1.72 Flame Spread Rating. The comparative performance 
of fire travel over the surface of a material when tested in 
accordance with the provisions of NFPA 255, Standard Method 
of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. 

2-1.73* Floor Area, Gross. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the outside walls of the building under consider- 
ation with no deduction for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness 
of interior walls, columns, or other features. (707:3.3.81) 

2-1.74 Floor Area, Net. The floor area that is the actual occu- 
pied area, not including accessory unoccupied areas or thick- 
ness of walls. (707:3.3.82) 

2-1.75 Gallon. One U.S. standard gallon (3.8 L). 

2-1.76 Ground Kettle. A container that might or might not 
be mounted on wheels and is used for heating tar, asphalt, or 
similar substances. 

2-1.77 Hazard of Contents. 

2-1.77.1* High Hazard. High hazard contents shall be classi- 
fied as those that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or 
from which explosions are likely. (For means of egress require- 
ments, see Section 7.11 of NFPA 101.) (707:6.2.2.4) 

2-1.77.2* Low Hazard. Low hazard contents shall be classi- 
fied as those of such low combustibility that no self-propagat- 
ing fire therein can occur. (707:6.2.2.2) 

2-1.77.3* Ordinary Hazard. Ordinary hazard contents shall 
be classified as those that are likely to burn with moderate 
rapidity or to give off a considerable volume of smoke. 
(707:6.2.2.3) 

2-1.78* Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy used for pur- 
poses of medical or other treatment or care of four or more 
persons where such occupants are mostly incapable of self- 
preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, or 
because of security measures not under the occupants' con- 
trol. (707:3.3.134.7) 

2-1.79 Highly Volatile Liquid. A liquid with a boiling point of 
less than 68°F(20°C). 

2-1.80* High-Rise Building. A building greater than 75 ft (23 m) 
in height where the building height is measured from the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access to the floor of the highest 
occupiable story. (707:3.3.25.6) 

2-1.81* Horizontal Exit. A way of passage from one building 
to an area of refuge in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a way of passage through or around a fire barrier 
to an area of refuge on approximately the same level in the 
same building that affords safety from fire and smoke originat- 
ing from the area of incidence and areas communicating 
therewith. (707:3.3.61.1) 

2-1.82 Hospital. A building or portion thereof used on a 24- 
hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical 
care of four or more inpatients. (207:3.3.104) 

2-1.83* Hotel. A building or groups of buildings under the 
same management in which there are sleeping accommoda- 
tions for more than 16 persons and primarily used by tran- 
sients for lodging with or without meals. (707:3.3.105) 

2-1.84 Imminent Danger. Any conditions or practices in any 
occupancy or structure that pose a danger that could reason- 



ably be expected to cause death, serious physical harm, or seri- 
ous property loss. 

2-1.85 Incident Commander (IC). The fire department individ- 
ual in overall command of an emergency incident. (1561:1-3) 

2-1.86 Indicating Valve. A valve that has components that 
show if the valve is open or closed. Examples are outside screw 
and yoke (OS&Y) gate valves and underground gate valves 
with indicator posts. 

2-1.87* Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy in which prod- 
ucts are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, 
mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair operations 
are conducted. (707:3.3.134.8) 

2-1.88 Initiating Device Circuit. A circuit to which automatic 
or manual initiating devices are connected where the signal 
received does not identify the individual device operated. 
(72:1-4) 

2-1.89 Isolated Storage. Storage in a different storage room or 
in a separate and detached building located at a safe distance. 

2-1.90 Jurisdiction. Any governmental unit or political divi- 
sion or subdivision, including, but not limited to township, 
city, village, county, borough, state, commonwealth, province, 
freehold, district, or territory, that has adopted this Code 
under due legislative authority. 

2-1.91 Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been 
attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an orga- 
nization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction 
and concerned with product evaluation, that maintains peri- 
odic inspection of production of labeled equipment or mate- 
rials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates 
compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a 
specified manner. 

2-1.92* Limited Care Facility. A building or portion of a 
building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing of four or 
more persons who are incapable of self-preservation because 
of age; physical limitations due to accident or illness; or limi- 
tations such as mental retardation/developmental disability, 
mental illness, or chemical dependency. (707:3.3.117) 

2-1.93* Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). A fluid in the liquid 
state that is composed predominantly of methane and that can 
contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen, or 
other components normally found in natural gas. (57:1-6) 

2-1.94 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas). Any material hav- 
ing a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for commer- 
cial propane composed predominantly of the following 
hydrocarbons, either by themselves or as mixtures: propane, 
propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane), and buty- 
lenes. (58:1-6) 

2-1.95* Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in 
a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the 
authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation 
of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of 
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic eval- 
uation of services, and whose listing states that either the 
equipment, material, or service meets appropriate designated 
standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified 
purpose. 

2-1.96 Lodging or Rooming House. A building or portion 
thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family dwelling, 
that provides sleeping accommodations for a total of 16 or 
fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, without per- 



2000 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-17 



sonal care services, with or without meals, but without separate 
cooking facilities for individual occupants. (101:33.120) 

2-1.97 Loose House. A separate detached building in which 
unbaled combustible fibers are stored. 

2-1.98 Marine Vessel. Every description of water craft or 
other artificial contrivance used as a means of transportation 
in or on the water. 

2-1.99 Material, Compatible. A material that, when in con- 
tact with an oxidizer, will not react with the oxidizer or pro- 
mote or initiate its decomposition. (430:1-5.10) 

2-1.100 Material, Incompatible. A material that, when in con- 
tact with an oxidizer, can cause hazardous reactions or can pro- 
mote or initiate decomposition of the oxidizer. (430:1-5.11) 

2-1.101* Means of Egress. A continuous and unobstructed 
way of travel from any point in a building or structure to a 
public way consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1 ) 
the exit access, (2) the exit, and (3) the exit discharge. 
(202:3.3.121) 

2-1.102 Means of Escape. Away out of a building or structure 
that does not conform to the strict definition of means of egress 
but does provide an alternate way out. (202:3.3.122) 

2-1.103* Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy used for the 
display and sale of merchandise. (202:3.3.134.9) 

2-1.103.1 Subclassification of Mercantile Occupancy. Mercantile 
occupancies shall be subclassified as follows. 

(a) Class A. All mercantile occupancies having an aggregate 
gross area of more than 30,000 ft 2 (2800 m 2 ) or using more than 
three levels, excluding mezzanines, for sales purposes. 

(b) Class B. All mercantile occupancies of more than 3000 
ft 2 (280 m 2 ) but not more than 30,000 ft 2 (2800 m 2 ) aggregate 
gross area, or using floors above or below the street floor level 
for sales purposes (mezzanines permitted) . 

Exception: If more than three floors, excluding mezzanines, are used, 
the mercantile occupancy shall be Class A, regardless of area. 

(c) Class C. All mercantile occupancies of not more than 
3000 ft 2 (280 m 2 ) gross area used for sales purposes on one story 
only, excluding mezzanines. (202:36.1.4.2.1 and 202:37.1.4.2.1) 

2-1.104 Mezzanine. An intermediate level between the floor 
and the ceiling of any room or space. (202:3.3.126) 

2-1.105 Noncombustible Material. A material that, in the 
form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, 
will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flamma- 
ble vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are 
reported as passing ASTM E136, Standard Test Method for Behav- 
ior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, shall be con- 
sidered noncombustible materials. (102:2-2) 

2-1.106 Nondedicated Smoke Control Systems. Systems that 
share components with some other system (s) such as the 
building HVAC system. Activation causes the system to change 
its mode of operation to achieve the smoke control objective. 

2-1.107 Nonflammable Gas. A class of gases that is nonflam- 
mable, generally nonreactive. 

2-1.108 Nursing Home, A building or portion of a building 
used on a 24-hour basis for the housing and nursing care of 
four or more persons who, because of mental or physical inca- 
pacity, might be unable to provide for their own needs and 
safety without the assistance of another person. (202:3.3.132) 



2-1.109 Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or por- 
tion thereof is used or intended to be used. (202:3.3.134) 

2-1.110 Occupant Load. The total number of persons that 
might occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time. 
(202:3.3.136) 

2-1.111* Occupiable Story. A story occupied by people on a 
regular basis. (202:3.3.194.1) 

2-1.112 One- and Two-Family Dwelling. One- and two-family 
dwellings include buildings containing not more than two 
dwelling units in which each dwelling unit is occupied by 
members of a single family with not more than three outsiders, 
if any, accommodated in rented rooms. (202:24-1.1.1) 

2-1.113 Organic Peroxide. Any organic compound having a 
double oxygen or peroxy (-O-O-) group in its chemical struc- 
ture. (432:1-5) 

2-1.114* Organic Peroxide Formulation. A pure organic per- 
oxide or a mixture of one or more organic peroxides with one 
or more other materials in various combinations and concen- 
trations. (432:1-5) 

2-1.115 Organic Peroxide Storage Area. An area used for the 
storage of organic peroxide formulations. (432:1-5) 

2-1.115.1 Cut-off Storage. Cut-off storage refers to storage in 
the same building or inside area, but physically separated from 
incompatible materials by partitions or walls. (See Chapter 4 of 
NFPA 432.) (432:1-7.2) 

2-1.115.2 Detached Storage. Detached storage refers to stor- 
age in either an open outside area or a separate building con- 
taining no incompatible materials and located away from all 
other structures. (See Chapter 5 of NFPA 432.) (432:1-7.3) 

2-1.115.3 Segregated Storage. Segregated storage refers to 
storage in the same room or inside area, but physically sepa- 
rated by distance from incompatible materials. Sills, curbs, 
intervening storage of nonhazardous compatible materials, 
and aisles shall be permitted to be used as aids in maintaining 
spacing. (See Chapter 3 of NFPA 432.) (432:1-7.1) 

2-1.116 OSHA. The Occupational Safety Health Administra- 
tion of the U.S. Department of Labor. (55:1-4) 

2-1.117* Oxidizer. Any material that readily yields oxygen or 
other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or ini- 
tiate combustion of combustible materials. (430:1-5.13) 

2-1.118 Parking Structure. A building, structure, or portion 
thereof used for the parking, or storage, or both, of motor 
vehicles. A parking structure shall be permitted to be enclosed 
or open, shall be permitted to use ramps, and shall be permit- 
ted to use mechanical control push-button-type elevators to 
transfer vehicles from one floor to another. Motor vehicles are 
permitted to be parked by the driver or an attendant, or are 
permitted to be parked mechanically by automatic facilities. 
Where automatic parking is provided, the operator of those 
facilities shall be permitted either to remain at the entry level 
or to travel to another level. Motor fuel shall be permitted to 
be dispensed, and motor vehicles shall be permitted to be ser- 
viced in a parking structure. (88A:2-1) 

2-1.118.1 Basement and Underground Parking Structures. Park- 
ing structures that are located below grade. A basement parking 
structure has other occupancies above it; an underground park- 
ing structure has no occupancy other than parking above it. Base- 
ment and underground parking structures are considered as 
specific cases of enclosed parking structures. (88A:2-1) 



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2-1.118.2 Enclosed Parking Structure. Any parking structure 
that is not an open parking structure. (88A:2-1) 

2-1.118.3 Open Parking Structures. A parking structure that, 
at each parking level, has wall openings open to the atmo- 
sphere, for an area of not less than 1.4 ft 2 (0.13 m 2 ) for each 
linear foot (0.3 m) of its exterior perimeter. Such openings 
are distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter or 
uniformly over two opposing sides. Interior walls lines and col- 
umn lines are at least 20 percent open, with openings distrib- 
uted to provide ventilation. (88A:2-1) 

2-1.119 Patch Kettle. Any pot or container with a capacity of 
less than 6 gal (22.7 L) used for preheating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for the repair of roofs, streets, floors, 
pipes, or similar objects. 

2-1.120 Permit. A document issued by the authority having 
jurisdiction for the purpose of authorizing performance of a 
specified activity. 

2-1.121 Peroxide Forming Chemical. A chemical that, when 
exposed to air, will form explosive peroxides that are shock, 
pressure, or heat sensitive. 

2-1.122* Personal Care. The care of residents who do not 
require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
(202:3.3.145) 

2-1.123 Pesticide. Any substance or mixture of substances 
intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating 
any pest or for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. 
(434:1-5) 

2-1.124 Physical Hazard. A classification of a chemical for 
which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is an organic 
peroxide or oxidizer. 

2-1.125 Private Building. A building or that portion of a build- 
ing that is normally not frequented by nor open to the public. 

2-1.126 Process. The manufacturing, handling, blending, 
conversion, purification, recovery, separation, synthesis, or 
use, or any combination, of any commodity or material regu- 
lated by this code. 

2-1.127 Prof essional Architect. An individual technically and 
legally qualified to practice the profession of architecture. 

2-1.128 Professional Engineer. An individual technically and 
legally qualified to practice the profession of engineering. 

2-1.129 Proprietary Information. Information regarding com- 
pounds or ingredients used in a process or production that do 
not qualify as trade secrets but that provide an industry or busi- 
ness with a competitive advantage. 

2-1.130 Public Way. A street, alley, or other similar parcel of 
land essentially open to the outside air deeded, dedicated, or 
otherwise permanendy appropriated to the public for public 
use and having a clear width and height of not less than 10 ft 
(3 m). (202:3-3.157) 

2-1.131 Ramp. A walking surface that has a slope steeper 
than 1 in 20. (202:3.3.158) 

2-1.132 Recommended Practice. A document that is similar 
in content and structure to a code or standard but that con- 
tains only nonmandatory provisions using the word "should" 
to indicate recommendations in the body of the text. 

2-1.133 Reduced Flow Valve. A valve equipped with a 
restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas cyl- 
inder, portable or stationary tank that is designed to reduce 
the maximum flow from the valve under full flow conditions. 
The maximum flow rate from the valve is determined with the 



valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no other piping or fit- 
tings attached. 

2-1.134 Repair Garages. Buildings, structures, or portions 
thereof wherein major repair, painting, or body and fender 
work is performed on motorized vehicles or automobiles; 
includes associated floor space used for offices, parking, or 
showrooms. (88B:l-3) 

2-1.134.1 Commercial and Truck Repair Garages. Buildings, 
structures, or portions thereof used for the storage, mainte- 
nance, and repair of commercial motor vehicles or trucks, 
including fleets of motor vehicles operated by utilities, large 
businesses, mercantile, rental agencies, and other similar con- 
cerns. Facilities for the dispensing of motor fuels are com- 
monly provided in connection with these garages. (88B:l-3) 

2-1.134.2* Taxicab and Bus Repair Garages. Buildings, struc- 
tures, or portions thereof used for storage, maintenance, and 
repair of fleets of taxicabs, sedan-limousine-type motor vehi- 
cles, or motor buses. Facilities for the dispensing of motor 
fuels are commonly provided in connection with these 
garages. (88B:l-3) 

2-1.135* Residential Board and Care Occupancy. A building 
or portion thereof that is used for lodging and boarding of four 
or more residents, not related by blood or marriage to the own- 
ers or operators, for the purpose of providing personal care ser- 
vices. (202:3.3.134.13) 

2-1.136 Residential Occupancy. An occupancy that provides 
sleeping accommodations for purposes other than health care 
or detention and correctional. (202:3.3.134.12) 

2-1.137 Satellite Building. A structure that can be adjacent to 
but separated from the airport terminal building, accessible 
aboveground or through subway passages, and used to provide 
flight service operations, such as passenger check-in, waiting 
rooms, food service, enplaning or deplaning, etc. (415:1-4) 

2-1.138 Self-Closing. Equipped with an approved device that 
ensures closing after opening. (202:3.3.174) 

2-1.139 Service Stations. 

2-1.139.1 Automotive Service Station. That portion of a prop- 
erty where liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dis- 
pensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor 
vehicles or approved containers and shall include any facilities 
for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories. This 
occupancy designation shall also apply to buildings, or por- 
tions of buildings, used for lubrication, inspection, and minor 
automotive maintenance work, such as tune-ups and brake sys- 
tem repairs. Major automotive repairs, painting, and body and 
fender work are excluded. (30A:l-2) 

2-1.139.2 Marine Service Station. That portion of a property 
where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from 
equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the 
fuel tanks of self-propelled craft and shall include all facilities 
used in connection therewith. (30A:l-2) 

2-1.139.3 Service Station Located Inside Buildings. That por- 
tion of an automotive service station located within the perime- 
ter of a building or building structure that also contains other 
occupancies. The service station shall be permitted to be 
enclosed or partially enclosed by the building walls, floors, ceil- 
ings, or partitions or shall be permitted to be open to the out- 
side. The service station dispensing area shall mean that area of 
the service station required for dispensing of fuels to motor vehi- 
cles. Dispensing of fuel at manufacturing, assembly, and testing 
operations is not included within this definition. (30A:l-2) 



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DEFINITIONS 



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2-1.140 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. 

2-1.141 Shop Drawings. Scaled working drawings, equipment 
cutsheets, and design calculations. (See also 2-1.41, Construction 
Documents.) (1031:2-1) 

2-1.142 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

2-1.143* Smoke Barrier. A continuous membrane, or a mem- 
brane with discontinuities created by protected openings, 
where such membrane is designed and constructed to restrict 
the movement of smoke. (202:3.3.20) 

2-1.144* Smoke Compartment. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. (107:3.3.183) 

2-1.145 Smoke Detector. A device that detects visible or invis- 
ible particles of combustion. (102:3.3.184) 

2-1.146 Smoking. The carrying or use of lighted pipe, cigar, 
cigarette, tobacco, or any other type of smoking substance. 

2-1.147 Smoking Area. A designated area where smoking is 
permitted within premises where smoking is otherwise gener- 
ally prohibited. 

2-1.148 Special Uses. Includes but is not limited to events or 
occurrences where life safety-threatening situations or fire 
hazards exist or are likely to exist as determined by the author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

2-1.149* Spray Area. Any area in which dangerous quantities 
of flammable or combustible vapors, mists, residues, dusts, or 
deposits are present due to the operation of spray processes. 

The spray area includes the following: 

(1) The interior of any spray booth or spray room, except as 
specifically provided for in Section 1 1-4 of NFPA 33 

(2) The interior of any exhaust plenum and any exhaust duct 
leading from the spray process 

(3) Any area in the direct path of a spray application process 
(33:1-6) 

2-1.150 Spray Booth. A power-ventilated structure that 
encloses a spray application operation or process, and con- 
fines and limits the escape of the material being sprayed, 
including vapors, mists, dusts, and residues that are produced 
by the spraying operation and conducts or directs these mate- 
rials to an exhaust system. Spray booths are manufactured in a 
variety of forms, including automotive refinishing, downdraft, 
open-face, traveling, tunnel, and updraft booths. This defini- 
tion is not intended to limit the term "spray booth" to any par- 
ticular design. The entire spray booth is considered part of the 
spray area. A spray booth is not a spray room. (33:1-6) 

2-1.151 Spray Room. A power-ventilated fully-enclosed room 
used exclusively for open spraying of flammable or combusti- 
ble materials. The entire spray room is considered part of the 
spray area. A spray booth is not a spray room. (33:1-6) 

2-1.152 Standard. A document, the main text of which con- 
tains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indi- 
cate requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for 
mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adop- 
tion into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an 
appendix, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to be con- 
sidered a part of the requirements of a standard. 

2-1.153 Standpipe System. An arrangement of piping, valves, 
hose connections, and allied equipment installed in a building or 
structure, with the hose connections located in such a manner 



that water can be discharged in streams or spray patterns through 
attached hose and nozzles, for the purpose of extinguishing a 
fire, thereby protecting a building or structure and its contents in 
addition to protecting the occupants. This is accomplished by 
means of connections to water supply systems or by means of 
pumps, tanks, and other equipment necessary to provide an ade- 
quate supply of water to the hose connections. (14:1-4) 

2-1.154* Storage Occupancy. An occupancy used primarily 
for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, 
vehicles, or animals. (101:3.3.134.14) 

2-1.155 Story. The portion of a building located between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above. (102:3.3.194) 

2-1.156 STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure). A tem- 
perature of 70°F (21 °C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere 
(14.7psior760mmHg). 

2-1.157 Street. A public thoroughfare that has been dedi- 
cated for vehicular use by the public and can be used for 
access by fire department vehicles. (202:3.3.195) 

2-1.158* Street Floor. A story or floor level accessible from 
the street or from outside a building at ground level, with the 
floor level at the main entrance located not more than three 
risers above or below ground level and arranged and utilized 
to qualify as the main floor. (202:3.3.196) 

2-1.159* Structure. That which is built or constructed. 
(202:3.3.197) 

2-1.160 Summarily Abate. To immediately judge a condition 
to be a fire hazard to life or property and to order immediate 
correction of such condition. 

2-1.161 System. Several items of equipment assembled, 
grouped, or otherwise interconnected for the accomplish- 
ment of a purpose or function. 

2-1.162 Temporary Wiring. Approved wiring for power and 
lighting during a period of construction, remodeling, mainte- 
nance, repair, or demolition, and decorative lighting, carnival 
power and lighting, and similar purposes. 

2-1.163 Vaporizer. A device, other than a container, that 
receives LP-Gas in liquid form and adds sufficient heat to con- 
vert the liquid to a gaseous state. (58:1-6) 

2-1.163.1 Vaporizer, Direct-Fired. A vaporizer in which heat 
furnished by a flame is directly applied to some form of heat 
exchange surface in contact with the liquid LP-Gas to be 
vaporized. This classification includes submerged-combustion 
vaporizers. (58:1-6) 

2-1.163.2 Vaporizer, Indirect (also called Indirect-Fired). A 

vaporizer in which heat furnished by steam, hot water, the 
ground, surrounding air, or other heating medium is applied 
to a vaporizing chamber or to tubing, pipe coils, or other heat 
exchange surface containing the liquid LP-Gas to be vapor- 
ized; the heating of the medium used being at a point remote 
from the vaporizer. (58:1-6) 

2-1.164 Water Capacity. The amount of water, in either 
pounds or gallons, at 60°F (15.6°C) required to fill a container 
liquid full of water. (58:1-6) 

2-1.165 Written Notice. A notification in writing delivered in 
person to the individual or parties intended, or delivered at, 
or sent by certified or registered mail to, the last residential or 
business address of legal record. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Chapter 3 General Provisions 

3-1 Fundamental Requirements. 

3-1.1 Every new and existing building or structure shall be 
constructed, arranged, equipped, maintained, and operated 
in accordance with this Code so as to provide a reasonable 
level of life safety, property protection, and public welfare 
from the actual and potential hazards created by fire, explo- 
sion, and other hazardous conditions. 

3-1.2 Every new and existing building shall comply with this 
Code and NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

3-1.3 Any person who deliberately, or through negligence, 
sets fire to or causes the burning of any combustible material 
in such a manner as to endanger the safety of any person or 
property shall be deemed to be in violation of this Code. 

3-1.4 Building Evacuation. 

3-1.4.1 No person shall fail to leave a building when notified 
to do so when directed to leave by the authority having juris- 
diction as a result of a known or perceived emergency. 

3-1.4.2* No person shall fail to leave any overcrowded pre- 
mises when told to do so by the management of the premises 
or the authority having jurisdiction. Premises are deemed to 
be overcrowded when the occupant load exceeds the exit 
capacity or the posted occupant load. 

3-2* Fire Drills. 

3-2.1 Where Required. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills conforming to the provisions of this Code shall be con- 
ducted as specified by the provisions of Chapter 8 of this Code 
or Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or by appropriate 
action of the authority having jurisdiction. Drills shall be 
designed in cooperation with the local authorities. (101:4.7.1) 

3-2.2* Drill Frequency. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills, where required by Chapter 8 of this Code or Chapters 
11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, shall be held with sufficient frequency to familiarize 
occupants with the drill procedure and to establish conduct of 
the drill as a matter of routine. Drills shall include suitable 
procedures to ensure that all persons subject to the drill par- 
ticipate. (201.4.7.2) 

3-2.3 Competency. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of drills shall be assigned only to competent persons qual- 
ified to exercise leadership. (101:4.7.3) 

3-2.4 Orderly Evacuation. In the conduct of drills, emphasis 
shall be placed on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. 
(101:4.7.4) 

3-2.5* Simulated Conditions. Drills shall be held at expected 
and unexpected times and under varying conditions to simu- 
late the unusual conditions that can occur in an actual emer- 
gency. (201:4.7.5) 

3-2.6 Relocation Area. Drill participants shall relocate to a 
predetermined location and remain at such location until a 
recall or dismissal signal is given. (102:4.7.6) 

3-3 Smoking. 

3-3.1 Where smoking is considered a fire hazard, the author- 
ity having jurisdiction shall be authorized to order the owner 



in writing to post "No Smoking" signs in conspicuous desig- 
nated locations where smoking is prohibited. 

3-3.2 In areas where smoking is permitted, noncombustible 
ash trays shall be provided. 

3-3.3 Removal or destruction of any required "No Smoking" 
sign shall be prohibited. 

3-3.4 Smoking or depositing any lighted or smoldering sub- 
stance in a place where required "No Smoking" signs are 
posted shall be prohibited. 

54 Open Outdoor Fires, Incinerators, and Outdoor 
Fireplaces. 

3-4.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

Exception: Cooking fires. 

3-4.2 Permitted open fires shall be located not less than 50 ft 
(15 m) from any structure. Burning hours shall be prescribed 
by the authority having jurisdiction. 

3-4.3 Open fires and cooking fires shall be constantly 
attended by a competent person until such fire is extin- 
guished. This person shall have a garden hose connected to 
the water supply or other fire extinguishing equipment readily 
available for use. 

3-4.4 The authority having jurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to prohibit any or all open fires when atmospheric condi- 
tions or local circumstances make such fires hazardous. 

3-4.5 During that period of the year declared by the authority 
having jurisdiction to be the dry season, it shall be unlawful to 
set fires to any brush or forest covered land. 

3-4.6 On such occasions when the chief executive of the juris- 
diction declares a dry season and establishes special regula- 
tions on the use of any form of fire or smoking material, the 
authority having jurisdiction shall have the authority to assist 
in the enforcement of such regulations. 

3-4.7 No charcoal burners shall be kindled or maintained on 
combustible balconies or within 10 ft (3 m) of combustible 
patios on ground floors. 

Exception: Single-family dwellings. 

3-4.8 Cylinders having water capacities greater than 2 V 2 lb 
(1 kg) [nominal 1 lb (0.5 kg)] LP-Gas capacity shall not be 
located on balconies above the first floor that are attached to 
a multiple family dwelling of three or more living units 
located one above the other. 

Exception: Where such balconies are served by outside stairways 
and where only suck stairways are used to transport the cylinder. 
(58:3-4.9.2) 

3-4.9 Every commercial incinerator and commercial barbe- 
cue fireplace shall be equipped and maintained with a spark 
arrestor and shall be maintained in good condition, working 
order, and repair at all times. 

3-5 Fire Lanes. 

3-5.1 Fire lanes shall be provided for all buildings that are set 
back more than 150 ft (46 m) from a public road or exceed 
30 ft (9 m) in height and are set back over 50 ft (15 m) from 
a public road. 



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GENERAL PROVISIONS 



1-21 



Exception: Where buildings are protected throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system, the provisions of this section shall 
be permitted to be modified by the authority having jurisdiction. 

3-5.2 Fire lanes shall be not less than 20 ft (6 m) of unob- 
structed width, able to withstand live loads of fire apparatus, 
and have a minimum of 13 ft 6 in. (4.1 m) of vertical clear- 
ance. An approved turnaround for fire apparatus shall be 
provided where an access road is a dead end and is in excess 
of 150 ft (46 m) in length. The turnaround shall have a min- 
imum centerline radius of 50 ft (15 m). The grade, surface, 
and location of the fire lane shall be approved by the author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

Exception No. 1: T or Y turnaround arrangements shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: When acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, turnaround arrangements other than a cul-de-sac shall be permit- 
ted to be used. 

3-5.3 Where a bridge is required to be used as access, it shall 
be constructed and maintained using live design loading suffi- 
cient to carry the imposed loads of the fire apparatus. Where 
an elevated surface is used as access, that portion utilized by 
fire apparatus shall be constructed and maintained to accom- 
modate fire apparatus. 

3-5.4 Fire lanes shall be marked with freestanding signs or 
marked curbs, sidewalks, or other traffic surfaces that have the 
words FIRE LANE — NO PARKING painted in contrasting 
colors at a size and spacing approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

3-5.5* Fire lanes shall be maintained free of all obstructions at 
all times. 

Exception: Approved security gates and other movable barriers. 

3-6 Access Boxes. The authority having jurisdiction shall 
have the authority to require an access box to be installed in 
an accessible location where access to or within a structure or 
area is difficult because of security. The access box shall be a 
type approved by the authority having jurisdiction and shall 
contain keys or other devices necessary to gain access as 
required by the authority havingjurisdiction. The operator of 
the premises shall immediately notify the authority having 
jurisdiction, and provide the new keys or other devices, any 
time a lock is changed or rekeyed and a key or other device to 
that lock is contained in the access box. 

3-7 Fire Protection Markings. 

3-7.1 Premises Identification. New and existing buildings 
shall have approved address numbers placed in a position to 
be plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting 
the property. These numbers shall contrast with their back- 
ground. Address numbers shall be arabic numerals or alpha- 
bet letters. 

3-7.2 Shaftways to Be Marked. Every outside opening acces- 
sible to the fire department that opens direcdy on any hoist- 
way or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in 
a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY 
in red letters at least 6 in. (15.2 cm) high on a white back- 
ground. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily 
discernible from the outside of the building. 

3-7.3* Stairway Marking. 

3-7.3.1 Stairs serving five or more stories shall be provided 
with signage within the enclosure at each floor landing. The 



signage shall indicate the story, the terminus of the top and 
bottom of the stair enclosure, and the identification of the 
stair enclosure. The signage also shall state the story of, and 
the direction to, exit discharge. The signage shall be inside the 
enclosure located approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) above the floor 
landing in a position that is readily visible when the door is in 
the open or closed position. (202:7.2.2.5.4) 

3-7.3.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an upward 
direction to reach the level of exit discharge, signs with direc- 
tional indicators indicating the direction to the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be provided at each floor level landing from which 
upward direction of travel is required. Such signage shall be 
readily visible when the door is in the open or closed position. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply where signs re- 
quired by 3-7.3. 1 are provided. 

Exception No. 2: Stairs extending not more than one story below the 
level of exit discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious shall 
not be subject to this requirement. (101:7.2.2.5.5) 

3-7.3.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall or on 
a separate sign securely attached to the wall. 

3-7.3.4 Letters and numerals shall be of bold type and of con- 
trasting color to the background. 

3-7.3.5 The stairway identification letter shall be placed at 
the top of the sign in minimum 1 in. (2.5 cm) high bold 
block lettering. 

3-7.3.6 Roof access or no roof access shall be designated by 
the words "Roof Access" or "No Roof Access" and placed 
under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall be a 
minimum of 1 in. (2.5 cm) high bold block lettering. 

Exception: Existing approved signs. 

3-7.3.7 The floor level number shall be placed in the middle 
of the sign in minimum 5 in. (12.7 cm) high bold block letter- 
ing. Mezzanine levels shall have the letter "M" or other appro- 
priate identification letter preceding the floor number, while 
basement levels shall have the letter "B" or other appropriate 
identification letter preceding the floor level number. 

3-7.3.8 The lower and upper terminus of the stairway shall be 
placed at the bottom of the sign in minimum 1 in. (2.5 cm) 
high bold block lettering. 

3-7.3.9 These signs shall be maintained in an approved manner. 

3-8 Vacant Buildings. 

3-8.1 Every person owning or having charge or control of any 
vacant building shall remove all combustible waste and refuse 
therefrom and lock, barricade, or otherwise secure all win- 
dows, doors, and other openings in the building to prohibit 
entry by unauthorized persons. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to vacation or resort fa- 
cilities or buildings used on a seasonal basis or the temporary vacancy 
of a building for tenant change or remodeling purposes. 

3-8.2 Buildings that are vacant shall maintain all required 
sprinklers and standpipe systems, and the associated water- 
flow, and sprinkler supervisory alarm systems in service. 
Exception: As approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

3-8.3 The authority havingjurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to require an inspection and test of any sprinkler system, 
standpipe system, or fire alarm system that has been out of ser- 
vice for 30 days or more before restored back into service. 



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3-9 Combustible Vegetation. 

3-9.1 Combustible vegetation and natural cut Christmas trees 
shall not be permitted in assembly, educational, day-care, 
health care, residential board and care, detention and correc- 
tional, mercantile, hotel, or dormitory occupancies. 

Exception No. 1: Day-care homes. 

Exception No. 2: Living trees in a balled condition with their roots 
protected by an earth ball shall be permitted provided they are main- 
tained in afresh condition and are not allowed to become dry. 
Exception No. 3: Trees located in areas protected by an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system. 

3-9.2 Artificial combustible vegetation and Christmas trees 
shall be labeled or otherwise identified or certified by the 
manufacturer as being flame retardant or flame resistive. 

3-9.3 No combustible vegetation and Christmas trees shall be 
allowed to obstruct corridors, exit ways, or other means of 
egress. 

3-9.4 Only listed electrical lights and wiring shall be used 
on combustible vegetation, Christmas trees, and similar 
decorations. 

3-9.5 Electrical lights shall be prohibited on metal artificial 
trees. 

3-9.6 Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kerosene 
heaters, and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or near 
combustible vegetation, Christmas trees, or other similar com- 
bustible materials. 

3-9.7 Combustible vegetation and natural cut Christmas trees 
shall not be located near heating vents or other fixed or por- 
table heating devices that could cause it to dry out prema- 
turely or to be ignited. 



3-9.8 In occupancies where natural trees are permitted, the 
bottom end of the trunk shall have a straight fresh cut of at 
least Vz m - (1^ mm) above the end prior to placing the tree 
in a stand to allow the tree to absorb water. The tree shall be 
placed in a suitable stand with adequate water. The water level 
shall be maintained above the fresh cut and checked at least 
once daily. The tree shall be removed from the building 
immediately upon evidence of dryness. 

3-10 Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and Fairs. 

3-10.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

3-10.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to 
regulate all outdoor events such as carnivals and fairs as it per- 
tains to access for emergency vehicles; access to fire protection 
equipment; placement of stands, concession booths, and 
exhibits; and the control of hazardous conditions dangerous 
to life and property. 

3-10.3 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
require standby fire personnel when potentially hazardous 
conditions exist, due to the type of performance, display, 
exhibit, or activity, or the number of persons present. 

3-10.4 A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher shall be 
provided, when required by the authority havingjurisdiction, 
for each concession stand in accordance with Section 7-6. 

3-10.5 A minimum of one single station smoke alarm shall be 
located in all stock or equipment trailers when they are used 
for sleeping purposes. 

3-10.6 Electrical equipment and installations shall comply 
with Section 6-1. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-23 



Chapter 4 Means of Egress 

4-1 Application. Means of egress in new and existing build- 
ings shall comply with this Code and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

4-1.1 All inside stairs serving as an exit or exit component 
shall be enclosed in accordance with 7.1.3.2 of NFPA 101. All 
other inside stairs shall be protected in accordance with 8.2.5 
of NFPA 101. 

Exception: In existing buildings, where a two-story exit enclosure con- 
nects the story of exit discharge with an adjacent story, the exit shall be 
permitted to be enclosed only on the story of exit discharge, provided 
that not less than 50 percent of the number and capacity of exits on the 
story of exit discharge are independent of such enclosures. 
(101:7.2.2.5.1) 

4-1.2* An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose 
that has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if 
so designated, as an area of refuge. (See also 4-1.3.) 
(101:7.1.3.2.3) 

4-1.3* There shall be no enclosed, usable space within an exit 
enclosure, including under stairs, nor shall any open space 
within the enclosure be used for any purpose that has the 
potential to interfere with egress. 

Exception: Enclosed, usable space shall be permitted under stairs, pro- 
vided that the space is separated from the stair enclosure by the same 
fire resistance as the exit enclosure. Entrance to such enclosed usable 
space shall not be from within the stair enclosure. (See also 4-1.2.) 
(101:7.2.2.5.3) 

4-1 .4 Exit Access Corridors. Corridors used as exit access 
and serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 
shall be separated from other parts of the building by walls 
having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accor- 
dance with 8.2.3 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to existing build- 
ings, provided the occupancy classification does not change. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply where otherwise 
provided in Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101. (101:7.1.3.1) 

4-1.5 Enclosure. 

4-1.5.1 An exit passageway shall be separated from other parts 
of the building as specified in 7.1.3.2 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Fire windows in accordance with 8.2.3.2.2 of NFPA 
101 shall be permitted to be installed in such a separation in a build- 
ing protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9. 7 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: Existing fixed wired glass panels in steel sash shall 
be permitted to be continued in use in such a separation in buildings 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9. 7 of NFPA 101. (101:7.2.6.2) 

4-1.5.2 Stair Discharge. An exit passageway that serves as a 
discharge from a stair enclosure shall have not less than the 
same fire resistance rating and opening protective fire protec- 
tion rating as those required for the stair enclosure. 
(10/.-7.2.6.3) 

4-1.6* Interior Finish in Exits. The flame spread rating of 
interior finish on walls and ceilings shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 101. 

4-1.7 Doors. 



4-1.7.1 Any device or alarm installed to restrict the improper 
use of a means of egress shall be designed and installed so that 
it cannot, even in case of failure, impede or prevent emer- 
gency use of such means of egress unless otherwise provided 
in 7.2.1.6 of NFPA 101 and Chapters 18, 19, 22, and 23 of 
NFPA 101. (101:7.1.9) 

4-1.7.2 Every door and every principal entrance that is 
required to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed 
so that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct. Windows 
that, because of their physical configuration or design and the 
materials used in their construction, have the potential to be 
mistaken for doors shall be made inaccessible to the occu- 
pants by barriers or railings. (202:7.2.1.1.2) 

4-1.8 Swing and Force to Open. 

4-1.8.1* Any door in a means of egress shall be of the side- 
hinged or pivoted-swinging type. The door shall be designed 
and installed so that it is capable of swinging from any position 
to the full required width of the opening in which it is 
installed. 

Exception No. 1: Sliding doors as provided in Chapters 22 and 23 of 
NFPA 101, and doors as provided in Chapters 24, 32, and 33 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: Where permitted in Chapters 12 through 42 of 
NFPA 101, horizontal sliding or vertical rolling security grilles or 
doors that are part of the required means of egress shall be permitted, 
provided that they meet the following criteria: 

(a) Such grilles or doors shall remain secured in the full open 
position during the period of occupancy by the general public. 

(b) On or adjacent to the grille or door, there shall be a readily vis- 
ible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. (2.5 cm) high on a con- 
trasting background that reads as follows: 

THIS DOOR TO REMAIN OPEN 

WHEN THE BUILDING IS OCCUPIED 

(c) Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when 
the space is occupied. 

(d) Doors or grilles shall be operable from within the space without 
the use of any special knowledge or effort. 

(e) Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than 
half of the means of egress shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or 
vertical rolling grilles or doors. 

Exception No. 3: Horizontal sliding doors complying with 7.2.1.14 of 
NFPA 101 shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 4: Doors to private garages, business areas, industrial 
areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 10, 
where such private garages, business areas, industrial areas, and stor- 
age areas contain low or ordinary hazard contents, shall be exempt 
from this requirement. 

Exception No. 5: Revolving doors complying with 7.2.1.10 of NFPA 
101 shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 6: Existing fusible link-operated horizontal sliding or 
vertical rolling fire doors shall be permitted to be used as provided in 
Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101. (101:7.2.1.4.1) 

4-1.8.2 Doors required to be of the side-hinged or pivoted- 
swinging type shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or more. 

Exception No. 1: Doors in horizontal exits shall not be required to 
swing in the direction of egress travel where exempted in 7.2.4.3.6 of 
NFPA 101. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Exception No. 2: Smoke barrier doors shall not be required to swing in 
the direction of egress travel as provided in Chapter 19ofNFPA 101. 
(101:7.2.1.4.2) 

4-1.8.3 A door shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
where used in an exit enclosure or where serving a high haz- 
ard contents area, unless it is a door from an individual living 
unit that opens directly into an exit enclosure. (/0/.-7.2.1.4.3) 

4-1.8.4* During its swing, any door in a means of egress shall 
leave not less than one-half of the required width of an aisle, 
corridor, passageway, or landing unobstructed and shall not 
project more than 7 in. (17.8 cm) into the required width of 
an aisle, corridor, passageway, or landing, when fully open. 
Doors shall not open directly onto a stair without a landing. 
The landing shall have a width not less than the width of the 
door. (See 7.2.1.3 ofNFPA 101.) 

Exception: In existing buildings, a door providing access to a stair 
shall not be required to maintain any minimum unobstructed width 
during its swing, provided that it meets the requirement that limits pro- 
jection to not more than 7 in. (17.8 cm) into the required width of a 
stair or landing when the door is fully open. (101:7.2.1.4.4) 

4-1.8.5 The forces required to fully open any door manually 
in a means of egress shall not exceed 15 lbf (67 N) to release 
the latch, 30 lbf (133 N) to set the door in motion, and 15 lbf 
(67 N) to open the door to the minimum required width. 
Opening forces for interior side-hinged or pivoted-swinging 
doors without closers shall not exceed 5 lbf (22 N). These 
forces shall be applied at the latch stile. 

Exception No. 1: The opening force for existing doors in existing 
buildings shall not exceed 50 lbf (222 N) applied to the latch stile. 
Exception No. 2: The opening forces for horizontal sliding doors shall 
be as provided in Chapters 22 and 23 ofNFPA 101. 
Exception No. 3: The opening forces for power-operated doors shall be 
asprovidedin 7.2.1.9 of NFPA 101. (101:7.2.1.4.5) 

4-1.8.6 Screen doors and storm doors used in a means of egress 
shall be subject to the requirements for direction of swing that 
are applicable to other doors used in a means of egress. 
(20/.-7.2.1.4.6) 

4-1.9 Locks, Latches, and Alarm Devices. 

4-1.9.1 Doors shall be arranged to be opened readily from the 
egress side whenever the building is occupied. Locks, if pro- 
vided, shall not require the use of a key, a tool, or special 
knowledge or effort for operation from the egress side. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply where otherwise 
provided in Chapters 18 through 23 ofNFPA 101. 
Exception No. 2: Exterior doors shall be permitted to have key-operated 
locks from the egress side, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) Permission to use this exception is provided in Chapters 12 
through 42 ofNFPA 101 for the specific occupancy. 

(b) On or adjacent to the door, there is a readily visible, durable 
sign in letters not less than 1 in. (2.5 cm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground that reads as follows: 

THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED 

WHEN THE BUILDING IS OCCUPIED 

(c) The locking device is of a type that is readily distinguishable 
as locked. 

(d) A key is immediately available to any occupant inside the 
building when it is locked. 

Exception No. 2 shall be permitted to be revoked by the authority 



having jurisdiction for cause. 

Exception No. 3: Where permitted in Chapters 12 through 42 of 
NFPA 101, key operation shall be permitted, provided that the key can- 
not be removed when the door is locked from the side from which egress 
is to be made. (101: 7.2.1.5.1) 

4-1.9.2* Every door in a stair enclosure serving more than 
four stories shall allow re-entry from the stair enclosure to the 
interior of the building, or an automatic release shall be pro- 
vided to unlock all stair enclosure doors to allow re-entry. Such 
automatic release shall be actuated with the initiation of the 
building fire alarm system. 

Exception No. 1: Doors on stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
equipped with hardware that prevents re-entry into the interior of the 
building, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) There shall be not less than two levels where it is possible to 
leave the stair enclosure. 

(b) There shall be not more than four stories intervening between 
stories where it is possible to leave the stair enclosure. 

(c) Re-entry shall be possible on the top or next to top story that 
allows access to another exit. 

(d) Doors allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the stair 
side of the door. 

(e) Doors not allowing re-entry shall be provided with a sign on 
the stair side indicating the location of the nearest door, in each direc- 
tion of travel, that allows re-entry or exit. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to the following: 

(a) Existing installations as permitted in Chapters 12 through 42 
ofNFPA 101 

(b) Stair enclosures serving a building permitted to have a single 
exit in accordance with Chapters 11 through 42 ofNFPA 101 

(c) Stair enclosures where otherwise provided in Chapters 18 and 
22 ofNFPA 101 (101:7.2.1.5.2) 

4-1.9.3 If a stair enclosure allows access to the roof of the 
building, the door to the roof either shall be kept locked or 
shall allow re-entry from the roof. (i0i:7-2.1.5.3) 

4-1.9.4* A latch or other fastening device on a door shall be 
provided with a releasing device having an obvious method of 
operation and that is readily operated under all lighting con- 
ditions. The releasing mechanism for any latch shall be 
located not less than 34 in. (86 cm), and not more than 48 in. 
(122 cm), above the finished floor. Doors shall be operable 
with not more than one releasing operation. 

Exception No. 1: Egress doors from individual living units and guest 
rooms of residential occupancies shall be permitted to be provided with 
devices that require not more than one additional releasing operation, 
provided that such device is operable from the inside without the use of a 
key or tool and is mounted at a height not exceeding 48 in. (122 cm) 
above the finished floor. Existing security devices shall be permitted to 
have two additional releasing operations. Existing security devices other 
than automatic latching devices shall not be located more than 60 in. 
(152 cm) above the finished floor. Automatic latching devices shall not 
be located more than 48 in. (122 cm) above the finished floor. 
Exception No. 2: The minimum mounting height for the releasing 
mechanism shall not be applicable to existing installations. 
(101:7.2.1.5.4) 

4-1.9.5 Where pairs of doors are required in a means of 
egress, each leaf of the pair shall be provided with its own 
releasing device. Devices that depend on the release of one 
door before the other shall not be used. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-25 



Exception: Where exit doors are used in pairs and approved automat- 
ic flush bolts are used, the door leaf equipped with the automatic flush 
bolts shall have no doorknob or surface-mounted hardware. The un- 
latching of any leaf shall not require more than one operation. 
(101:7.2.1.5.5) 

4-1.9.6* Devices shall not be installed in connection with any 
door on which panic hardware or fire exit hardware is 
required where such device prevents or is intended to prevent 
the free use of the door for purposes of egress. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply where otherwise provided 
in 4-1.10. (101:7.2.1.5.6) 

4-1.10 Special Locking Arrangements. 

4-1.10.1 Delayed Egress Locks. Approved, listed, delayed- 
egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving 
low and ordinary hazard contents in buildings protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101, or an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101, and where permitted in 
Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101, provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met. 

(a) The doors shall unlock upon actuation of an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 or upon the actuation of 
any heat detector or activation of not more than two smoke 
detectors of an approved, supervised automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

(b) The doors shall unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or locking mechanism. 

(c) An irreversible process shall release the lock within 15 
seconds upon application of a force to the release device 
required in 4-1.9.4 that shall not be required to exceed 15 lbf 
(67 N) nor be required to be continuously applied for more 
than 3 seconds. The initiation of the release process shall acti- 
vate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the 
door lock has been released by the application of force to the 
releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only. 

Exception: Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, a de- 
lay not exceeding 30 seconds shall be permitted. 

(d) *On the door adjacent to the release device, there shall 
be a readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. 
(2.5 cm) high and not less than V 8 in. (0.3 cm) in stroke width 
on a contrasting background that reads as follows: 

PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS 

DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS 

(101:7.2.1.6.1) 

4-1.10.2 Access-Controlled Egress Doors. Where permitted 
in Chapters 1 1 through 42 of NFPA 101, doors in the means of 
egress shall be permitted to be equipped with an approved 
entrance and egress access control system, provided that the 
following criteria are met. 

(a) A sensor shall be provided on the egress side and 
arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors, and 
the doors shall be arranged to unlock in the direction of 
egress upon detection of an approaching occupant or loss of 
power to the sensor. 

(b) Loss of power to the part of the access control system 
that locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors in 
the direction of egress. 



(c) The doors shall be arranged to unlock in the direction 
of egress from a manual release device located 40 in. to 48 in. 
(102 cm to 122 cm) vertically above the floor and within 5 ft 
(1.5 m) of the secured doors. The manual release device shall 
be readily accessible and clearly identified by a sign that reads 
as follows: 

PUSH TO EXIT 
When operated, the manual release device shall result in 
direct interruption of power to the lock — independent of the 
access control system electronics — and the doors shall 
remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds. 

(d) Activation of the building fire-protective signaling sys- 
tem, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors in the 
direction of egress, and the doors shall remain unlocked until 
the fire-protective signaling system has been manually reset. 

(e) Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire 
detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the 
doors in the direction of egress and the doors shall remain 
unlocked until the fire-protective signaling system has been 
manually reset. (101:7.2.1.6.2) 

4-1.11 Self-Closing Devices. 

4-1.11.1 A door normally required to be kept closed shall not 
be secured in the open position at any time and shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 4-1.11.2. 
(101:7.2.1.8.1) 

4-1.11.2 In any building of low or ordinary hazard contents, as 
described in 6.2.2.2 and 6.2.2.3 of NFPA 101, or where 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction, doors shall be 
permitted to be automatic-closing, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) Upon release of the hold-open mechanism, the door 
becomes self-closing. 

(2) The release device is designed so that the door instantly 
releases manually and upon release becomes self-closing, 
or the door can be readily closed. 

(3) The automatic releasing mechanism or medium is acti- 
vated by the operation of approved smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with the requirements for smoke 
detectors for door release service in NFPA 72, National 
Fire Alarm Code' 1 '. 

(4) Upon loss of power to the hold-open device, the hold- 
open mechanism is released and the door becomes self- 
closing. 

(5) The release by means of smoke detection of one door in 
a stair enclosure results in closing all doors serving that 
stair. (101:7.2.1.8.2) 

4-2 Minimum Width. 

4-2.1 The width of any means of egress shall be not less than 
that required for a given egress component in Chapter 7 of 
NFPA 101 or Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101, and shall 
be not less than 36 in. (91 cm). 

Exception No. 1:* The width of exit access formed by furniture and 
movable partitions, serving not more than six people and having a 
length not exceeding 50 ft (15 m), shall be not less than 18 in. (45. 7 cm) 
at and below a height of 38 in. (96 cm), or 28 in. (71 cm) above a height 
of 38 in. (96 cm), provided that widths not less than 36 in. (91 cm) for 
new exit access and 28 in. (71 cm) for existing exit access are provided 
without moving permanent walls. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to doors as other- 
wise provided for in 7.2.1.2 of NFPA 101. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Exception No. 3: In existing buildings, the width shall be permitted to 
be not less than 28 in. (71 cm). 

Exception No. 4: This requirement shall not apply to aisles and aisle 
accessways as otherwise provided in Chapters 12 and 13 of NFPA 
101. 

Exception No. 5: This requirement shall not apply to industrial equip- 
ment access as otherwise provided in Chapter 40 of NFPA 101. 
(101:7.3.4.1) 

4-2.2 Where a single exit access leads to an exit, its capacity in 
terms of width shall be not less than the required capacity of 
the exit to which it leads. Where more than one exit access 
leads to an exit, each shall have a width adequate for the num- 
ber of persons it accommodates. (101:7. 3 .4.2) 

4-3 Number of Means of Egress. 

4-3.1 The number of means of egress from any balcony, mez- 
zanine, story, or portion thereof shall be not less than two. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply where a single 
means of egress is permitted in Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101. 
Exception No. 2: A mezzanine or balcony shall be permitted to have a 
single means of egress, provided that the common path of travel limi- 
tations of Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101 are met. 
(101:7.4.1.1) 

4-3.2 The number of means of egress from any story or por- 
tion thereof, other than for existing buildings as permitted in 
Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101, shall be as follows: 

(1) Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000 — 
not less than 3 

(2) Occupant load more than 1000 — not less than 4 
(701:7.4.1.2) 

4-3.3 Accessible means of egress in accordance with 7.5.4 of 
NFPA 101, not utilizing elevators, shall be permitted to serve 
as any or all of the required minimum number of means of 
egress. (207:7.4.1.3) 

4-3.4 The occupant load of each story considered individually 
shall be required to be used in computing the number of 
means of egress at each story, provided that the required num- 
ber of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of 
egress travel. (201:7.4.1.4) 

4-3.5 Doors, other than the hoistway door; the elevator car 
door; and doors that are readily openable from the car side 
without a key, tool, special knowledge, or special effort, shall 
be prohibited at the point of access to an elevator car. 
(202:7.4.1.5) 

4-3.6 Elevator lobbies shall have access to at least one exit. 
Such exit access shall not require the use of a key, tool, special 
knowledge, or special effort. (202:7.4.1.6) 

4-4 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

4-4.1 Exits shall be located and exit access shall be arranged 
so that exits are readily accessible at all times. (202:7.5.1.1) 

4-4.2* Where exits are not immediately accessible from an 
open floor area, continuous passageways, aisles, or corridors 
leading directly to every exit shall be maintained and shall be 
arranged to provide access for each occupant to not less than 
two exits by separate ways of travel. Exit access corridors shall 
provide access to not less than two approved exits without pass- 
ing through any intervening rooms other than corridors, lob- 
bies, and other spaces permitted to be open to the corridor. 



Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply where a single exit 
is permitted in Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101. 
Exception No. 2: Where common paths of travel are permitted for an 
occupancy in Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101, such common 
paths of travel shall be permitted but shall not exceed the limit specified. 
Exception No. 3: Existing corridors that require passage through a 
room to access an exit shall be permitted to continue to be used, provid- 
ed that the following criteria are met: 

(a) Such arrangement is approved by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

(b) The path of travel is marked in accordance with Section 7.10 
of NFPA 101. 

(c) Doors to such rooms comply with 7.2.1 of NFPA 101. 

(d) Such arrangement is not prohibited by the occupancy chapter. 
Exception No. 4: Corridors that are not required to be fire resistance 
rated shall be permitted to discharge into open floor plan areas. 
(101:7.5.1.2) 

4-4.3 Where more than one exit is required from a building or 
portion thereof, such exits shall be remotely located from each 
other and shall be arranged and constructed to minimize the 
possibility that more than one has the potential to be blocked 
by any one fire or other emergency condition. (202:7.5.1.3) 

4r4A* Exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead 
ends in corridors, unless permitted by and limited to the 
length specified in Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101. 
(202:7.5.1.6) 

4-4.5 Exit access from rooms or spaces shall be permitted to 
be through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, provided 
that such adjoining rooms are accessory to the area served. 
Foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required 
for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms. Exit 
access shall be arranged so that it is not necessary to pass 
through any area identified under Protection from Hazards in 
Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101. (102:7.5.1.7) 

4-5 Occupant Load. 

4-5.1 The total capacity of the means of egress for any story, 
balcony, tier, or other occupied space shall be sufficient for 
the occupant load thereof. (202:7.3.1.1) 

4-5.2 The occupant load in any building or portion thereof 
shall be not less than the number of persons determined by 
dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the occupant 
load factor for that use as specified in Table 4-5.2. Where both 
gross and net area figures are given for the same occupancy, 
calculations shall be made by applying the gross area figure to 
the gross area of the portion of the building devoted to the use 
for which the gross area figure is specified and by applying the 
net area figure to the net area of the use for which the net area 
figure is specified. (202:7.3.1.2) 

4-5.3 Occupant Load Increases. 

4-5.3.1 The occupant load in any building or portion thereof 
shall be permitted to be increased from the occupant load 
established for the given use in accordance with 4-5.2 where all 
other requirements of this Code and NFPA 101 are also met, 
based on such increased occupant load. (202:7.3.1.3.1) 

4-5.3.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted 
to require an approved aisle, seating, or fixed equipment dia- 
gram to substantiate any increase in occupant load and shall 
be permitted to require that such a diagram be posted in an 
approved location. (202:7.3.1.3.2) 



2000 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-27 



Table 4-5.2 Occupant Load Factor 



Table 4-5.2 Occupant Load Factor (Continued) 



Use 



ft 2 + (per person) m 2 t (per person) 



Assembly Use 

Concentrated use, with- 7 net 
out fixed seating 

Less concentrated use, 
without fixed seating 

Bench-type seating 
Fixed seating 
Waiting spaces 

Kitchens 

Library stack areas 
Library reading rooms 
Swimming pools 

Swimming pool decks 

Exercise rooms with 
equipment 

Exercise rooms without 
equipment 

Stages 

Lighting and access 
catwalks, galleries, 
gridirons 

Casinos and similar 
gaming areas 

Skating rinks 

Educational Use 

Classrooms 

Shops, laboratories, 
vocational rooms 

Day-Care Use 

Health Care Use 

Inpatient treatment 
departments 



15 net 

1 person/18 
linear in. 

Number of fixed 
seats 

See 12.1.7.2 and 
13.1.7.2 of 
NFPA 101. 

100 

100 

50 net 

50 — of water 
surface 

30 

50 

15 

15 net 
100 net 



11 
50 

20 net 
50 net 

35 net 
240 



0.65 net 

1.4 net 

1 person/45.7 
linear cm 

Number of fixed 
seats 

See 12.1.7.2 and 
13.1.7.2 of 
NFPA 101. 

9.3 

9.3 

4.6 net 

4.6 — of water 
surface 

2.8 

4.6 

1.4 



1.4 


net 


9.3 


net 


1 




4.6 




1.9 net 


4.6 


net 



3.3 net 



22.3 



Sleeping departments 


120 


11.1 


Detention and Correc- 
tional Use 


120 


11.1 


Residential Use 






Hotels and dormitories 


200 


18.6 


Apartment buildings 


200 


18.6 


Board and care, large 


200 


18.6 


Industrial Use 






General and high 
hazard industrial 


100 


9.3 


Special purpose 
industrial 


NA* 


NA* 


Business Use 


100 


9.3 


Storage Use (other than 
mercantile storerooms) 


NA* 


NAt 



Use 



ft 2+ (per person) m 2t (per person) 



Mercantile Use 

Sales area on street 30 

floor §° 

Sales area on two or 40 

more street floors * 

Sales area on floor below 30 
street floor ' 



Sales area on floors 
above street floor ° 

Floors or portions of 
floors used only for 
offices 

Floors or portions of 
floors used only for 
storage, receiving, and 
shipping, and not open 
to general public 

Covered mall buildings 



60 



2.8 



3.7 



2.8 



5.6 



See business use. See business use. 



300 



27.9 



Per factors Per factors 

applicable to use applicable to use 
of space * of space * 



+A11 factors expressed in gross area unless marked "net". 
*Not applicable. The occupant load shall be not less than the maxi- 
mum probable number of occupants present at any time. 
§For the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies where, due to differences in grade of streets on different sides, 
two or more floors direcdy accessible from streets (not including al- 
leys or similar back streets) exist, each such floor shall be considered 
a street floor. The occupant load factor shall be one person for each 
40 ft 2 (3.7 m 2 ) of gross floor area of sales space. 
In mercantile occupancies with no street floor, as defined in 2-1.158, 
but with access directly from the street by stairs or escalators, the prin- 
cipal floor at the point of entrance to the mercantile occupancy shall 
be considered the street floor. 

*The portions of the covered mall, where considered a pedestrian way 
and not used as gross leasable area, shall not be assessed an occupant 
load based on Table 4-5.2. However, means of egress from a covered 
mall pedestrian way shall be provided for an occupant load deter- 
mined by dividing the gross leasable area of the covered mall building 
(not including anchor stores) by the appropriate lowest whole num- 
ber occupant load factor from Figure 4-5.2. 

Each individual tenant space shall have means of egress to the out- 
side or to the covered mall based on occupant loads figured by using 
the appropriate occupant load factor from Table 4-5.2. 

Each individual anchor store shall have means of egress indepen- 
dent of the covered mall. (101:7.3.1.2) 



4-5.4 Where exits serve more than one story, only the occu- 
pant load of each story considered individually shall be used 
in computing the required capacity of the exits at that story, 
provided that the required egress capacity of the exit is not 
decreased in the direction of egress travel. (701:7.3.1.4) 

4-5.5 Where means of egress from a story above and a story 
below converge at an intermediate story, the capacity of the 
means of egress from the point of convergence shall be not 
less than the sum of the capacity of the two means of egress. 
(101:7.3.1.5) 

4-5.6 Where any required egress capacity from a balcony or 
mezzanine passes through the room below, that required 
capacity shall be added to the required egress capacity of the 
room in which it is located. (101:7.3.1.6) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE 4-5.2 Covered mall buildings occupant load 
factors. (707:Figure 7.3.1.2) 

55- 



50 



p 45 



35 







V 










^ 








^•* 








? 








it 








2 




























































































































































Ur- 






-\- 



30 



100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 
Gross leasable area (ft 2 x 1000) 

Note: For SI units, 1ft 2 = 0.093 m 2 . 



4-6 Illumination of Means of Egress. 

4-6.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 for every building 
and structure where required in Chapters 11 through 42 of 
NFPA 101. For the purposes of this requirement, exit access 
shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, 
escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the pur- 
poses of this requirement, exit discharge shall include only 
designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, 
and exit passageways leading to a public way. ( 101:7.8. 1.1) 

4-6.2 Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous dur- 
ing the time that the conditions of occupancy require that the 
means of egress be available for use. Artificial lighting shall be 
employed at such locations and for such periods of time as 
required to maintain the illumination to the minimum criteria 
values herein specified. 

Exception: Automatic, motion sensor-type lighting switches shall be 
permitted within the means of egress, provided that the switch control- 
lers are equipped for fail-safe operation, the illumination timers are set 
for a minimum 15-minute duration, and the motion sensor is activat- 
ed by any occupant movement in the area served by the lighting units. 
(101:7.8.1.2) 

4-7* Emergency Lighting. 

4-7.1 Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 7.9 of NFPA 101 for the 
following: 

(1) Buildings or structures where required in Chapters 11 
through 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Underground and windowless structures as addressed in 
Section 11.7 of NFPA 101 

(3) High-rise buildings as required by other sections of this 
Code 

(4) Doors equipped with delayed egress locks 

(5) The stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, 
which shall be permitted to include a standby generator 
that is installed for the smokeproof enclosure mechanical 
ventilation equipment and used for the stair shaft and 
vestibule emergency lighting power supply 



For the purposes of this requirement, exit access shall 
include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escala- 
tors, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of 
this requirement, exit discharge shall include only designated 
stairs, ramps, aisles, walkways, and escalators leading to a pub- 
lic way. (/M.-7.9.1.1) 

4-7.2 Periodic Testing of Emergency Lighting Equipment. A 

functional test shall be conducted on every required emergency 
lighting system at 30-day intervals for not less than 30 seconds. 
An annual test shall be conducted on every required battery- 
powered emergency lighting system for not less than 1 y 2 hours. 
Equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the test. 
Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by 
the owner for inspection by the authority having jurisdiction. 

Exception: Self-testing/ self-diagnostic, battery-operated emergency light- 
ing equipment that automatically performs a test for not less than 30 sec- 
onds and diagnostic routine not less than once every 30 days and 
indicates failures by a status indicator shall be exempt from the 30-day 
functional test, provided that a visual inspection is performed at 30-day 
intervals. (101:7.9.3) 

4-8 Marking of Means of Egress. 

4-8.1* Exits, other than main exterior exit doors that obvi- 
ously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be marked by 
an approved sign readily visible from any direction of exit 
access. (707:7.10.1.2) 

4-8.2 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, readily visi- 
ble signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach the exit is not 
readily apparent to the occupants. Sign placement shall be such 
that no point in an exit access corridor is in excess of 100 ft 
(30 m) from the nearest externally illuminated sign and is not 
in excess of the marked rating for internally illuminated signs. 

Exception: Signs in exit access corridors in existing buildings shall 
not be required to meet the placement distance requirements. 
(101:7.10.1.4) 

4-8.3* Every sign required in Section 7.10 of NFPA 101 shall 
be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that 
it is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, 
interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or 
equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. 
No brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes) , 
display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required 
exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall 
be permitted. (707:7.10.1.7) 

4-8.4 Size of Signs. 

4-8.4.1* Externally illuminated signs required by 7.10.1 and 
7.10.2 of NFPA 101, other than approved existing signs, 
shall have the word EXIT or other appropriate wording in 
plainly legible letters not less than 6 in. (15.2 cm) high with 
the principal strokes of letters not less than 3 / 4 in. (1.9 cm) 
wide. The word EXIT shall have letters of a width not less 
than 2 in. (5 cm) , except the letter I, and the minimum spac- 
ing between letters shall be not less than 3 /s m - (1 cm). Signs 
larger than the minimum established in this paragraph shall 
have letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to 
their height. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to existing signs 
having the required wording in plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. 
(10.2 cm) high. 



2000 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-29 



Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to marking re- 
quiredby 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.5 of NEPA 101. (101:7.10.6.1) 

4-8.4.2* Internally illuminated signs, other than approved 
existing signs, or existing signs having the required wording in 
legible letters not less than 4 in. (10.2 cm) high, shall be listed 
in accordance with UL 924, Standard for Safety Emergency Light- 
ing and Power Equipment. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to signs that are in accor- 
dance with 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.5 of NEPA 101. (101:7.10.7.1) 

4-8.5* Illumination of Signs. 

4-8.5.1* Every sign required by 4-8.1 or 4-8.2, other than 
where operations or processes require low lighting levels, shall 
be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. Externally 
and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in both the 
normal and emergency lighting mode. (101:7. 10. 5.1) 

4-8.5.2* Every sign required to be illuminated by 7.10.6.3 and 
7.10.7 of NFPA 101 shall be continuously illuminated as 
required under the provisions of Section 7.8 of NFPA 101. 
Exception:* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash on and 
off upon activation of the fire alarm system. (101:7. 10.5.2) 

4-8.5.3 Where emergency lighting facilities are required by 
the applicable provisions of Chapters 1 1 through 42 of NFPA 
101 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than approved 
self-luminous signs, shall be illuminated by the emergency 
lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs shall be 
in accordance with 7.10.6.3 or 7.10.7 of NFPA 101 for the 
required emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2. 1 of 
NFPA 101. However, the level of illumination shall be permit- 
ted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emergency light- 
ing duration. (101:7.10.4) 

4-8.5.4* Photoluminescent Signs. The face of a photolumi- 
nescent sign shall be continually illuminated while the build- 
ing is occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the 
photoluminescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. 
The charging illumination shall be a reliable light source as 
determined by the authority havingjurisdiction. The charging 
light source shall be of a type specified in the product mark- 
ings. (101:7.10.7.2) 

4-8.6 Specific Requirements. 

4-8.6.1 Directional Signs. 

4-8.6.1.1* A sign complying with 7.10.3 of NFPA 101 with a 
directional indicator showing the direction of travel shall be 
placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach 
the nearest exit is not apparent. (101:7.10.2) 

4-8.6.1.2* The directional indicator shall be located outside of 
the EXIT legend, not less than 3 / 8 in. (1 cm) from any letter. 
The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as shown in 
Figure 4-8.6.1.2. The directional indicator shall be identifiable 
as a directional indicator at a distance of 40 ft ( 1 2.2 m) . A direc- 
tional indicator larger than the minimum established in this 



paragraph shall be proportionately increased in height, width 
and stroke. The directional indicator shall be located at the end 
of the sign for the direction indicated. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to approved existing 
signs. (101:7.10.6.2) 

FIGURE 4-8.6.1.2 Chevron-type indicator. (101:Figure 
7.10.6.2) 




4-8.6.2* Special Signs. Any door, passage, or stairway that is 
neither an exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or 
arranged so that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be 
identified by a sign that reads as follows: 

NO 

EXIT 

Such sign shall have the word NO in letters 2 in. (5 cm) 
high with a stroke width of 3 / 8 in. (1 cm) and the word EXIT 
in letters 1 in. (2.5 cm) high, with the word EXIT below the 
word NO. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to approved existing 
signs. (101:7.10.8.1) 

4-9 Means of Egress Reliability. 

4-9.1* Means of egress shall be continuously maintained free 
of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the 
case of fire or other emergency. (101:7.1.10.1) 

4-9.2 Furnishings and Decorations in Means of Egress. 

4-9.2.1 No furnishings, decorations, or other objects shall 
obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility 
thereof. (101:7.1.10.2.1) 

4-9.2.2 There shall be no obstructions by railings, barriers, or 
gates that divide the open space into sections appurtenant to 
individual rooms, apartments, or other occupied spaces. 
Where the authority having jurisdiction Finds the required 
path of travel to be obstructed by furniture or other movable 
objects, the authority shall be permitted to require that such 
objects be secured out of the way or shall be permitted to 
require that railings or other permanent barriers be installed 
to protect the path of travel against encroachment. 
(101:7.1.10.2.2) 

4-9.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall 
not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to 
confuse the direction of egress. (101:7.1.10.2.3) 



2000 Edition 



1-30 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Chapter 5 Features of Fire Protection 

5-1 General. This chapter shall apply to new, existing, perma- 
nent, or temporary buildings. 

5-2 Construction. Where required by this Code, a type of 
building construction shall comply with NFPA 220, Standard 
on Types of Building Construction. 

5-3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies. The design and construction 
of fire walls and fire barrier walls that are required to separate 
buildings or subdivide a building to prevent the spread of fire 
shall comply with this section and NFPA 221, Standard for Fire 
Walls and Fire Barrier Walls. 

5-4 Fire Doors and Windows. 

5A.1 The installation and maintenance of assemblies and 
devices used to protect openings in walls, floors, and ceilings 
against the spread of fire and smoke within, into, or out of 
buildings shall comply with this section and NFPA 80, Standard 
for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. 

5-4.2 The fire performance evaluation of these assemblies 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 251 , Standard Methods of Tests 
of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials, for hor- 
izontal access doors; NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, for fire doors and shutters; and NFPA 257, 
Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies, for 
fire windows and glass block. 



5-4.3* This section shall not apply 
record room doors, and vault doors. 



to incinerator doors, 



5-4.4 This section shall not apply to fire-resistant glazing mate- 
rials and horizontally sliding accordion or folding assemblies 
fabricated for use as walls and tested as wall assemblies in 
accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire 
Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. The authority 
havingjurisdiction shall be consulted for the design and instal- 
lation of such materials and assemblies. (80:1-1.4) 

5-5 Interior Finish. Interior finish in buildings and structures 
shall meet the requirements of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, and 
this Code. 

5-6 Furnishings, Contents, Decorations, and Treated Fin- 
ishes. Furnishings, contents, decorations, and treated fin- 
ishes in buildings and structures shall meet the requirements 
of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, and this Code. 

5-7 Smoke Partitions. 

5-7.1 Where required elsewhere in this Code or NFPA 101, 
smoke partitions shall be provided to limit the transfer of 
smoke. (202:8.2.4.1) 

5-7.2 Smoke partitions shall extend from the floor to the 
underside of the floor or roof deck above, through any con- 
cealed spaces, such as those above suspended ceilings, and 
through interstitial structural and mechanical spaces. 

Exception:* Smoke partitions shall be permitted to terminate at the 
underside of a monolithic or suspended ceiling system where the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 



(b) A smoketight joint is provided between the top of the smoke 
partition and the bottom of the suspended ceiling. 

(c) The space above the ceiling is not used as a plenum. 
(101:8.2.4.2) 

5-7.3* Doors. 

5-7.3.1 Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with 5-7.3.2 
through 5-7.3.5.(202:8.2.4.3.1) 

5-7.3.2 Doors shall comply with the provisions of 7.2.1 of 
NFPA 101. (202:8.2.4.3.2) 

5-7.3.3 Doors shall not include louvers. (202:8.2.4.3.3) 

5-7.3.4* Door clearances shall be in accordance with NFPA 
80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. (207:8.2.4.3.4) 

5-7.3.5 Doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in 
accordance with 7.2.1.8 of NFPA 101. (201:8.2.4.3.5) 

5-7.4 Penetrations and Miscellaneous Openings in Smoke 
Partitions. 

5-7.4.1 Pipes, conduits, bus ducts, cables, wires, air d'icts, 
pneumatic tubes and ducts, and similar building service eq. . p- 
ment that pass through smoke partitions shall be protected as 
follows: 

(1) The space between the penetrating item and the smoke 
partition shall meet one of the following conditions: 

a. It shall be filled with a material that is capable of lim- 
iting the transfer of smoke. 

b. It shall be protected by an approved device that is 
designed for the specific purpose. 

(2) Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to penetrate 
the smoke partition, the sleeve shall be solidly set in the 
smoke partition, and the space between the item and 
the sleeve shall meet one of the following conditions: 

a. It shall be filled with a material that is capable of lim- 
iting the transfer of smoke. 

b. It shall be protected by an approved device that is 
designed for the specific purpose. 

(3) Where designs take transmission of vibrations into con- 
sideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

a. It shall be made on either side of the smoke partitions. 

b. It shall be made by an approved device that is 
designed for the specific purpose. (202:8.2.4.4.1) 

5-7.4.2 Openings located at points where smoke partitions 
meet the outside walls, other smoke partitions, smoke barriers, 
or fire barriers of a building shall meet one of the following 
conditions: 

( 1 ) They shall be filled with a material that is capable of lim- 
iting the transfer of smoke. 

(2) They shall be made by an approved device that is 
designed for the specific purpose. (207:8.2.4.4.2) 

5-7.4.3* Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be 
provided with approved dampers designed to limit the trans- 
fer of smoke. Dampers in air transfer openings shall close 
upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm 
Code. (202:8.2.4.4.3) 



2000 Edition 



BUILDING SERVICES 



1-31 



Chapter 6 Building Services 

6-1 Electrical Fire Safety. 

6-1.1 This section shall apply to new, existing, permanent, or 
temporary electrical appliances, equipment, fixtures, or wiring. 
Exception: Existing installations shall be permitted to be continued in 
use provided the lack of conformity does not present an imminent haz- 
ard danger. 

6-1.2 All electrical appliances, fixtures, equipment, or wiring 
shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code®. 

6-1.3 Permanent wiring shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 

6-1.4 Permanent wiring abandoned in place shall be tagged 
or otherwise identified at its termination and junction points 
as "Abandoned in Place" or removed from all accessible areas 
and insulated from contact with other live electrical wiring or 
devices. 

6-1.5 Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for per- 
manent wiring. 

6-2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. 

6-2.1 Air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating ductwork and 
related equipment shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 
90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilat- 
ing Systems, or NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm 
Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems, as applicable. 
Exception: Existing installations shall be permitted to be continued in 
service, subject to approval by the authority having jurisdiction. 

6-2.2 Ventilating or heat-producing equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Sys- 
tems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible 
Particulate Solids; NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, 
Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances; NFPA 31, Standard for 
the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment; NFPA 54, National Fuel 
Gas Code; or NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, as applicable. 
Exception: Existing installations shall be permitted to be continued in 
service, subject to approval by the authority having jurisdiction. 

6-2.3 Ventilating systems in laboratories using chemicals shall 
be installed in accordance with NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Pro- 
tection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, or NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities, as appropriate. 

6-3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. 
6-3.1 Fire Fighters' Service. 

6-3.1.1 All new elevators shall conform to the Fire Fighters' 
Service Requirements of ASME/ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for Ele- 
vators and Escalators. ( / 02.-9. 4. 3. 1 ) 

6-3.1.2 All existing elevators having a travel distance of 25 ft 
(7.6 m) or more above or below the level that best serves the 
needs of emergency personnel for fire fighting or rescue pur- 
poses shall conform to the Fire Fighters' Service Require- 
ments of ASME/ANSI A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators 
and Escalators. (20I.-9.4.3.2) 

6-3.2 Elevator Testing. Elevators shall be subject to routine 
and periodic inspections and tests as specified in ASME/ANSI 
A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. All elevators 
equipped with fire fighter service in accordance with 6-3.1.1 



and 6-3.1.2 shall be subject to a monthly operation with a writ- 
ten record of the findings made and kept on the premises as 
required by ASME/ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and 
Escalators. (10H9A.6) 

6-3.3 Openings. Conveyors, elevators, dumbwaiters, and 
pneumatic conveyors serving various stories of a building shall 
not open to an exit. (101.*). 4.7) 

6-4 Utilities. Equipment using fuel gas and related gas piping 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 54, National Fuel 
Gas Code, or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 
Exception: Existing installations shall be permitted to be continued in 
service, subject to approval by the authority having jurisdiction. 

6-5 Heating Appliances. 

6-5.1 General. 

6-5.1.1 The installation of liquid fuel-fired heating appli- 
ances shall comply with this chapter and NFPA 31, Standard for 
the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment. 

6-5.1.2 The installation of gas-fired heating appliances shall 
comply with this chapter and NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code. 
(See Chapter 21 for IP-Gas fuel supply and storage installations.) 

6-5.1.3 This chapter shall not apply to internal combustion 
engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not otherwise covered 
in this Code or NFPA 31 , Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burn- 
ing Equipment, such as blow torches, melting pots, and weed 
burners. (See Chapter 5 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are cov- 
ered.) (31:1-1.3) 

6-5.1.4 All heating appliances shall be approved or listed. 

6-5.1.5 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

6-5.1.6 Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection 
with oil-burning equipment shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. (31:1-13.1) 

6-5.1.7 The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for 
which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the manu- 
facturer. Crankcase oil or any oil containing gasoline shall not 
be used. For use of oil fuels other than those defined herein, 
see Section 1-3 of NFPA 31. 

Exception: Where acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction, oil- 
burning equipment designed to bum crankcase oil shall be permitted 
to be used in commercial or industrial occupancies. Such oil-burning 
equipment shall be listed for use with crankcase oils and shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and the 
terms of their listing. (See Section 1-16 of NFPA 31.) (31:1-15.1) 

6-5.2 Kerosene Burners and Oil Stoves. 

6-5.2.1 Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped 
with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of 
the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the 
event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be consid- 
ered a primary safety control. 

6-5.2.2 A conversion range oil burner shall be equipped with 
a thermal (heat actuated) valve in the oil supply line, located 
in the burner compartment of the stove. 

6-5.2.3 Only listed kerosene heaters shall be used. The follow- 
ing safeguards shall apply: 

( 1 ) Provide adequate ventilation. 

(2) Do not place on carpeting. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



(3) Keep 3 ft (0.9 m) away from combustible furnishings or 
drapes. 

(4) Use only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene. 

(5) Allow to cool before refueling. 

6-5.3 Portable Electric Heater. 

6-5.3.1 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
prohibit use of portable electric heaters in occupancies or sit- 
uations where such use or operation would present an undue 
danger to life or property. 

6-5.3.2 Portable electric heaters shall be designed and located 
so that they cannot be easily overturned. 

6-5.3.3 All portable electric heaters shall be listed. 

6-5.4 Vents. All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for 
conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, 
furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing 
devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, and NFPA 
211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burn- 
ing Appliances. 

6-6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

6-6.1 Enclosure. Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be 
separately enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 8.2 of NFPA 101. Inlet openings serv- 
ing chutes shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.2 of 
NFPA 101. Doors of such chutes shall open only to a room that 
is designed and used exclusively for accessing the chute open- 
ing. The room shall be separated from other spaces in accor- 
dance with Section 8.4 of NFPA 101. 



Exception No. 1: Existing installations having properly enclosed ser- 
vice chutes and properly installed and maintained service openings 
shall be permitted to have inlets open to a corridor or normally occupied 
space. 

Exception No. 2: Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be permit- 
ted to open into rooms not exceeding 400 ft 2 (37 m 2 ) in area used for 
storage, provided that the room is protected by automatic sprinklers. 
(101:9.5.1) 

6-6.2 Installation and Maintenance. Rubbish chutes, laundry 
chutes, and incinerators shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste 
and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, unless existing 
installations, which shall be permitted to be continued in ser- 
vice, subject to approval by the authority havingjurisdiction. 
(101 .■9.5.2) 

6-7 Emergency and Standby Power. 

6-7.1 Emergency Generators. Emergency generators, where 
required for compliance with this Code, shall be tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emer- 
gency and Standby Power Systems. ( 101 $.1 .3) 

6-7.2 Stored electrical energy systems shall be maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy 
Emergency and Standby Power Systems. (101 $.1 .4) 

6-8* Smoke Control. Smoke control systems, where required 
or permitted by this Code, shall have an approved mainte- 
nance and testing program to ensure operational integrity. 
The purpose of such smoke control systems shall be to confine 
smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain use of 
the means of egress system. 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



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Chapter 7 Fire Protection Systems 

7-1 General. 

7-1.1 The authority having jurisdiction shall have the author- 
ity to require that shop drawings for all fire protection systems 
be submitted for review and approval and a permit be issued 
for installation, rehabilitation, or modification. (For additional 
information concerning shop drawings, see Section 1-18.) Further, 
the authority having jurisdiction shall have the authority to 
require that full acceptance tests of the systems be performed 
in the authority's presence prior to final system certification. 

7-1.2 The property owner shall be responsible for the proper 
testing and maintenance of the equipment and systems. 

7-1.3 Detailed records documenting all systems and equip- 
ment testing and maintenance shall be kept by the property 
owner. These records shall be made available upon request for 
review by the authority having jurisdiction. 

7-1.4 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1-5.5 and 
1-9.2. 

7-2 Standpipe Systems. 

7-2.1 General. The design and installation of standpipe sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with this section and NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and 
Hose Systems. 

7-2.2 Where Required. 

7-2.2.1 Where required by this Code or the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 32, standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with 7-2.1. 

7-2.2.2 New buildings more than three stories in height or 
new buildings over 50 ft (15 m) in height above grade and con- 
taining intermediate stories or balconies shall be equipped 
with a standpipe system installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of 
Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. 

7-2.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

7-2.3.1 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. The owner 
shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it 
in good working condition. 

7-2.3.2 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

7-2.3.3 Existing Systems. Where an existing standpipe sys- 
tem, including yard piping and fire department connection, is 
modified, the new piping shall be tested in accordance with 
9-4.1 of NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Pri- 
vate Hydrant, and Hose Systems. (14:9-4.3) 

7-3 Automatic Sprinklers. 

7-3.1 General. 

7-3.1.1* Automatic sprinklers shall be installed and main- 
tained in full operating condition, as specified for the occu- 
pancy involved in the codes or standards listed in Chapter 32. 
Installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems; NFPA 13R, Standard for the 



Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to 
and Including Four Stories in Height; or NFPA 13D, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwell- 
ings and Manufactured Homes, as appropriate. 

7-3.1.2 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1-5.5 and 
1-9.2. 

7-3.2 Where Required. 

7-3.2.1 Where required by this Code or the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 32, automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with 7-3.1.1. 

7-3.2.2 Basement areas of new occupancies exceeding 2500 ft 2 
(232.3 m 2 ) shall be protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

7-3.2.3 New Assembly Occupancies. Buildings containing assem- 
bly occupancies with occupant loads of more than 300 shall be 
protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 as follows (see also 
12.1.6, 12.2.6, 12.3.2, and 12.3.6 of NFPA 101): 

(1) Throughout the story containing the assembly occu- 
pancy 

(2) Throughout all stories below the story containing the 
assembly occupancy 

(3) In the case of an assembly occupancy located below the 
level of exit discharge, throughout all stories intervening 
between that story and the level of exit discharge, includ- 
ing the level of exit discharge 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to assembly occu- 
pancies used primarily for worship with fixed seating and not part of 
a mixed occupancy. (See 6.1.14 of NFPA 101.) 
Exception No. 2:* This requirement shall not apply to assembly occu- 
pancies consisting of a single multipurpose room of less than 1 2, 000 ft 2 
(1100 m 2 ) that are not used for exhibition or display and are not part 
of a mixed occupancy. 

Exception No. 3: This requirement shall not apply to gymnasiums, 
skating rinks, and swimming pooh used exclusively for participant 
sports with no audience facilities for more than 300 persons. 

Exception No. 4: In stadia and arenas, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be omitted over the floor area used for contest, performance, or entertain- 
ment; over the seating areas; and over open-air concourses where an ap- 
proved engineering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of the 
sprinkler protection due to building height and combustible loading. 

Exception No. 5: In unenclosed stadia and arenas, sprinklers shall be 
permitted to be omitted in the following areas: 

(a) Press boxes less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(b) Storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) if enclosed with 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance— rated construction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply with 
31-5.5 (101:12.3.5) 

7-3.2.4 Existing Assembly Occupancies. Any assembly occu- 
pancy used or capable of being used for exhibition or display 
purposes shall be protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 
101 where the exhibition or display area exceeds 15,000 ft 2 
(1400 m 2 ). 

Exception No. 1: In stadia and arenas, sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be omitted over the floor area used for contest, performance, or en- 
tertainment, over the seating areas, and over open-air concourses 
where an approved engineering analysis substantiates the ineffective- 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



ness of the sprinkler protection due to building height and combusti- 
ble loading. 

Exception No. 2: In unenclosed stadia and arenas, sprinklers shall be 
permitted to be omitted in the following areas: 

(a) Press boxes less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

(b) Storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) where enclosed 
with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-crated construction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply with 
31-6.5 (101:13.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.5 New Educational Occupancies. 

7-3.2.5.1 Every portion of educational buildings below the 
level of exit discharge shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (101:1 4.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.5.2 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.2.5.5 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (102:14.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.6 Existing Educational Occupancies. 

7-3.2.6.1 Wherever student occupancy exists below the level 
of exit discharge, every portion of such floor shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. Where student 
occupancy does not exist on floors below the level of exit dis- 
charge, such floors shall be separated from the rest of the 
building by 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction or shall 
be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 
Exception: Where student occupancy exists below the level of exit dis- 
charge, automatic sprinkler protection shall not be required, subject to 
the approval of the authority having jurisdiction, where windows for 
rescue and ventilation are provided in accordance with 15.2.11.1 of 
NFPA 101. (101:15.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.6.2 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.2.5.5 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (101:15.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.7 New Health Care Occupancies. 

7-3.2.7.1* Buildings containing health care facilities shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 
Exception: In Type I and Type II construction, where approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction, alternative protection measures shall be 
permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection in specified areas 
where the authority having jurisdiction has prohibited sprinklers, 
without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered. 
(101:18.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.7.2* Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout smoke compartments contain- 
ing patient sleeping rooms. (101:18.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.7.3* Sprinklers in areas where cubicle curtains are 
installed shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (201:18.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.8 Existing Health Care Occupancies. 

7-3.2.8.1 Where required by 19.1.6 of NFPA 101, health care 
facilities shall be p>otected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
9.7 of NFPA 1 01. 



Exception: In Type I and Type II construction, where approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction, alternative protection measures shall be 
permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection in specified areas 
where the authority having jurisdiction has prohibited sprinklers, 
without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered. 
(101:19.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.8.2* Where this Code and NFPA 101 permit exceptions 
for fully sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments, the 
sprinkler system shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 

(2) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(3) It shall be fully supervised. 

Exception: In Type I and Type II construction, where approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction, alternative protection measures shall be 
permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection in specified arejis 
where the authority having jurisdiction has prohibited sprinkleh, 
without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered. 
(101:19.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.8.3* Where this Code and NFPA 101 permit exceptions 
for fully sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments and 
specifically references this paragraph, the sprinkler system 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be installed throughout the building in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 

(2) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(3) It shall be fully supervised. 

(4) It shall be equipped with listed quick-response or listed 
residential sprinklers throughout all smoke compart- 
ments containing patient sleeping rooms. 

Exception No. 1: Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted to be 
continued to be used in existing approved sprinkler systems where 
quick-response and residential sprinklers were not listed for use in such 
locations at the time of installation. I 

Exception No. 2: Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted for 
use in hazardous areas protected in accordance with 19.312.1 of 
NFPA 101. (101:19.3.5.3) \ 

7-3.2.8.4 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101. For new 
installations in existing health care occupancies, where more 
than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow 
detection shall be provided to sound the building fire alarm, 
or to notify by a signal, any constantly attended location, such 
as PBX, security, or emergency room, at which the necessary 
corrective action shall be taken. (101:19.3.5.4) 

7-3.2.8.5* Newly introduced cubicle curtains in sprinklered 
areas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (102:19.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.9 New Detention and Correction Facilities. 

7-3.2.9.1 All buildings classified as Use Condition II, Use 
Condition III, Use Condition IV, or Use Condition V shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 
(101:22.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.9.2 The automatic sprinkler system required by 7-3.2.9. 1 
shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 

(2) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(3) Fully supervised (101:22.3.5.3) 



2000 Edition 



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7-3.2.10 Existing Detention and Correctional Facilities. 

7-3.2.10.1* Where required by 23.1.6 of NFPA 101, facilities 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101. (101:23.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.10.2 Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered detention and correctional occupancies or sprinklered 
smoke compartments, the sprinkler system shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 

(2) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(3) Fully supervised (-701:23.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.11 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

7-3.2.11.1 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. In buildings up 
to and including four stories in height, systems in accordance 
with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Storks in 
Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception: The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced sprinklers 
in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall 
not be required for openings complying with 8.2.5.8 of NFPA 101 
where the opening is within the guest room or guest suite. 
(101:28.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.11.2 All buildings shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 7-3.2.11.1. 

Exception: Buildings other than high-rise buildings, where all guest 
sleeping rooms have a door that opens directly to the outside at street or 
ground level, or to exterior exit access arranged in accordance with 
7.5.3 of NFPA 101. (101:28.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.11.3 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout guest rooms and guest room 
suites. (101:28.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.11.4 Open parking structures complying with NFPA 
88A, Standard for Parking Structures, that are contiguous with 
hotels or dormitories shall be exempt from the sprinkler 
requirements of 7-3.2.11.2. (101:28.3.5.4) 

7-3.2.12 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

7-3.2.12.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. In buildings up 
to and including four stories in height, systems in accordance 
with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 1: The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, shall not be required for openings complying with 8.2.5.8 of 
NFPA 101 where the opening is within the guest room or guest suite. 
Exception No. 2: In guest rooms and in guest room suites, sprinkler in- 
stallations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) 
and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ). (101:29.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.12.2 All high-rise buildings shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 7-3.2.12.1. 

Exception: Where each guest room or guest suite has exterior exit access 
in accordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101. (101:29.3.5.2) 



7-3.2.13 New Apartment Buildings. 

7-3.2.13.1 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. In buildings up 
to and including four stories in height, systems in accordance 
with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 1: In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, closets less than 
12 ft 2 (1.1 m 2 ) in area in individual dwelling units shall not be re- 
quired to be sprinklered. Closets that contain equipment such as wash- 
ers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered regardless of 
size. 

Exception No. 2: The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, shall not be required for openings complying with 8.2.5.8 of 
NFPA 101 where the opening is within the dwelling unit. 
(101:30.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.13.2 All buildings shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 7-3.2.13.1. 

Exception: Buildings where every dwelling unit is provided with one 
of the following: 

(a) An exit door opening directly to the street or yard at ground 
level 

(b) Direct access to an outside stair complying with 7.2.2 of 
NFPA 101 thai serves not more than two units, both of which are 
located on the same floor 

(c) Direct access to an interior stair serving only that unit, and 
such stair is separated from all other portions of the building by fire 
barriers having a Thour fire resistance rating with no openings 
therein (101:30.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.13.3 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout all dwelling units. 
(101:30.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.13.4 Open parking structures complying with NFPA 
88A, Standard for Parking Structures, that are contiguous with 
apartment buildings shall be exempt from the sprinkler 
requirements of 7-3.2.13.2. (101:30.3.5.4) 

7-3.2.13.5 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.2.5.5 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 30.3.5 of NFPA 101. (101:30.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.14 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

7-3.2.14.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. In buildings up 
to and including four stories in height, systems in accordance 
with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 1: In individual dwelling units, sprinkler installation 
shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and in 
bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ). Closets that contain equip- 
ment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprin- 
klered regardless of size. 

Exception No. 2: The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 



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1-36 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



terns, shall not be required for openings complying with 8.2.5.8 of 
NFPA 101 where the opening is within the dwelling unit. 
(101:31.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.14.2 Buildings using Option 3 of 31.1.1.1 of NFPA 101 
shall be provided with the following: 

(1) Automatic sprinklers in the corridor along the corridor 
ceiling 

(2) An automatic sprinkler within any dwelling unit that has 
a door opening to the corridor, with such sprinkler posi- 
tioned over the center of the door 

Exception: The sprinkler inside dwelling units shall not be required if 
the door to the dwelling unit has not less than a 20-minute fire protec- 
tion rating and is self-closing. (101:31.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.14.3 The sprinkler installation required in 7-3.2.14.2 
shall meet the requirements of Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 in 
terms of workmanship and materials. (i0/:31.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.14.4 The installation of the corridor sprinklers required 
in 7-3.2.14.2 shall not exceed the maximum spacing and pro- 
tection area requirements of the installation standards refer- 
enced in Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (101:51. 3.5.4) 

7-3.2.14.5 Buildings using Option 4 of 31-1.1.1 of NFPA 101 
shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 7-3.2.14.1. The automatic 
sprinkler system shall meet the requirements of Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101 for supervision for buildings more than six stories 
in height. (101:51.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.14.6 All high-rise buildings shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 7-3.2.14.1. 

Exception No. 1: Where every dwelling unit has exterior exit access in 
accordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: * Buildings in which an engineered life safety system 
has been approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:31.3.5.6) 

7-3.2.15 Lodging and Rooming Houses. 

7-3.2.15.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is required 
or is used as an alternative method of protection, either for 
total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 and shall actuate the fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. In 
buildings up to and including four stories in height, systems in 
accordance with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprin- 
kler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Sto- 
ries in Height, shall be permitted. The use of NFPA 13D, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two- 
Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, shall be permitted 
where the lodging or rooming house is not part of a mixed 
occupancy. Entrance foyers shall be sprinklered. Lodging and 
rooming nouses with sleeping accommodations for more than 
eight occupants shall be treated as two-family dwellings with 
regard to the water supply. 

Exception No. 1: In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, closets less than 
12 ft! 2 (1.1 m 2 ) in area in individual dwelling units shall not be re- 
quired to be sprinklered. Closets that contain equipment such as wash- 
ers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered regardless of 



Exception No. 2: In existing lodging and rooming houses, sprinkler in- 
stallations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft? (2.2 m 2 ) 
and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ). (101:26.3.5. 1) 

7-3.2.15.2 All new lodging or rooming houses shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with 7-3.2.15.1. 

Exception: Where every sleeping room has a door opening directly to 
the outside of the building at street or ground level, or has a door open- 
ing directly to the outside leading to an exterior stairway that meets the 
requirements of 26.2.1.1 of NFPA 101. (101:26.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.16 New Residential Board and Care Facilities. 

7-3.2.16.1 Large Facilities. 

7-3.2.16.1.1* All buildings shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. Quick-response or residential sprin- 
klers shall be provided throughout. 

Exception No. 1: In buildings not more than four stories in height, a 
sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and In- 
cluding Four Stories in Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in small 
clothes closets where the smallest dimension does not exceed 3 ft (0.9 m), 
the area does not exceed 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ), and the walls and ceiling are 
finished with noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. 

Exception No. 3: Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted for 
use in hazardous areas in accordance with 32.3.3.2 of NFPA 101. 
(101:32.3.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.16.1.2 Automatic sprinkler systems shall be supervised 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (10/.-32.3.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.16.2 Small Facilities. 

7-3.2.16.2.1 All facilities shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
7-3.2.16.2.2. Quick-response or residential sprinklers shall 
be provided. 

Exception No. 1: In conversions, sprinklers shall not be required in 
small board and care homes with a rating of prompt evacuation capa- 
bility and serving eight or fewer residents. 

Exception No. 2: Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted for 
use in hazardous areas in accordance with 32.2.3.2 of NFPA 101. 
(101:32.2.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.16.2.2* Where an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed, for either total or partial building coverage, the sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 and 
shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
32.2.3.4.1 of NFPA 101. The adequacy of the water supply shall 
be documented to the authority having jurisdiction. 

Exception No. 1:* In prompt evacuation capability facilities, an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings 
and Manufactured Homes, shall be permitted. Facilities with more than 
eight residents shall be treated as two-family dwellings with regard to wa- 
ter supply. Additionally, entrance foyers shall be sprinklered. 

Exception No. 2: In slow and impractical evacuation capability facil- 
ities, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two- 
Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, with a 30-minute water 
supply, shall be permitted. All habitable areas and closets shall be 



2000 Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-37 



sprinklered. Facilities with more than eight residents shall be treated as 
two-family dwellings with regard to water supply. 
Exception No. 3: In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities, 
where an automatic sprinkler system is in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, automatic sprin- 
klers shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and 
in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or material providing a 15-minute 
thermal barrier. 

Exception No. 4: In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities 
up to and including four stories in height, systems in accordance with 
NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Res- 
idential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 5: In impractical evacuation capability facilities up to 
and including four stories in height, systems in accordance with NFPA 
13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential 
Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, shall be per- 
mitted. All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

Exception No. 6: Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be re- 
quired for existing installations in accordance with 7-3.2.16.2.5. 
(/02.-32.2.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.16.2.3 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in prompt 
and slow evacuation capability facilities shall have valve super- 
vision by one of the following methods: 

(1) A single listed control valve that shuts off both domestic 
and sprinkler systems and a separate shutoff for the 
domestic system only 

(2) Central station, proprietary, or remote station alarm in 
accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101 

(3) Valve closure that causes the sounding of an audible sig- 
nal in the facility (/0/.-32.2.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.16.2.4 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in impracti- 
cal evacuation capability facilities shall be supervised in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. (101 .-32.2.3.5.4) 

7-3.2.16.2.5 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprin- 
klers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be 
installed in accordance with 9.7. 1 .2 of NFPA 101. In new instal- 
lations, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a sin- 
gle area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the 
fire alarm system required by 7-7.2.15.1.1. Duration of water 
supplies shall be as required for the sprinkler systems 
addressed in 7-3.2.16.2.2. (M7.-32.2.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.17 Existing Residential Board and Care Facilities. 

7-3.2.17.1 Large Facilities. 

7-3.2.17.1.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: In buildings not more than four stories in height, a 
sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and In- 
cluding Four Stories in Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 2: Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets 
not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 
(5. 1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and plaster 
or materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier. 

Exception No. 3: Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be re- 
quired for existing installations in accordance with 7-3.2.17.1.4. 
(101:33.3.3.5.1) 



7-3.2.17.1.2 All high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. Such sys- 
tems shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in small clothes 
closets where the smallest dimension does not exceed 3 ft (0. 9 m), the 
area does not exceed 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ), and the walls and ceiling are 
finished with noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. 
(i07:33.3.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.17.1.3 Automatic sprinkler systems shall be supervised 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. Waterflow alarms 
shall not be required to be transmitted off-site. 
(i07:33.3.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.17.1.4 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprin- 
klers for any isolated hazardous area in accordance with 
9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted. In new installations 
where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, 
waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm 
system required by 7-7.2.16.2.1. (/0/;33.3.3.5.4) 

7-3.2.17.2 Small Facilities. 

7-3.2.17.2.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed, for either total or partial building coverage, the sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 and 
shall activate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
7.7.2.16.1.1 of NFPA 101. The adequacy of the water supply 
shall be documented to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

Exception No. 1: In prompt evacuation capability facilities, an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwell- 
ings and Manufactured Homes, shall be permitted. Automatic sprin- 
klers shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ) and 
in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 rr?), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute 
thermal barrier. 

Exception No. 2: In slow and impractical evacuation capability fa- 
cilities, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 
13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and 
Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, with a 30-minute 
water supply, shall be permitted. All habitable areas and closets shall 
be sprinklered. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bath- 
rooms not exceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces are 
finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute 
thermal barrier. 

Exception No. 3: In prompt and slow evacuation facilities, where an 
automatic sprinkler system is in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, sprinklers shall not be re- 
quired in closets not exceeding 24 ft 2 (2. 2 m 2 ) and in bathrooms not 
exceeding 55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces are finished with 
lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier. 
Exception No. 4: In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities 
up to and including four stories in height, systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13R Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height, shall be permitted. 

Exception No. 5: In impractical evacuation capability facilities up to 
and including four stories in height, systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
shall be permitted. All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms not exceeding 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



55 ft 2 (5. 1 m 2 ), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and 
plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier. 
Exception No. 6: Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be re- 
quired for existing installations in accordance with 7-3.2.17.2.3. 
(201:33.2.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.17.2.2 All impractical evacuation capability facilities 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 7-3.2.17.2.1. 
(101:33.2.3.5.3) 

7-3.2.17.2.3 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprin- 
klers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be 
installed in accordance with 9.7.1.2 of NFPA 101. In new instal- 
lations, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a sin- 
gle area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the 
fire alarm system required by 7-7.2.16.1.1. Duration of water 
supplies shall be as required for the sprinkler systems 
addressed in 7-3.2.17.2.1. (101:33.2.3.5.5) 

7-3.2.18 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

7-3.2.18.1 Mercantile occupancies shall be protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 of NFPA 101 as follows: 

(1) Throughout all mercantile occupancies three or more 
stories in height 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
12,000 ft 2 (1115 m 2 ) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where 
such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft 2 (230 m 2 ) used 
for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods 
and merchandise 

(4) Throughout mixed occupancies in accordance with 
6.1. 14 of NFPA 101 where the conditions of 7-3.2.18.1(1), 
(2), or (3) apply to the mercantile occupancy 
(101:36.3.5.1) 

7-3.2.18.2 Automatic sprinkler systems in Class A mercantile 
occupancies shall be supervised in accordance with 9.7.2 of 
NFPA 101. (102:36.3.5.2) 

7-3.2.18.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 
and the applicable provisions of the following: 

( 1 ) NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage 

(5) NFPA 231D, Standard for Storage of Rubber Tires 
(101:36.4.5.5) 

7-3.2.19 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

7-3.2.19.1 Mercantile occupancies shall be protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 of NFPA 101 as follows: 

(1 ) Throughout all mercantile occupancies with a story over 
15,000 ft 2 (1400 m 2 ) in area 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
30,000 ft 2 (2800 m 2 ) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where 
such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft 2 (230 m 2 ) used 
for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods and 
merchandise 



(4) Throughout mixed occupancies in accordance with 
6.1.14 of NFPA 101 where the conditions of 7-3.2.19.1(1), 
(2), or (3) apply to the mercantile occupancy 

Exception: Single-story buildings that meet the requirements of a street 
floor as defined in 2-1. 158. (101:37.3.5. 1) 

7-3.2.19.2 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101 
and the applicable provisions of the following: 

( 1 ) NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage 

(5) NFPA 231D, Standard for Storage of Rubber Tires 
(101:37.4.5.5) 

7-3.2.20 Underground and Windowless Structures. Where 
windowless or underground structures have an occupant load 
of more than 50 persons in the windowless or underground 
portions of the structure, the windowless or underground por- 
tions and all areas and floor levels traversed in traveling to the 
exit discharge shall be protected by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to existing window- 
less or underground structures with an occupant load of 100 or fewer 
persons in the windowless or underground portions of the structure. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to single-story win- 
dowless structures that are permitted to have a single exit per Chapters 
12 through 42 of NFPA 101 and with a common path of travel not to 
exceed 50 ft (15 m). (101:11. 7.3.3) 

7-3.2.21 High-Rise Buildings. 

7-3.2.2 1.1 New high-rise buildings shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with this chapter. 

7-3.2.21.2* Existing high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved, automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with this chapter and 7-3.2.21.2.1 and 7-3.2.21.2.2. 

7-3.2.21.2.1 Each building owner shall, within 180 days of 
receiving notice, file an intent to comply with this regulation 
with the authority having jurisdiction for approval. The 
authority having jurisdiction shall review and respond to the 
intent to comply submittal within 60 days of receipt. 

7-3.2.21.2.2 The entire building shall be required to be pro- 
tected by an approved, automatic sprinkler system within 12 
years of adoption of this Code. 

7-3.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

7-3.3.1 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. The owner 
shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it 
in good working condition. 

7-3.3.2 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 



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1-39 



7-3.3.3 Notification to Supervisory Service. To avoid false 
alarms where a supervisory service is provided, the alarm 
receiving facility always shall be notified by the owner or desig- 
nated representative as follows: 

(1) Before conducting any test or procedure that could 
result in the activation of an alarm 

(2) After such tests or procedures are concluded (25:2-1 .2) 

7-3.3.4 Buildings. Annually, prior to the onset of freezing 
weather, buildings with wet pipe systems shall be inspected to 
verify that windows, skylights, doors, ventilators, other open- 
ings and closures, blind spaces, unused attics, stair towers, roof 
houses, and low spaces under buildings do not expose water- 
filled sprinkler piping to freezing and to verify that adequate 
heat [minimum 40°F (4.4°C)] is available. (25:2-2.5) 

7-3.3.5* Alarm Devices. Waterflow alarm devices including, 
but not limited to, mechanical water motor gongs, vane-type 
waterflow devices, and pressure switches that provide audible 
or visual signals shall be tested quarterly. (25:2-3.3) 

7-3.3.6 A supply of at least six spare sprinklers shall be stored 
in a cabinet on the premises for replacement purposes. The 
stock of spare sprinklers shall be proportionally representative 
of the types and temperature ratings of the system sprinklers. 
A minimum of two sprinklers of each type and temperature 
rating installed shall be provided. The cabinet shall be so 
located that it will not be exposed to moisture, dust, corrosion, 
or a temperature exceeding 100°F (38°C). 

Exception: Where dry sprinklers of different lengths are installed, 
spare dry sprinklers shall not be required, provided that a means of re- 
turning the system to service is furnished. (25:2-4. 1 . 4) 

7-3.3.7 The stock of spare sprinklers shall be as follows: 

(1 ) For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 6 sprinklers 

(2) For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — 
no fewer than 12 sprinklers 

(3) For protected facilities having over 1000 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 24 sprinklers (25:2-4.1.5) 

7-3.3.8 Sprinklers protecting spray coating areas shall be pro- 
tected against overspray residue. Sprinklers subject to over- 
spray accumulations shall be protected using plastic bags 
having a maximum thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or shall 
be protected with small paper bags. Coverings shall be 
replaced when deposits or residue accumulate. (25:2-4.1.7) 

7-3.3.9* Sprinklers shall not be altered in any respect or have 
any type of ornamentation, paint, or coatings applied after 
shipment from the place of manufacture. (25:2-4.1.8) 

7-3.3.10 Sprinklers and automatic spray nozzles used for pro- 
tecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilating 
systems shall be replaced annually. 

Exception: Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray nozzles are 
used and annual examination shows no buildup of grease or other ma- 
terial on the sprinklers or spray nozzles, such sprinklers and spray noz- 
zles shall not be required to be replaced. (25:2-4. 1. 9) 

7-3.3.11* Dry Pipe Systems. Dry pipe systems shall be kept 
dry at all times. 

Exception: During nonfreezing weather, a dry pipe system shall be per- 
mitted to be left wet if the only other option is to remove the system from 
service while waiting for parts or during repair activities. (25:2-4.2) 



7-3.3.11.1 Air driers shall be maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. (25:2-4.2.1) 

7-3.3.11.2 Compressors used in conjunction with dry pipe 
sprinkler systems shall be maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. (25:2-4.2.2) 

7-3.3.12* Installation and Acceptance Testing. Where main- 
tenance or repair requires the replacement of sprinkler system 
components affecting more than 20 sprinklers, those compo- 
nents shall be installed and tested in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (25:2-4.3) 

7-3.4 Water Supply. 

7-3.4.1 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers 
for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be con- 
nected directly to a domestic water supply system having a 
capacity sufficient to provide 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.1 L/min»m 2 ) of 
floor area throughout the entire enclosed area. An indicating 
shutoff valve shall be installed in an accessible location 
between the sprinklers and the connection to the domestic 
water supply. (i0/ .-9.7.1. 2) 

7-3.4.2 Valves on connections to water supplies, sectional con- 
trol and isolation valves, and other valves in supply pipes to 
sprinklers and other fixed water-based fire suppression sys- 
tems shall be supervised by one of the following methods: 

(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling 
service 

(2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended point 

(3) Valves locked in the correct position 

(4) Valves located within fenced enclosures under the con- 
trol of the owner, sealed in the open position, and 
inspected weekly as part of an approved procedure 

Floor control valves in high-rise buildings and valves con- 
trolling flow to sprinklers in circulating closed loop systems 
shall comply with 7-3.4.2(1) or (2). 

Exception: Supervision of underground gate valves with roadway 
boxes shall not be required. (13:4-15. 1.1.3) 

7-3.5 System Selection. 

7-3.5.1 Where portions of systems are subject to freezing and 
temperatures cannot reliably be maintained at or above 40°F 
(4°C) , sprinklers shall be installed as a dry pipe or preaction 
system. 

Exception: Small unhealed areas are permitted to be protected by anti- 
freeze systems or by other systems specifically listed for this purpose. (See 
4-5.2 of NFPA 13.) (13:5-14.3.1.1) 

7-3.5.2 Where aboveground water-filled supply pipes, risers, 
system risers, or feed mains pass through open areas, cold 
rooms, passageways, or other areas exposed to freezing tem- 
peratures, the pipe shall be protected against freezing by insu- 
lating coverings, frostproof casings, or other reliable means 
capable of maintaining a minimum temperature between 
40°F (4°C) and 120°F (48.9°C). (13:5-14.3.1.2) 

7-3.5.3 Dry Pipe Systems. 

7-3.5.3.1 The dry pipe valve and supply pipe shall be pro- 
tected against freezing and mechanical injury. (13:4-2.5.1) 

7-3.5.3.2 Valve rooms shall be lighted and heated. The source 
of heat shall be of a permanently installed type. Heat tape shall 
not be used in lieu of heated valve enclosures to protect the 
dry pipe valve and supply pipe against freezing. (13:4-2.5.2) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



7-3.6 Operating Procedures. All automatic sprinkler systems 
shall be continuously maintained in a reliable operating con- 
dition at all times, and such periodic inspections and tests 
shall be made as necessary to ensure proper maintenance. 
When an automatic sprinkler system is out of service for more 
than four hours within a 24-hour period, the building shall be 
evacuated, or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all 
portions left unprotected by the sprinkler system shutdown 
until the sprinkler system has been returned to service. 

7-4 Fire Pumps. 

7-4.1 General. 

7-4.1.1 Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accor- 
dance with this section and NFPA 20, Standard for the Installa- 
tion of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. 

7-4.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

7-4.1.3* The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be pro- 
tected against possible interruption of service through dam- 
age caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism, and other adverse 
conditions. (20:2-7.1) 

7-4.1.4* Application. Centrifugal pumps shall not be used 
where a static suction lift is required. (20:3-1.2) 

7-4.1.5 Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the 
temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, 
above 40°F(5°C). 

Exception: See 8-6.5 of NFPA 20 for higher temperature requirements 
for internal combustion engines. (20:2-7.2) 

7-4.1.6* Temperature Maintenance. Temperature of the 
pump room, pump house, or area where engines are installed 
shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the 
engine manufacturer. An engine jacket water heater shall be 
provided to maintain 120°F (49°C). The engine manufac- 
turer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed. 
(20:8-6.5) 

7-4.1.7 Except for installations made prior to adoption of the 
1974 edition of NFPA 20, dual-drive pump units shall not be 
used. (20:2-2.3) 

7-4.1.8* Valve Supervision. Where provided, the suction 
valve, discharge valve, bypass valves, and isolation valves on the 
backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised 
open by one of the following methods: 

(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling 
service 

(2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended point 

(3) Locking valves open 

(4) Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures 
under the control of the owner 

Exception: The test outlet control valves shall be supervised closed. 
(20:2-11) 

7-4.2 Workspace. 

7-4.2.1 At least one entrance 24 in. (61 cm) wide and 6 1 / 2 ft 
(2 m) high shall be provided to give access to the work space 
around electrical equipment. 



7-4.2.2 There shall be a minimum of 30 in. (76.2 cm) work 
space in front of the electrical equipment requiring examina- 
tion, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance. 

7-4.2.3 Working space shall not be used for storage. 

7-4.2.4 Illumination shall be provided for all working spaces 
around electrical equipment requiring servicing, examina- 
tion, or adjustment. 

7-4.2.5 Provision shall be made for ventilation of a pump 
room or pump house. (20:2-7.5) 

7-4.2.6* Floors shall be pitched for adequate drainage of 
escaping water away from critical equipment such as the 
pump, driver, controller, and so forth. The pump room or 
pump house shall be provided with a floor drain that will dis- 
charge to a frost-free location. (20:2-7.6) 

7-4.3 Controllers. 

7-4.3.1* Controllers shall be located as close as is practical to 
the engines they control and shall be within sight of the 
engines. (20:9-2.1) 

7-4.3.2 Controllers shall be so located or so protected that they 
will not be injured by water escaping from pumps or pump con- 
nections. Current-carrying parts of controllers shall not be less 
than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor level. (20:9-2.2) 

7-4.3.3 Where the pump room is not constantly attended, 
audible or visible alarms powered by a source other than the 
engine starting batteries and not exceeding 1 25 V shall be pro- 
vided at a point of constant attendance. These alarms shall 
indicate the following: 

(1) The engine is running (separate signal). 

(2) The controller main switch has been turned to the off or 
manual position (separate signal) . 

(3) *Trouble on the controller or engine (separate or com- 
mon signals). (See 9-4.1.3 of NFPA 20.) (20:9-4.2) 

7-4.4 Field Acceptance Tests. The pump manufacturer, the 
engine manufacturer (when supplied), the controller manu- 
facturer, and the transfer switch manufacturer (when sup- 
plied) or their respective representatives shall be present for 
the field acceptance test. (See Section 1-6 of NFPA 20.) (20:11-2) 

7-4.4.1 All electric wiring to the fire pump motor (s), includ- 
ing control (multiple pumps) interwiring, emergency power 
supply, and jockey pump, shall be completed and checked by 
the electrical contractor prior to the initial startup and accep- 
tance test. (20:11-2.1) 

7-4.4.2* The authority having jurisdiction shall be notified as 
to time and place of the field acceptance test. (20:11-2.2) 

7-4.4.3 A copy of the manufacturer's certified pump test char- 
acteristic curve shall be available for comparison of results of 
field acceptance test. The fire pump as installed shall equal 
the performance as indicated on the manufacturer's certified 
shop test characteristic curve within the accuracy limits of the 
test equipment. (20:11-2.3) 

7-1.4.4 The fire pump shall perform at minimum, rated, and 
peak loads without objectionable overheating of any compo- 
nent. (20:11-2.4) 

7-4.4.5 Vibrations of the fire pump assembly shall not be of a 
magnitude to warrant potential damage to any fire pump com- 
ponent. (20:11-2.5) 



2000 Edition 



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1-41 



7-4.4.6 Field acceptance tests shall be conducted in accor- 
dance with NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal 
Fire Pumps. 

7-4.5 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

7-4.5.1 A fire pump installed in accordance with this Code 
shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same level 
of performance and protection as designed. The owner shall 
be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it in 
good working condition. 

7-4.5.2 A fire pump installed in accordance with this Code 
shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of 
Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

7-4.5.3 Annual Tests. 

7-4.5.3. 1 * An annual test of each pump assembly shall be con- 
ducted under minimum, rated, and peak flows of the fire 
pump by controlling the quantity of water discharged through 
approved test devices. This test shall be conducted as 
described in 7-4.5.3.1 (a), (b), or (c). 

Exception:* If available suction supplies do not allow flowing of 150 
percent of the rated pump capacity, the fire pump shall be operated at 
maximum allowable discharge. This reduced capacity shall not consti- 
tute a noncompliant test. 

(a) Use of the pump discharge via the hose streams; pump 
suction and discharge pressures and the flow measurements of 
each hose stream shall determine the total pump output. Care 
shall be taken to prevent water damage by verifying there is 
adequate drainage for the high-pressure water discharge from 
hoses. 

(b) Use of the pump discharge via the bypass flowmeter to 
drain or suction the reservoir; pump suction and discharge 
pressures and the flowmeter measurements shall determine 
the total pump output. 

(c) Use of the pump discharge via the bypass flowmeter to 
pump suction (closed-loop metering); pump suction and dis- 
charge pressures and the flowmeter measurements shall deter- 
mine the total pump output. 

Where the annual test is conducted periodically in accor- 
dance with 7-4.5.3.1 (c), a test shall be conducted every 3 years 
in accordance with 7-4.5.3.1 (a) or (b) in lieu of the method 
described in 7-4.5.3.1 (c). 

Where 7-4.5.3. 1(b) or (c) is used, the flowmeter shall be 
adjusted immediately prior to conducting the test in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. If the test results 
are not consistent with the previous annual test, 7-4.5.3.1 (a) 
shall be used. If testing in accordance with 7-4.5.3. 1(a) is not 
possible, a flowmeter calibration shall be performed and the 
test shall be repeated. (25:5-3.3.1) 

7-4.5.3.2 The pertinent visual observations, measurements, 
and adjustments specified in 7-4.5.3.2.1 and 7-4.5.3.2.2 shall be 
conducted annually while the pump is running and flowing 
water under the specified output condition. (25:5-3.3.2) 

7-4.5.3.2.1 At No-Flow Condition (Churn). (Conduct this test 
first.) 

(a) Check the circulation relief valve for operation to dis- 
charge water. (See 9-5.5 of NFPA 25.) 

(b) Check the pressure relief valve (if installed) for proper 
operation. (See 9-5.5 of NFPA 25.) 

(c) Continue the test for l / 2 hour. (25:5-3.3.2.1) 



7-4.5.3.2.2 At Each Flow Condition. 

(a) Record the electric motor voltage and current (all 
lines) . 

(b) Record the pump speed in rpm. 

(c) Record the simultaneous (approximately) readings of 
pump suction and discharge pressures and pump discharge 
flow. 

(d) Observe the operation of any alarm indicators or any 
visible abnormalities. (See 9-5.5.1.1 of NFPA 25.) (25:5-3.3.2.2) 

7-4.5.3.3 For installations having a device installed to control 
minimum suction pressure by throttling action, low suction 
pressure on the device (below set minimum value) shall be 
simulated while pumping at the rated flow. Throttling action 
shall be observed for any abnormality (e.g., cavitation, pres- 
sure surges, failure to throttle). The simulated low suction 
pressure on the device shall be removed and throttling action 
again shall be observed for any abnormality as the pump 
returns to full flow. (25:5-3.3.3) 

7-4.5.3.4 For installations having an automatic transfer switch, 
the following test shall be performed to ensure that the over- 
current protective devices (i.e., fuses or circuit breakers) do 
not open. Normal power failure shall be simulated while the 
pump is delivering peak power output to cause connection of 
the pump motor to the alternate power source. The pump's 
peak power output shall be restored (if necessary) . The simu- 
lated normal power failure condition then shall be removed, 
which, after a time delay, shall cause the reconnection of the 
pump motor to the normal power source. (25:5-3.3.4) 

7-4.5.3.5 Alarm conditions shall be simulated by activating 
alarm circuits at alarm sensor locations, and all such local or 
remote alarm indicating devices (visual and audible) shall be 
observed for operation. (25:5-3.3.5) 

7-4.5.4 Other Tests. 

7-4.5.4.1 Engine generator sets supplying emergency or 
standby power to fire pump assemblies shall be tested rou- 
tinely in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems. (25:5-3.4.1) 

7-4.5.4.2 Automatic transfer switches shall be tested routinely 
and exercised in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emer- 
gency and Standby Power Systems. (25:5-3.4.2) 

7-4.5.4.3 Tests of appropriate environmental pump room 
space conditions (e.g., heating, ventilation, illumination) shall 
be made to ensure proper manual or automatic operation of 
the associated equipment. (25:5-3.4.3) 

7-4.5.5 Test Results and Evaluation. 

7-4.5.5.1 The interpretation of the test results shall be the 
basis of the determination of adequacy of the pump assembly. 
Such interpretation shall be made by those skilled in such mat- 
ters. (25:5-3.5.1) 

7-4.5.5.2* The pump test curve shall be compared to the 
unadjusted field acceptance test curve and the previous 
annual test curve (s). Increasing engine speed beyond the 
rated speed of the pump at rated condition is not an accept- 
able method for meeting the rated pump performance. Theo- 
retical factors for correction to the rated speed shall not be 
applied where determining the compliance of the pump per 
the test. (25:5-3.5.2) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



7-4.5.5.3 Current and voltage readings whose product does not 
exceed the product of the rated voltage and rated full-load cur- 
rent multiplied by the permitted motor service factor shall be 
considered acceptable. Voltage readings at the motor within 5 
percent below or 10 percent above the rated (i.e., nameplate) 
voltage shall be considered acceptable. (25:5-3.5.3) 

7-4.5.5.4 The pump shall be capable of supplying the maxi- 
mum system demand. (25:5-3.5.4) 

7-4.6 Pump Operation. In the event of fire pump operation, 
qualified personnel shall respond to the fire pump location to 
determine that the fire pump is operating in a satisfactory 
manner. (20:1-5) 

7-4.7 Operation and Maintenance for Diesel Drive Pumps. 

7-4.7.1 Weekly Run. Engines shall be started no less than 
once a week and run for no less than 30 minutes to attain nor- 
mal running temperature. They shall run smoothly at rated 
speed. (20:8-6.1) 

7-4.7.2* System Performance. Engines shall be kept clean, 
dry, and well lubricated to ensure adequate performance. 
(20:8-6.2) 

7-4.7.3 Battery Maintenance. 

7-4.7.3.1 Storage batteries shall be kept charged at all times. 
They shall be tested frequendy to determine the condition of 
the battery cells and the amount of charge in the battery. 
(20:8-6.3.1) 

7-4.7.3.2 Only distilled water shall be used in battery cells. 
The plates shall be kept submerged at all times. (20:8-6.3.2) 

7-4.7.3.3 The automatic feature of a battery charger shall not 
be a substitute for proper maintenance of battery and charger. 
Periodic inspection of both shall be made. This inspection 
shall determine that the charger is operating correcdy, the 
water level in the battery is correct, and the battery is holding 
its proper charge. (20:8-6.3.3) 

7-4.7.4 Fuel Supply Maintenance. The fuel storage tanks 
shall be kept as full as possible at all times, but never less than 
50 percent of tank capacity. The tanks shall always be filled by 
means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign mate- 
rial. (20:8-6.4) 

7-4.7.5* Fire Pump Maintenance. A preventive maintenance 
program shall be established on all components of the pump 
assembly in accordance with the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations. Records shall be maintained on all work performed 
on the pump, driver, controller, and auxiliary equipment. 

In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations for 
preventive maintenance, Table 5-5.1 of NFPA 25, Standard far 
the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protec- 
tion Systems, provides alternative requirements. (25:5-5.1) 

7-5 Water Supply. 

7-5.1 Private fire service mains shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems and NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire 
Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. 

7-5.2 Where no piped water supply exists, the requirements of 
NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural 
Fire Fighting, shall apply. 

7-5.3* The installation of devices to protect the public water 
supply from contamination shall comply with the provisions of 



NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, or 
NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains 
and their Appurtenances, and the plumbing code of the jurisdic- 
tion. Backflow prevention devices shall be inspected, tested, 
and maintained in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 
25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water- 
Based Fire Protection Systems. 

7-5 A Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

7-5.4.1 A private fire service main installed in accordance with 
this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the 
same level of performance and protection as designed. The 
owner shall be responsible for maintaining the system and 
keeping it in good working condition. 

7-5.4.2 A private fire service main installed in accordance with 
this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

7-6 Portable Extinguishers. 

7-6.1 General Requirements. 

7-6.1.1 The installation, maintenance, selection, and distribu- 
tion of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with 
this section and NFPA 10, Standardfor Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

7-6.1.2 Portable fire extinguishers used to comply with NFPA 
10 shall be listed and labeled and meet or exceed all the 
requirements of one of the fire test standards and one of the 
appropriate performance standards shown below: 

(1) Fire Test Standards. ANSI/UL 711, CAN/ULC-S508-M90 

(2) Performance Standards 

a. Carbon Dioxide Types. ANSI/UL 154, CAN/ULC- 
S503-M90 

b. Dry Chemical Types. ANSI/UL 299, CAN/ULC-S504- 
M86 

c. Water Types. ANSI/UL 626, CAN/ULC-S507-92 

d. Halon Types. ANSI/UL 1093, CAN/ULC-S512-M87 

e. Film-Forming Foam Types. ANSI/UL 8 (10:1-4.3) 

7-6.1.3 Where Required. Fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where required by this Code and the referenced codes and 
standards listed in Chapter 32. 

7-6.1.4 The classification of fire extinguishers shall consist of 
a letter that indicates the class of fire on which a fire extin- 
guisher has been found to be effective, preceded by a rating 
number (Class A and Class B only) that indicates the relative 
extinguishing effectiveness. 

Exception: Fire extinguishers classified for use on Class Q Class D, or 
Class K hazards shall not be required to have a number preceding the 
classification letter. (10:1-6.1) 

7-6.1.5 Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully 
charged and operable condition, and kept in their designated 
places at all times when they are not being used. (10:1-6.2) 

7-6.1.6 Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located 
where they will be readily accessible and immediately available 
in the event of fire. Preferably they shall be located along nor- 
mal paths of travel, including exits from areas. (10:1-6.3) 

7-6.1.7 The following types of fire extinguishers are consid- 
ered obsolete and shall be removed from service: 

(1) Soda acid 

(2) Chemical foam (excluding film-forming agents) 



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(3) Vaporizing liquid (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) 

(4) Cartridge-operated water 

(5) Cartridge-operated loaded stream 

(6) Copper or brass shell (excluding pump tanks) joined by 
soft solder or rivets (10:1-6.4) 

7-6.1.8 Cabinets housing fire extinguishers shall not be 
locked. 

Exception: Where fire extinguishers are subject to malicious use, 
locked cabinets shall be permitted to be used, provided they include 
means of emergency access. (10:1-6.5) 

7-6.1.9* Fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or 
obscured from view. 

Exception: In large rooms, and in certain locations where visual ob- 
struction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to in- 
dicate the location. (10:1-6.6) 

7-6.1.10* Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled 
types shall be securely installed on the hanger or in the 
bracket supplied or placed in cabinets or wall recesses. The 
hanger or bracket shall be securely and properly anchored to 
the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. Wheeled-type fire extinguishers shall be located 
in a designated location. (10:1-6.7) 

7-6.1.11 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in brackets 
specifically designed to cope with this problem. (10:1-6.8) 

7-6.1.12 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to physical damage, (e.g., from impact, vibra- 
tion, the environment) shall be adequately protected. (10:1-6.9) 

7-6.1.13 Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceed- 
ing 40 lb ( 1 8. 1 4 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the fire 
extinguisher is not more than 5 ft (1.53 m) above the floor. 
Fire extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 lb 
(18.14 kg) (except wheeled types) shall be so installed that the 
top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 3V 2 ft (1.07 m) 
above the floor. In no case shall the clearance between the bot- 
tom of the fire extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 in. 
(10.2 cm). (10:1-6.10) 

7-6.1.14 Extinguisher operating instructions shall be located 
on the front of the extinguisher and be clearly visible. Hazard- 
ous materials identification systems (HMIS) labels, six-year 
maintenance labels, hydrotest labels, or other labels shall not 
be located or placed on the front of the extinguisher. 

Exception: Original manufacturer's labels, labels that specifically re- 
late to the extinguisher's operation or fire classification, or inventory 
control labels specific to that extinguisher. (10:1-6.11) 

7-6.1.15 Fire extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall recesses 
shall be placed so that the fire extinguisher operating instruc- 
tions face outward. The location of such fire extinguishers shall 
be marked conspicuously. (See 7-6.1.9.) (10:1-6.12) 

7-6.1.16* Where fire extinguishers are installed in closed cabi- 
nets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabinets shall 
be provided with screened openings and drains. (10:1-6.13) 

7-6.1.17* Water-type (e.g., water, AFFF, FFFP) fire extinguish- 
ers shall not be installed in areas where the temperatures are 
outside the range of 40°F to 120°F (4°C to 49°C). All other 
types shall not be installed in areas where temperatures are 
outside the range of -40°F to 120°F (-40°C to 49°C). Fire extin- 



guishers shall not be exposed to temperatures outside of the 
range shown on the fire extinguisher label. 

Exception No. 1: Where fire extinguishers are installed in locations 
subject to temperatures outside these ranges, they shall be of a type ap- 
proved and listed for the temperature to which they are exposed, or they 
shall be placed in an enclosure capable of maintaining the stipulated 
temperature range. 

Exception No. 2: Fire extinguishers containing plain water only can be 
protected to temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) by the addition of an 
antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extinguisher nameplate. Calcium 
chloride solutions shall not be used in stainless steel fire extinguishers. 

Exception No. 3: Some fire extinguishers are approved or listed for use 
at temperatures as low as -65°F (-54°C). (10:1-6.14) 

7-6.1.18* The owner or the owner's agent shall be provided 
with a fire extinguisher instruction manual that details con- 
densed instructions and cautions necessary to the installation, 
operation, inspection, and maintenance of the fire extin- 
guisher (s). The manual shall refer to NFPA 10 as a source of 
detailed instruction. (10:1-6.15) 

7-6.2 Selection of Fire Extinguishers. 

7-6.2.1* The selection of fire extinguishers for a given situation 
shall be determined by the character of the fires anticipated, 
the construction and occupancy of the individual property, the 
vehicle or hazard to be protected, ambient-temperature condi- 
tions, and other factors (see Table A-7-6.2.1). The number, size, 
placement, and limitations of use of fire extinguishers required 
shall meet the requirements of Chapter 3 of NFPA 10. (10:2-1) 

7-6.2.1.1* Use of halogenated agent fire extinguishers shall 
be limited to applications where a clean agent is necessary to 
extinguish fire efficiently without damaging the equipment or 
area being protected, or where the use of alternate agents can 
cause a hazard to personnel in the area. 

Exception: Halon agent types of fire extinguishers installed before Jan- 
uary 1, 1991. (10:2-1.1) 

7-6.2.1.2 Placement of portable fire extinguishers containing 
halogenated agents shall conform to any minimum volume 
limitations warnings contained on the fire extinguisher name- 
plates. (10:2-1.1.1) 

7-6.2.1.3* Fire extinguishers for protecting Class A hazards 
shall be selected from the following: 

(1) Water type 

(2) Halogenated agent type (For halon agent-type fire extin- 
guishers, see 7-6.2.1.1.) 

(3) Multipurpose dry chemical type 

(4) Wet chemical type (10:2-2.1.1) 

7-6.2.1.4 Fire extinguishers for protection of Class B hazards 
shall be selected from the following: 

(1) Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) 

(2) Film-forming fluoroprotein foam (FFFP) 

(3) Carbon dioxide 

(4) Dry chemical type 

(5) Halogenated agent type (For halon agent— type fire extin- 
guishers, see 7-6.2.1.1.) (10:2-2.1.2) 

7-6.2.1.5* Fire extinguishers for protection of Class C haz- 
ards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed for 
use on Class C hazards. (For halon agent-type fire extinguishers, 
see 7-6.2.1.1.) (10:2-2.1.3) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table 7-6.3.2.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards 



Light (Low) 
Hazard Occupancy 



Ordinary (Moderate) 
Hazard Occupancy 



Extra (High) 
Hazard Occupancy 



Minimum rated single extinguisher 
Maximum floor area per unit of A 
Maximum floor area for extinguisher 
Maximum travel distance to extinguisher 



2-At 


2-A+ 


4-A* 


3000 ft 2 


1500 ft 2 


1000 ft 2 


1,250 ft 2 ** 


11,250 ft 2 ** 


11,250 ft 2 ** 


75 ft 


75 ft 


75 ft 



For SI units: 1 ft = 0.305 m; 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 

*Two 2 V2 -gal (9.46-L) water-type extinguishers can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

**SeeE-3.3ofNFPA10. 

tUp to two water-type extinguishers, each with 1-A rating, can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 2A rated extinguisher. (10:Table 3-2.1) 



7-6.2.1.6* Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for the 
protection of Class D hazards shall be of types approved for 
use on the specific combustible-metal hazard. (10:2-2.1.4) 

7-6.2.1.7 Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for the 
protection of Class K hazards shall be selected from either a 
wet chemical type or dry chemical type. (10:2-2.1.5) 

7-6.3 Distribution of Extinguishers. 

7-6.3.1 General. 

7-6.3.1.1 Required building protection shall be provided by 
fire extinguishers suitable for Class A fires. (10:3-1.2.1) 

7-6.3.1.2* Occupancy hazard protection shall be provided by 
fire extinguishers suitable for such Class A, B, C, D, or K fire 
potentials as might be present. (10:3-1.2.2) 

7-6.3.2 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A 
Fires. 

7-6.3.2.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades 
of hazards shall be provided on the basis of Table 7-6.3.2.1, 
except as modified by 7-6.3.2.3. Fire extinguishers shall be 
located so that the maximum travel distances shall not exceed 
those specified in Table 7-6.3.2.1 , except as modified by 7-6.3.2.3. 
(See Appendix E ofNFPA 10.) ( 10:3-2. 1 ) 

7-6.3.2.2 Certain smaller fire extinguishers that are charged 
with a multipurpose dry chemical or a halogenated agent are 
rated on Class B and Class C fires, but have insufficient effec- 
tiveness to earn the minimum 1-A rating even though they 
have value in extinguishing smaller Class A fires. They shall 
not be used to meet the requirements of 7-6.3.2.1. (10:3-2.1.1) 

7-6.3.2.3 Up to one-half of the complement of fire extinguish- 
ers as specified in Table 7-6.3.2.1 shall be permitted to be 
replaced by uniformly spaced lVrin. (3.81-cm) hose stations 
for use by the occupants of the building. Where hose stations 
are so provided, they shall conform to NFPA 14, Standard for 
the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. 
The location of hose stations and the placement of fire extin- 
guishers shall be such that the hose stations do not replace 
more than every other fire extinguisher. (10:3-2.2) 

7-6.3.2.4 Where the area of the floor of a building is less 
than that specified in Table 7-6.3.2.1, at least one fire extin- 
guisher of the minimum size recommended shall be pro- 
vided. (10:3-2.3) 

7-6.3.2.5 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher rating, provided 



the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 75 ft (22.7 m) . (10:3-2.4) 

7-6.3.3 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B Fires 
Other than for Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appreciable 
Depth. 

7-6.3.3.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed 
grades of hazard shall be provided on the basis of Table 
7-6.3.3.1. Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maxi- 
mum travel distances do not exceed those specified in the 
table used. (See Appendix E of NFPA 10.) 

Exception: Fire extinguishers of lesser rating, desired for small specific 
hazards within the general hazard area, can be used, but shall not be 
considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of Table 7-6.3.3. 1. 
(10:3-3.1) 

Table 7-6.3.3.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for 
Class B Hazards 







Maximum Travel 






Distance to 






Extinguishers 


Type of Hazard 


Extinguisher Rating 


ft 


m 


Light (low) 


5-B 


30 


9.15 




10-B 


50 


15.25 


Ordinary (moderate) 


10-B 


30 


9.15 




20-B 


50 


19.25 


Extra (high) 


40-B 


30 


9.15 




80-B 


50 


15.25 



Notes: 

1. The specified ratings do not imply that fires of the magnitudes in- 
dicated by these ratings will occur, but rather they are provided to give 
the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires that 
could occur. 

2. For fires involving water-soluble flammable liquids, see 2-3.4 of 
NFPA 10. 

3. For specific hazard applications, see Section 2-3 ofNFPA 10. 
(10:Table 3-3.1) 

7-6.3.3.2 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower rating 
shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of 
Table 7-6.3.3.1. 

Exception No. 1: Up to three AFFF or FFFPfire extinguishers of at 
least 2 ! / 2 -gal (9.46-L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill 
extra (high) hazard requirements. 

Exception No. 2: Two AFFF or FFFPfire extinguishers of at least 
l 1 / 2 -gal (6-L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill ordi- 
nary (moderate) hazard requirements. (10:3-3.2) 



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7-6.3.3.3 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher ratings, provided 
the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). (10:3-3.3) 

7-6.3.4* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B 
Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appreciable Depth. 

7-6.3.4.1* Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as 
the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of apprecia- 
ble depth where the surface area exceeds 10 ft 2 (0.93 m 2 ). 

Exception: Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in 
the protected hazards are available on the premises, the maximum sur- 
face area shall not exceed 20 ft 2 (1.86m 2 ). (10:3-4.1) 

7-6.3.4.2 For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth, a 
Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the basis of at 
least two numerical units of Class B extinguishing potential per 
ft 2 (0.0929 m 2 ) of flammable liquid surface of the largest haz- 
ard area. (For fires involving cooking grease or water-soluble 
flammable liquids, see 2-3.2 and 2-3.4 of NFPA 10, Standard for 
Portable Fire Extinguishers. ) 

Exception: AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall be permitted to 
beprovided on the basis ofl-B of protection per square foot of hazard. 
(10:3-4.2) 

7-6.3.4.3 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower ratings shall 
not be used in lieu of the fire extinguisher required for the 
largest hazard area. 

Exception: Up to three AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall be 
permitted to be used to fulfill the requirements, provided the sum of the 
Class B ratings meets or exceeds the value required for the largest haz- 
ard area. (10:3-4.3) 

7-6.3.4.4 Travel distances for portable fire extinguishers 
shall not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). (See Appendix E of NFPA 10.) 
(10:3-4.4) 

7-6.3.4.5 Scattered or widely separated hazards shall be individ- 
ually protected. A fire extinguisher in the proximity of a hazard 
shall be carefully located to be accessible in the presence of a 
fire without undue danger to the operator. (10:34.4.1) 

7-6.3.5* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class C 
Fires. Fire extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be required 
where energized electrical equipment can be encountered 
that would require a nonconducting extinguishing medium. 
This requirement includes situations where fire either direcdy 
involves or surrounds electrical equipment. Since the fire itself 
is a Class A or Class B hazard, the fire extinguishers shall be 
sized and located on the basis of the anticipated Class A or 
Class B hazard. (10:3-5) 

7-6.3.6 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class D 
Fires. 

7-6.3.6.1 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents with Class 
D ratings shall be provided for fires involving combustible 
metals. (10:3-6.1) 

7-6.3.6.2 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents (media) 
shall be located not more than 75 ft (23 m) of travel distance 
from the Class D hazard. (See Appendix E-6 of NFPA 10, Standard 
for Portable Fire Extinguishers.) (10:3-6.2) 

7-6.3.6.3 Portable fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents 
(media) for Class D hazards shall be provided in those work 
areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, 
chips, or similarly sized products are generated. (10:3-6.3) 



7-6.3.6.4 Size determination shall be on the basis of the spe- 
cific combustible metal, its physical particle size, area to be 
covered, and recommendations by the fire extinguisher man- 
ufacturer on data from control tests conducted. (10:3-6.4) 

7-6.3.7 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class K 
Fires. 

7-6.3.7.1 Fire extinguishers shall be provided for hazards 
where there is a potential for fires involving combustible cook- 
ing media (vegetable or animal oils and fats). (10:3-7.1) 

7-6.3.7.2 Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 ft 
(9.15 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers. (10:3-7.2) 

7-6.4 Inspection, Maintenance, and Recharging. 

7-6.4.1 General. 

7-6.4.1.1 The owner or designated agent or occupant of a 
property in which fire extinguishers are located shall be 
responsible for such inspection, maintenance, and recharg- 
ing. (See 4-1.2 and 4-1.4 of NFPA 10.) (10:4-1.3) 

7-6.4.1.2* Maintenance, servicing, and recharging shall be 
performed by trained persons having available the appropri- 
ate servicing manual(s), the proper types of tools, recharge 
materials, lubricants, and manufacturer's recommended 
replacement parts or parts specifically listed for use in the fire 
extinguisher. (10:4-1.4) 

7-6.4.1.3* Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected 
when initially placed in service and thereafter at approximately 
30-day intervals. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected at more 
frequent intervals when circumstances require. (10:4-3.1) 

7-6.4.2 Maintenance. 

7-6.4.2.1 Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be subjected to 
maintenance at intervals of not more than 1 year, at the time 
of hydrostatic test, or when specifically indicated by an inspec- 
tion. (10:4-4.1) 

7-6.4.2.2 Fire extinguishers removed from service for mainte- 
nance or recharge shall be replaced by a fire extinguisher suit- 
able for the type of hazard being protected and shall be of at 
least equal rating. (10:4-4.1.4) 

7-6.4.2.3* Maintenance Recordkeeping. Each fire extinguisher 
shall have a tag or label securely attached that indicates the 
month and year the maintenance was performed and that iden- 
tifies the person performing the service. (10:4-4.4) 

7-6.4.2.4 All rechargeable-type fire extinguishers shall be 
recharged after any use or as indicated by an inspection or 
when performing maintenance. (10:4-5.1.1) 

7-6.4.2.5 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed by persons 
trained in pressure testing procedures and safeguards who 
have suitable testing equipment, facilities, and appropriate 
servicing manual (s) available. (10:5-1.2) 

7-6.4.2.6 If, at any time, a fire extinguisher shows evidence of 
dents, mechanical injury, or corrosion to the extent as to indi- 
cate weakness, it shall be condemned or hydrostatically retested 
subject to the provisions of 5-1.4 and 5-1.5 of NFPA 10. 

Exception No. 1: Pump tanks. 

Exception No. 2: Nonrechargeable fire extinguishers other than halo- 
genated agent-types shall be discharged and discarded. 
Exception No. 3: Nonrechargeable halon agent-type fire extinguish- 
ers. (See 4-3.3.3 of NFPA 10.) (10:5-1.3) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



7-6.4.2.7 Examination of Cylinder Condition. Where a fire 
extinguisher cylinder or shell has one or more of the follow- 
ing conditions, it shall not be hydrostatically tested, but shall 
be condemned or destroyed by the owner or at the owner's 
direction: 

(1) *Where repairs by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of 
patching compounds exist 

(2) Where the cylinder threads are worn, corroded, broken, 
cracked, or nicked 

(3) Where there is corrosion that has caused pitting, includ- 
ing pitting under a removable nameplate or nameband 
assembly 

(4) Where the fire extinguisher has been burned in a fire 

(5) Where a calcium chloride type of extinguishing agent was 
used in a stainless steel fire extinguisher 

(6) Where the shell is of copper or brass construction joined 
by soft solder or rivets 

(7) Where the depth of a dent exceeds V 10 of the greatest 
dimension of the dent if not in a weld, or exceeds y 4 in. 
(0.6 cm) if the dent includes a weld 

(8) Where any local or general corrosion, cuts, gouges, or 
dings have removed more than 10 percent of the mini- 
mum cylinder wall thickness 

(9) Where a fire extinguisher has been used for any purpose 
other than that of a fire extinguisher (10:5-1.4) 

7-7 Detection, Alarm, and Communication Systems. 

7-7.1 General. 

7-7.1.1 Where building fire alarm systems or automatic fire 
detectors are required by other sections of this Code, they 
shall be provided in accordance with this section and NFPA 

72, National Fire Alarm Code®. 

7-7.1.2 Applications. Protected premises fire alarm systems 
shall include one or more of the following features: 

(1) Manual alarm signal initiation 

(2) Automatic alarm signal initiation 

(3) Monitoring of abnormal conditions in fire suppression 
systems 

(4) Activation of fire suppression systems 

(5) Activation of fire safety functions 

(6) Activation of alarm notification appliances 

(7) Emergency voice/alarm communications 

(8) Guard's tour supervisory service 

(9) Process monitoring supervisory systems 

(10) Activation of off-premises signals 

(11) Combination systems 

(12) Integrated systems (72:3-3) 

7-7.1.3 All apparatus requiring rewinding or resetting to 
maintain normal operation shall be rewound or reset as 
promptly as possible after each test and alarm. All test signals 
received shall be recorded to indicate date, time, and type. 
(72:7-4.3) 

7-7.2 Where Required. 

7-7.2.1 New Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupancies 
with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with 9.6.1 and 
12.3.4 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Assembly occupancies that are apart of a mixed oc- 
cupancy (see 6.1.14 of NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be served by a 



common fire alarm system, provided that the individual requirements 
of each occupancy are met. 

Exception No. 2: Voice communication or public address systems com- 
plying with 12.3.4.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to comply 
with 9.6.1 of NFPA 101. (101:12.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.2 Existing Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupan- 
cies with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with 9.6.1 and 
13.3.4 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Assembly occupancies that are a part of a mixed oc- 
cupancy (see 6. 1. 14 of NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be served by a 
common fire alarm system, provided that the individual requirements 
of each occupancy are met. 

Exception No. 2: Voice communication or public address systems com- 
plying with 13.3.4.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to comply 
with 9.6.1 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 3: This requirement shall not apply to assembly occu- 
pancies where, in the judgment of the authority having jurisdiction, 
adequate alternative provisions exist or are provided for the discovery 
of a fire and for alerting the occupants promptly. (101:13.3. 4. 1) 

7-7.2.3 New Educational Occupancies. Educational occupan- 
cies shall be provided with a fire alarm system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to buildings with an area 
not exceeding 1000 ft? (93 m 2 ) that contains a single classroom and 
is located not less than 50 ft (15.2 m) from another building. 
(101:14.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.4 Existing Educational Occupancies. Educational occu- 
pancies shall be provided with a fire alarm system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to buildings with an area 
not exceeding 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) that contains a single classroom and 
is located not less than 50 ft (15. 2 m) from another building. 
(101:15.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.5 New Health Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.5.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. (101:183.4.1) 

7-7.2.5.2 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Corridors 
shall be separated from all other areas by partitions complying 
with 18.3.6.2 through 18.3.6.5 of NFPA 101. (See also 18.2.5.9 of 
NFPA 101.) 

Exception No. 1: Spaces shall be permitted to be unlimited in area and 
open to the corridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The spaces are not used for patient sleeping rooms, treatment 
rooms, or hazardous areas. 

(b) The corridors onto which the spaces open in the same smoke 
compartment are protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 18.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
the smoke compartment in which the space is located is protected 
throughout by quick-response sprinklers. 

(c) The open space is protected by an electrically supervised auto- 
matic smoke detection system in accordance with 18.3.4 of NFPA 
101, or the entire space is arranged and located to allow direct super- 
vision by the facility staff from a nurses' station or similar space. 

(d) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 



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Exception No. 2: Waiting areas shall be permitted to be open to the cor- 
ridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The aggregate waiting area in each smoke compartment does 
not exceed 600 ft 2 (55. 7 m 2 ). 

(b) Each area is protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 18.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
each area is arranged and located to allow direct supervision by the 
facility staff from a nursing station or similar space. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 

Exception No. 3:* Spaces for nurses' stations. 

Exception No. 4: Gift shops open to the corridor where protected in ac- 
cordance with 18.3.2.5 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 5: In a limited care facility, group meeting or multipur- 
pose therapeutic spaces shall be permitted to open to the corridor, pro- 
vided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The space is not a hazardous area. 

(b) The space is protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 18.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
the space is arranged and located to allow direct supervision by the 
facility staff from the nurses' station or similar location. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
(101:18.3.6.1) 

7-7.2.5.3* Nursing Homes. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in corridors throughout 
smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms and 
in spaces open to corridors as permitted in nursing homes by 

18.3.6.1 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Corridor systems shall not be required where each pa- 
tient sleeping room is protected by an approved smoke detection system. 
Exception No. 2: Corridor systems shall not be required where patient 
room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with in- 
tegral smoke detectors on the room side installed in accordance with 
their listing provided that the integral detectors provide occupant no- 
tification. (101:18.3.4.5.3) 

7-7.2.6 Existing Health Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.6.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. (101:19.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.6.2 Corridors. An approved automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in all corridors of limited care facili- 
ties. Such system shall be in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Where each patient sleeping room is protected by an 
approved smoke detection system, and a smoke detector is provided at 
smoke barriers and horizontal exits in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101, the corridor smoke detection system shall not be required on 
the patient sleeping room floors. 

Exception No. 2: Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 

19.3.5.2 of NFPA 101. (101:19.3.4.5.1) 

7-7.2.6.3 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Corridors 
shall be separated from all other areas by partitions complying 
with 19.3.6.2 through 19.3.6.5 of NFPA 101. (Seealso 19.2.5.9of 
NFPA 101.) 

Exception No. 1: Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 

19.3.5.3 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted to have spaces that are un- 



limited in size open to the corridor, provided that the following criteria 
are met: 

(a) The spaces are not used for patient sleeping rooms, treatment 
rooms, or hazardous areas. 

(b) The corridors onto which the spaces open in the same smoke 
compartment are protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
the smoke compartment in which the space is located is protected 
throughout by quick-response sprinklers. 

(c) The open space is protected by an electrically supervised auto- 
matic smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of NFPA 
101, or the entire space is arranged and located to allow direct super- 
vision by the facility staff from a nurses' station or similar space. 

(d) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 
Exception No. 2: In smoke compartments protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
19.3.5.3 of NFPA 101, waiting areas shall be permitted to be open to 
the corridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The aggregate waiting area in each smoke compartment does 
not exceed 600 ft 2 (55. 7 m 2 ). 

(b) Each area is protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
each area is arranged and located to allow direct supervision by the 
facility staff from a nursing station or similar space. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
Exception No. 3:* Spaces for nurses' stations. 

Exception No. 4: Gift shops open to the corridor where protected in ac- 
cordance with 19.3.2.5 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 5: Limited care facilities in smoke compartments pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with 19.3.5.3 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted to 
have group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces open to the cor- 
ridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The space is not a hazardous area. 

(b) The space is protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of NFPA 101, or 
the space is arranged and located to allow direct supervision by the 
facility staff from the nurses' station or similar location. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
Exception No. 6: Spaces other than patient sleeping rooms, treatment 
rooms, and hazardous areas shall be permitted to be open to the corri- 
dor and unlimited in area, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The space and the corridors onto which it opens, where located 
in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an electrically super- 
vised automatic smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. 

(b)* Each space is protected by automatic sprinklers, or the fur- 
nishings and furniture, in combination with all other combustibles 
within the area, are of such minimum quantity and arrangement 
that a fully developed fire is unlikely to occur. 

(c) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 
Exception No. 7:* Waiting areas shall be permitted to be open to the 
corridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) Each area does not exceed 600 ft 2 (55. 7 m 2 ). 

(b) The area is equipped with an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 of NFPA 101. 

(c) The area does not obstruct any access to required exits. 
Exception No. 8: In a limited care facility, group meeting or multipur- 
pose therapeutic spaces, other than hazardous areas, that are under 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



continuous supervision by facility staff shall be permitted to be open to 
the corridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) Each area does not exceed 1500 ft 2 (140 m 2 ). 

(b) Not more than one such space is permitted per smoke com- 
partment. 

(c) The area is equipped with an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4 ofNFPA 101. 

(d) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
(202:19.3.6.1) 

7-7.2.7 New Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

7-7.2.7.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 
9.6 of NFPA 101, except as modified by 22.3.4.1.2 through 
22.3.4.4 of NFPA 101. (101:22.5.4.1.1) 

7-7.2.7.2* An approved automatic smoke detection system 
shall be in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101, as modi- 
fied by 7-7.2.7.2.1 through 7-7.2.7.2.3, throughout all resident 
sleeping areas and adjacent day rooms, activity rooms, or con- 
tiguous common spaces. (101:22. 3.4.4) 

7-7.2.7.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping 
rooms with four or fewer occupants. (202:22.3.4.4.1) 

7-7.2.7.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, 
or for other purposes. Such arrangements shall be capable of 
detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors shall be 
such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided 
by the spacing and arrangements required by the installation 
standards referenced in Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. Detectors 
shall be permitted to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, 
behind grilles, or in other locations. The equivalent perfor- 
mance of the design, however, shall be acceptable to the 
authority having jurisdiction in accordance with the equiva- 
lency concepts specified in Section 1.5 of NFPA 101. 
(101:22.3.4.4.2) 

7-7.2.7.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use 
Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within 
the dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied. 
(202:22.3.4.4.3) 

7-7.2.8 Existing Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

7-7.2.8.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 
9.6 of NFPA 101, except as modified by 23.3.4.1.2 through 
23.3.4.4 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: Existing systems lacking the monitoring of wiring required 
by 9.6.1.6 ofNFPA 101 shall be permitted to be continued in use in 
buildings protected by a complete automatic extinguishing system. 
(101:23.3.4.1.1) 

7-7.2.8.2 An approved automatic smoke detection system 
shall be in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101, as modi- 
fied by 7-7.2.8.2.1 through 7-7.2.8.2.4, throughout all resident 
housing areas. (202:23.3.4.4) 

7-7.2.8.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping 
rooms with four or fewer occupants in Use Condition II or Use 
Condition III. (202:23.3.4.4.1) 

7-7.2.8.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, 
or for other purposes. Such arrangements shall be capable of 
detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors shall be 



such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided 
by the spacing and arrangements required by the installation 
standards referenced in Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. Detectors 
shall be permitted to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, 
behind grilles, or in other locations. The equivalent perfor- 
mance of the design, however, shall be acceptable to the 
authority having jurisdiction in accordance with the equiva- 
lency concepts specified in Section 1.5 of NFPA 101. 
(202:23.3.4.4.2) 

7-7.2.8.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use 
Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within 
the dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied and the 
building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101. (202:23.3.4.4.3) 

7-7.2.8.2.4 In smoke compartments protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
23.3.5.3 ofNFPA 101, smoke detectors shall not be required, 
except in corridors, common spaces, and sleeping rooms with 
more than four occupants. (202:23.3.4.4.4) 

7-7.2.9 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

7-7.2.9.1 A fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101, except as modified by 28.3.4.2 through 28.3.4.5 of 
NFPA 101, shall be provided. (202:28.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.9.2 A corridor smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 ofNFPA 101 shall be provided. 
Exception: Buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 28.3.5. 1 ofNFPA 
101. (101:28.3.4.4) 

7-7.2.9.3* An approved single-station smoke alarm shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 in every 
guest room and every living area and sleeping room within a 
guest suite. (202:28.3.4.5) 

7-7.2.10 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

7-7.2.10.1 Afire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 
ofNFPA 101, except as modified by 29.3.4.2 through 29.3.4.5 
of NFPA 101, shall be provided. 

Exception: Buildings where each guest room has exterior exit access in 
accordance with 7.5.3 ofNFPA 101, and the building does not exceed 
three stories in height. (101:29.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.10.2 An approved single-station smoke alarm shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 in every 
guest room and every living area and sleeping room within a 
guest suite. These alarms shall not be required to be intercon- 
nected. Single-station smoke alarms without a secondary 
(standby) power source shall be permitted. (202:29.3.4.5) 

7-7.2.11 New Apartment Buildings. 

7-7.2.11.1 Apartment buildings with more than three stories 
or with more than 1 1 dwelling units shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 ofNFPA 101, 
except as modified by 30.3.4.2 through 30.3.4.5 ofNFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Where each dwelling unit is separated from other 
contiguous dwelling units by fire barriers (see 8.2.3 of NFPA 101) 
having afire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, and where each 
dwelling unit has either its own independent exit or its own indepen- 
dent stairway or ramp discharging at grade- 
Exception No. 2: Buildings that are protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 30.3.5.1 of 



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1-49 



NFPA 101, that do not exceed four stories in height, and that contain 
not more than 16 dwelling units. (101:30.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.11.2* Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 outside 
every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms 
and on all levels of the dwelling unit, including basements. 
(202:30.3.4.5.1) 

7-7.2.11.3 Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 in every 
sleeping room. 

Exception: In buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised, automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 30.3.5 of NFPA 
101. (101:30.3.4.5.2) 

7-7.2.12 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

7-7.2.12.1 Apartment buildings with more than three stories 
or with more than 1 1 dwelling units shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101, 
except as modified by 31.3.4.2 through 31.3.4.5 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: Where each dwelling unit is separated from other contigu- 
ous dwelling units by fire barriers (see 8.2.3 of NFPA 101) having a 
fire resistance rating of not less than V2 hour, and where each dwell- 
ing unit has either its own independent exit or its own independent 
stairway or ramp discharging at grade. (101:31.3.4. 1) 

7-7.2.12.2 Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 outside 
every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms 
and on all levels of the dwelling unit, including basements. 

Exception No. 1: The single-station smoke alarm shall not be required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an existing, complete 
automatic smoke detection system. 

Exception No. 2: Single-station smoke alarms without a secondary 
(standby) power source shall be permitted. (101:31.3.4.5. 1) 

7-7.2.13 Lodging and Rooming Houses. 

7-7.2.13.1 Lodging and rooming houses shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception: Existing lodging and rooming houses that have an exist- 
ing smoke detection system meeting or exceeding the requirements of 
7-7.2.13.2 where that detection system includes not less than one 
manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the smoke detec- 
tion alarm. (101:26.3.3.1) 

7-7.2.13.2 Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 in every 
sleeping room. Such smoke alarms shall not be required to be 
interconnected. 

Exception: Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, rather than house 
electric-powered smoke alarms, shall be permitted where the facility has 
demonstrated to the authority having jurisdiction that the testing, 
maintenance, and battery replacement programs will ensure reliability 
of power to the smoke alarms. (101:26.3.3.5) 

7-7.2.14 One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Approved, single- 
station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with 
9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 in the following locations: 

(1) All sleeping rooms 

Exception: Smoke alarms shall not be required in sleeping rooms in ex- 
isting one- and two-family dwellings. 



(2) Outside of each separate sleeping area, in the immediate 
vicinity of the sleeping rooms 

(3) On each level of the dwelling unit, including basements 

Exception No. 1: Dwelling units protected by an approved smoke de- 
tection system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101 and 
equipped with an approved means of occupant notification. 

Exception No. 2: In existing one- and two-family dwellings approved 
smoke alarms powered by batteries shall be permitted. (101:24.3.4) 

7-7.2.15 New Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.15.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations for 
not More than 16 Residents. 

7-7.2.15.1.1 A manual fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. (202:32.2.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.15.1.2 Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in 
accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101. Smoke alarms shall be 
installed on all levels, including basements but excluding 
crawl spaces and unfinished attics. Additional smoke alarms 
shall be installed for all living areas as defined in 3.3.13.3 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception: Smoke alarms shall not be required in buildings protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with 7-3.2.16.2. (101:32.2.3.4.3.1) 

7-7.2.15.1.3 Each sleeping room shall be provided with an 
approved, listed single-station smoke alarm in accordance 
with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101. (202:32.2.3.4.3.2) 

7-7.2.15.2 Large Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations for 
not More than 16 Residents. 

7-7.2.15.2.1 A fire alarm system in accordance with Section 
9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be provided. (207 .-32.3.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.15.2.2 Each sleeping room shall be provided with an 
approved smoke alarm in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 
101 that is powered from the building electrical system. 
(102:32.3.3.4.7) 

7-7.2.15.2.3 All living areas as defined in 3.3.13.3 of NFPA 101 
and corridors shall be provided with smoke detectors in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, that are 
arranged to initiate an alarm that is audible in all sleeping 
areas. 

Exception No. 1: Detectors shall not be required in living areas in fa- 
cilities protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 7-3.2.16.1. 

Exception No. 2: Unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, colon- 
nades, or other arrangements with one or more sides along the long di- 
mension fully or extensively open to the exterior at all times. 
(202:32.3.3.4.8) 

7-7.2.16 Existing Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.16.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations for 
not More than 16 Residents. 

7-7.2.16.1.1 A manual fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Where there are interconnected smoke detectors meet- 
ing the requirements of 7-7.2.16.1.2 and there is not less than one 
manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to continuously sound the 
smoke detector alarms. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Exception No. 2: Other manually activated continuously sounding 
alarms acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:33.2.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.16.1.2* Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in 
accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101. These alarms shall be 
powered from the building electrical system and, when acti- 
vated, shall initiate an alarm that is audible in all sleeping 
areas. Smoke alarms shall be installed on all levels, including 
basements but excluding crawl spaces and unfinished attics. 
Additional smoke alarms shall be installed for living rooms, 
dens, day rooms, and similar spaces. 

Exception No. 1: Buildings protected throughout by an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system, in accordance with 7-3.2.17.2 that uses 
quick-response or residential sprinklers, and protected with approved 
smoke alarms installed in each sleeping room, in accordance with 
9. 6.2.10 of NFPA 101, that are powered by the building electrical sys- 
tem. 

Exception No. 2: Where buildings are protected throughout by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system, in accordance with 7-3.2.17.2, 
that uses quick-response or residential sprinklers, with existing battery- 
powered smoke alarms in each sleeping room, and where, in the opin- 
ion of the authority having jurisdiction, the facility has demonstrated 
that testing maintenance, and a battery replacement program ensure 
the reliability of power to the smoke alarms. (101:33.2.3.4.3) 

7-7.2.16.2 Large Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations for 
not More than 16 Residents. 

7-7.2.16.2.1 A fire alarm system in accordance with Section 
9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be provided. 

Exception: Where each sleeping room has exterior exit access in accor- 
dance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101 and the building is not more than three 
stories in height. (101:33.3.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.16.2.2 Each sleeping room shall be provided with an 
approved smoke alarm in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 
101 that is powered from the building electrical system. 

Exception No. 1: Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, rather than 
building electrical service-powered smoke alarms, shall be accepted 
where, in the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, the facility 
has demonstrated that testing, maintenance, and battery replacement 
programs ensure the reliability of power to the smoke alarms. 

Exception No. 2: Facilities having an existing corridor smoke detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101 that is con- 
nected to the building fire alarm system. (101:33.3.3.4. 7) 

7-7.2.16.2.3 Smoke Detection Systems. All living areas as 
defined in 3.3.13.3 of NFPA 101 and corridors shall be pro- 
vided with smoke detectors in accordance with NFPA 72, 
National Fire Alarm Code, that are arranged to initiate an alarm 
that is audible in all sleeping areas. 

Exception No. 1: Detectors shall not be required in living areas and 
kitchens in facilities protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 7-3.2.17.1. 
Exception No. 2: Unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, colon- 
nades, or other arrangements with one or more sides along the long di- 
mension fully or extensively open to the exterior at all times. 
(101:33.3.3.4.8) 

7-7.2.17 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

7-7.2.17.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 202. (/02.-36.3.4.1) 



7-7.2.17.2 Covered malls shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 
(101:36 .4 .4.3.1) 

7-7.2.17.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 
of NFPA 101. (101 .-36.4.5.4.1) 

7-7.2.18 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

7-7.2.18.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 702.(201:37.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.18.2 Covered malls shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 
(101:37.4.4.3.1) 

7-7.2.18.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 
of NFPA 101. (101:37.4.5.4.1) 

7-7.2.19 New Business Occupancies. A fire alarm system in 
accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be provided in 
any business occupancy where any one of the following condi- 
tions exists: 

(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 50 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 300 or more total occupants. 
(101:38.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.20 Existing Business Occupancies. A fire alarm system 
in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be provided 
in any business occupancy where any one of the following con- 
ditions exists: 

(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 100 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 1000 or more total occu- 
pants. (101:39.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.21 Industrial Occupancies. Industrial occupancies shall 
be provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception: If the total capacity of the building is under 100 persons 
and fewer than 25 persons are above or below the level of exit discharge. 
(101:40.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.22 Storage Occupancies. 

7-7.2.22.1 Storage occupancies shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Storage occupancies limited to low hazard contents. 

Exception No. 2: Storage occupancies with ordinary or high hazard con- 
tents not exceeding an aggregate floor area of 100,000 ft 2 (9300 m 2 ). 

Exception No. 3: Storage occupancies protected throughout by ap- 
proved automatic extinguishment protection. (101:42.3. 4. 1) 

7-7.2.22.2 Parking structures exceeding an aggregate floor 
area of 100,000 ft 2 (9300 m 2 ) shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: Open-air parking structures. 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-51 



Exception No. 2: Parking structures protected throughout by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9. 7 of 
NFPA 101. (101:42.8.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.23 New Day-Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.23.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 
(/0/.-16.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.23.2 A smoke detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be installed in day-care occupan- 
cies, other than those housed in one room. Detectors shall be 
installed on each story in front of the doors to the stairways 
and in the corridors of all floors occupied by the day-care 
occupancy. Detectors also shall be installed in lounges, recre- 
ation areas, and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 
(202:16.3.4.5) 

7-7.2.23.3 Day-Care Homes. 

7-7.2.23.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101. 
(202:16.6.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.23.3.2 Where the day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. (202:16.6.3.4.2) 

7-7.2.23.3.3 Single-station smoke alarms in accordance with 
9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 that are powered by the building electri- 
cal system, or system detectors with integral sounding devices 
in accordance with 9.6.1.4 of NFPA 101, shall be provided in 
all rooms used for sleeping. (101:1 6.6.3.4.3) 

7-7.2.24 Existing Day-Care Occupancies. 

7-7.2.24.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. 
(101:17. 3.4.1) 

7-7.2.24.2 A smoke detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.6 of NFPA 101 shall be installed in day-care occupan- 
cies, other than those housed in one room or those housing 
clients capable of self-preservation if no sleeping facilities are 
provided. Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of 
the doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. Detectors also shall be 
installed in lounges, recreation areas, and sleeping rooms in 
the day-care occupancy. (202:17.3.4.5) 

7-7.2.24.3 Day Care Homes. 

7-7.2.24.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101. (101: 
17.6.3.4.1) 

7-7.2.24.3.2 Where the day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. (101:17.63.4.2) 

7-7.2.24.3.3 Single-station smoke alarms in accordance with 
9.6.2.10 of NFPA 101 that are powered by the building electri- 
cal system, or system detectors with integral sounding devices 



in accordance with 9.6.1.4 of NFPA 101, shall be provided in 
all rooms used for sleeping. 

Exception: Existing battery-powered smoke alarms rather than house 
electrical service-powered smoke alarms shall be permitted where, in the 
opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, the facility has demon- 
strated testing maintenance, and battery replacement programs that 
ensure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. (101:17.6.3.4.3) 

7-7.2.25 New Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies. Ambulatory 
health care facilities shall be provided with fire alarm systems 
in accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101, except as modi- 
fied by 20.3.4.2 through 20.3.4.5 of NFPA 101. (101:20.3 .4.1) 

7-7.2.26 Existing Ambulatory Health Care Occupan- 
cies. Ambulatory health care facilities shall be provided 
with fire alarm systems in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101, except as modified by 21.3.4.2 through 21.3.4.5 
of NFPA 101. (101:21. 3.4.1) 

7-7.2.27 Special Structures and High Rise Buildings. 

7-7.2.27.1 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Sys- 
tems. Towers designed for occupancy by not more than three 
persons shall be exempt from requirements for detection, 
alarm, and communications systems. (201:11.3.3.4) 

7-7.2.27.2 High-Rise Buildings. 

7-7.2.27.2.1* A fire alarm system using an approved, emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 9.6 of NFPA 101. (201:11.8.3.1) 

7-7.2.27.2.2 Two-way telephone communication service shall 
be provided for fire department use. This system shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. The com- 
munications system shall operate between the central control 
station and every elevator car, every elevator lobby, and each 
floor level of exit stairs. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply where the fire department 
radio system is approved as an equivalent system. (101:11.8.3.2) 

7-7.3 Fire Alarm Systems. 

7-7.3.1 Introduction. 

7-7.3.1.1* Fire alarm systems serving two or more zones shall 
identify the zone of origin of the alarm initiation by annunci- 
ation or coded signal. (72:1-5.7.1.2) 

7-7.3.1.2 A device or system having materials or forms that dif- 
fer from those detailed in this code shall be permitted to be 
examined and tested according to the intent of the code and, 
if found equivalent, shall be approved. (72:1-3.2) 

7-7.3.1.3 Equipment constructed and installed in conformity 
with this code shall be listed for the purpose for which it is 
used. (72:1-5.1.2) 

7-7.3.1.4 All fire detection devices that receive their power 
from the initiating device circuit or signaling line circuit of a 
fire alarm control unit shall be listed for use with the control 
unit. (72:1-5.3) 

7-7.3.2 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

7-7.3.2.1* A record of completion (Figure 1-6.2.1 of NFPA 72) 
shall be prepared for each system. Parts 1, 2, and 4 through 10 
shall be completed after the system is installed and the installa- 
tion wiring has been checked. Part 3 shall be completed after the 
operational acceptance tests have been completed. A preliminary 
copy of the record of completion shall be given to the system 



2000 Edition 



1-52 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



owner and, if requested, to other authorities having jurisdiction 
after completion of the installation wiring tests. A final copy shall 
be provided after completion of the operational acceptance tests. 
(72:1-6.2.1) 

7-7.3.2.2 Testing shall be performed in accordance with the 
schedules in Chapter 7 of NFPA 72 or more often if required 
by the authority having jurisdiction. If automatic testing is per- 
formed at least weekly by a remotely monitored fire alarm con- 
Table 7-7.3.2.2 Testing Frequencies 



trol unit specifically listed for the application, the manual 
testing frequency shall be permitted to be extended to annual. 
Table 7-7.3.2.2 shall apply. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety consid- 
erations (for example, continuous process operations, energized electri- 
cal equipment, radiation, and excessive height) shall be tested during 
scheduled shutdowns if approved by the authority having jurisdiction 
but shall not be tested more than every 18 months. (72:7-3.2) 



Component 



Table 
7-2.2 of 
Initial/ NFPA 72 

Reacceptance Monthly Quarterly Semiannually Annually Reference 



1. Control Equipment — Building Systems Connected to 
Supervising Station 

a. Functions 

b. Fuses 

c. Interfaced Equipment 

d. Lamps and LEDs 

e. Primary (Main) Power Supply 

f. Transponders 

2. Control Equipment — Building Systems — Not 
Connected to a Supervising Station 

a. Functions 

b. Fuses 

c. Interfaced Equipment 

d. Lamps and LEDs 

e. Primary (Main) Power Supply 

f. Transponders 

3. Engine-Driven Generator — Central Station Facilities 
and Fire Alarm Systems 

4. Engine-Driven Generator — Public Fire Alarm 
Reporting Systems 

5. Batteries — Central Station Facilities 

a. Lead-Acid Type 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) 

3. Load Voltage Test 

4. Specific Gravity 

b. Nickel-Cadmium Type 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) 

3. Load Voltage Test 

c. Sealed Lead-Acid Type 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) 

3. Load Voltage Test 

6. Batteries — Fire Alarm Systems 

a. Lead-Acid Type 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) 

3. Load Voltage Test 

4. Specific Gravity 



1,7,16,17 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 



6b 



X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


X 





X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 





X 



X 



X 
X 



6c 



6d 



6b 



X 
X 

X 



(Sheet 1 of 3) 



2000 Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-53 



Table 7-7.3.2.2 Testing Frequencies (Continued) 



Component 



Table 
7-2.2 of 
Initial/ NFPA 72 

Reacceptance Monthly Quarterly Semiannually Annually Reference 



b. Nickel-Cadmium Type — 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) X 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) X 

3. Load Voltage Test X 

c. Primary Type (Dry Cell) — 

1. Load Voltage Test X 

d. Sealed Lead-Acid Type — 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery every 4 years.) X 

2. Discharge Test (30 minutes) X 

3. Load Voltage Test X 

7. Batteries — Public Fire Alarm Reporting Systems X (daily) 
Voltage tests in accordance with NFPA 72, Table 7-2.2, item 

7(a)-(f) 

a. Lead-Acid Type — 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) X 

2. Discharge Test (2 hours) X 

3. Load Voltage Test X 

4. Specific Gravity X 

b. Nickel-Cadmium Type — 

1. Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) X 

2. Discharge Test (2 hours) X 

3. Load Voltage Test X 

c. Sealed Lead-Acid Type — 

1 . Charger Test (Replace battery as needed.) X 

2. Discharge Test (2 hours) X 

3. Load Voltage Test X 

8. Fiber-Optic Cable Power X 

9. Control Unit Trouble Signals X 

10. Conductors — Metallic X 

11. Conductors — Nonmetallic X 

12. Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications Equipment X 

13. Retransmission Equipment (The requirements of X 
7-3.4 of NFPA 72 shall apply.) 

14. Remote Annunciators X 

15. Initiating Devices — 

a. Duct Detectors X 

b. Electromechanical Releasing Device X 

c. Fire-Extinguishing System (s) or Suppression X 

System (s) Switches 

d. Fire-Gas and Other Detectors X 

e. Heat Detectors (The requirements of X 

7-3.2.3 of NFPA 72 shall apply.) 

f. Fire Alarm Boxes X 

g. Radiant Energy Fire Detectors X 

h. All Smoke Detectors — Functional X 

i. Smoke Detectors — Sensitivity (The — 
requirements of 7-7.4.4 shall apply.) 

j. Supervisory Signal Devices X 



X 



X 



X 



X 
X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



X 



6c 



X 


— 


X 


— 


— 


6a 





6d 


X 


— 


X 


— 



6b 



6c 



X 


— 


X 


— 





6d 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


12b 


X 


9 


— 


11 


— 


12 


X 


18 


X 


10 


— 


13 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 






(Sheet 2 of 3) 



2000 Edition 



1-54 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table 7-7.3.2.2 Testing Frequencies (Continued) 



Component 



Initial/ 
Reacceptance Monthly Quarterly Semiannually Annually 



Table 

7-2.2 of 

NFPA72 

Reference 



16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 



20 



k. Waterflow Devices (except valve tamper 
switches) 

1. Valve Tamper Switches 

Guard's Tour Equipment 

Interface Equipment 

Special Hazard Equipment 

Alarm Notification Appliances 

a. Audible Devices 

b. Audible Textual Notification Appliances 

c. Visible Devices 
Off-Premises Transmission Equipment 

21. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems — 
Transmitters 

a. DACT 

b.DART 

c. McCulloh 

d. RAT 

22. Special Procedures 

23. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems — Receivers 

a. DACR 

b. DARR 

c. McCulloh Systems 

d. Two-Way RF Multiplex 

e. RASSR 

f. RARSR 

g. Private Microwave 



X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 





X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 




X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 
X 



X 



X 


— 


X 


19 


X 


15 


— 


14 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 






16 



A. 




X 

X 





X 


— 


X 


21 





17 



(Sheet 3 of 3) 



(72:Table 7-3.2) 



7-7.3.3 Manually Actuated Alarm-Initiating Devices. Manual 
fire alarm boxes shall be used only for fire alarm-initiating pur- 
poses. However, combination manual fire alarm boxes and 
guard's signaling stations shall be permitted. (72:2-8) 

7-7.3.3.1 Each manual fire alarm box shall be securely 
mounted. The operable part of each manual fire alarm box 
shall be not less than 3Vjft(l.lm) and not more than 4V2 ft 
(1.37 m) above floor level. (72:2-8.1) 

7-7.3.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located throughout 
the protected area so that they are unobstructed and accessible. 
(72:2-8.2.1) 

7-7.3.3.3 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located within 5 ft 
(1.5 m) of the exit doorway opening at each exit on each floor. 
(72:2-8.2.2) 

7-7.3.3.4* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be pro- 
vided so that the travel distance to the nearest fire alarm box 
will not be in excess of 200 ft (61 m) measured horizontally on 
the same floor. (72:2-8.2.4) 



7-7.3.3.5* A coded manual fire alarm box shall produce at 
least three repetitions of the coded signal, with each repetition 
to consist of at least three impulses. (72:2-8.3) 

7-7.3.4 Central Station Fire Alarm Systems. It shall be con- 
spicuously indicated by the prime contractor (see Chapter 4 of 
NFPA 72) that the fire alarm system providing service at a pro- 
tected premises complies with all applicable requirements of 
NFPA 72, National Fine Alarm Code, by providing a means of veri- 
fication as specified in either 7-7.3.4.1 or 7-7.3.4.2. (72:1-6.2.3) 

7-7.3.4.1 The installation shall be certificated. (72:1-6.2.3.1) 

7-7.3.4.1.1 Central station fire alarm systems providing service 
that complies with all requirements of NFPA 72, National Fire 
Alarm Code, shall be certificated by the organization that has 
listed the prime contractor, and a document attesting to this 
certification shall be located on or near the fire alarm system 
control unit or, where no control unit exists, on or near a fire 
alarm system component. (72:1-6.2.3.1.1) 

7-7.3.4.1.2 A central repository of issued certification docu- 
ments, accessible to the authority having jurisdiction, shall 
be maintained by the organization that has listed the central 
station. (72:1-6.2.3.1.2) 



2000 Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-55 



7-7.3.4.2 The installation shall be placarded. (72:1-6.2.3.2) 

7-7.3.4.2.1 Central station fire alarm systems providing service 
that complies with all requirements of NFPA 72, National Fire 
Alarm Code, shall be conspicuously marked by the prime con- 
tractor to indicate compliance. The marking shall be by means 
of one or more securely affixed placards. (72:1-6.2.3.2.1) 

7-7.3.4.2.2 The placard (s) shall be 20 in. 2 (130 cm 2 ) or 
larger, shall be located on or near the fire alarm system con- 
trol unit or, where no control unit exists, on or near a fire 
alarm system component, and shall identify the central sta- 
tion and, where applicable, the prime contractor by name 
and telephone number. (72:1-6.2.3.2.2) 

7-7.3.5 Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm Service. 

7-7.3.5.1 Automatic fire detectors shall be located, main- 
tained, and tested in accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire 
Alarm Code. 

7-7.3.5.2 Automatic Fire Alarm Signal Initiation. Automatic 
fire alarm-signal initiation devices that have integral trouble 
signal contacts shall be connected to the initiating device cir- 
cuit so that a trouble condition within a device does not impair 
alarm transmission from any other initiating device. 

Exception: Where the trouble condition is caused by electrical discon- 
nection of the device or by removing the initiating device from its plug- 
in base. (72:3-8.3.2.2) 

7-7.3.5.3* Systems equipped with alarm verification features 
shall be permitted, under the following conditions: 

(a) The alarm verification feature is not initially enabled 
unless conditions or occupant activities that are expected to 
cause nuisance alarms are anticipated in the area that is pro- 
tected by the smoke detectors. Enabling of the alarm verifica- 
tion feature shall be protected by password or limited access. 

(b) A smoke detector that is continuously subjected to a 
smoke concentration above alarm threshold does not delay 
the system functions of 1-5.4 of NFPA 72 by more than 1 
minute. 

(c) Actuation of an alarm initiating device other than a 
smoke detector causes the system functions of 1-5.4 of NFPA 
72 without additional delay. 

(d) When the alarm verification feature is enabled, dis- 
abled, or changed, the comments section of the Record of 
Completion (Figure 1-6.2.1, item 10 of NFPA 72) shall be used 
to record the status or change to system operation. (72:3- 
8.3.2.3.1) 

7-7.3.5.4 Systems that require the operation of two automatic 
detectors to initiate the alarm response shall be permitted as 
follows: 

(1) The systems shall not be prohibited by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

(2) There shall be at least two automatic detectors in each 
protected space. 

(3) The alarm verification feature shall not be used. (72:3- 
8.3.2.3.3) 

7-7.3.6 Waterflow Alarm Service. 

7-7.3.6.1 A dry-pipe or preaction sprinkler system that is sup- 
plied with water by a connection beyond the alarm-initiating 
device of a wet-pipe system shall be equipped with a separate 
waterflow alarm-initiating pressure switch or other approved 
means to initiate a waterflow alarm. (72:3-8.3.2.4.1) 



7-7.3.6.2 Automatic fire suppression system alarm-initiating 
devices and supervisory signal-initiating devices and their cir- 
cuits shall be designed and installed so that they cannot be 
subject to tampering, opening, or removal without initiating a 
signal. This provision shall include junction boxes installed 
outside of buildings to facilitate access to the initiating device 
circuit. 

Exception No. 1: Covers of junction boxes inside of buildings. 

Exception No. 2: Tamperproof screws or other equivalent mechanical 
means shall be permitted for preventing access to junction boxes in- 
stalled outside buildings. (72:3-8.3.4.1) 

7-7.3.6.3 The number of waterflow switches permitted to be 
connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not exceed 
five. (72:3-8.3.2.4.2) 

7-7.3.6.4 The number of supervisory devices permitted to be 
connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not exceed 
20. (72:3-8.3.3.1.1) 

7-7.3.6.5* Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 90 
seconds of waterflow at the alarm-initiating device when flow 
occurs that is equal to or greater than that from a single sprin- 
kler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Move- 
ment of water due to waste, surges, or variable pressure shall 
not be indicated. (72:2-6.2) 

7-7.3.7 Monitoring for Integrity. 

7-7.3.7.1* All means of interconnecting equipment, devices, 
and appliances and wiring connections shall be monitored for 
the integrity of the interconnecting conductors or equivalent 
path so that the occurrence of a single open or a single 
ground-fault condition in the installation conductors or other 
signaling channels and their restoration to normal shall be 
automatically indicated within 200 seconds. 

Exception No. 1: Styles of initialing device circuits, signaling line cir- 
cuits, and notification appliance circuits tabulated in Table 3-5, Table 
3-6, and Table 3- 7 of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, that do not 
have an "X" under "Trouble" for the abnormal condition indicated. 

Exception No. 2: Shorts between conductors, other than as required by 
1-5.8.5, 1-5.8.6, 1-5.8.7.1, Table 3-5, Table 3-6, and Table 3-7 of 
NFPA 72 shall not be subject to this requirement. 

Exception No. 3: A noninterfering shunt circuit, provided that a fault 
circuit condition on the shunt circuit wiring results only in the loss of 
the noninterfering feature of operation. 

Exception No. 4: Connections to and between supplementary system 
components, provided that single open, ground, or short-circuit condi- 
tions of the supplementary equipment or interconnecting means, or 
both, do not affect the required operation of the fire alarm system. 

Exception No. 5: The circuit of an alarm notification appliance in- 
stalled in the same room with the central control equipment, provided 
that the notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in con- 
duit or are equivalently protected against mechanical injury. 

Exception No. 6: A trouble signal circuit. 

Exception No. 7:* Interconnection between listed equipment within a 
common enclosure. 

Exception No. 8: Interconnection between enclosures containing con- 
trol equipment located within 20 ft (6 m) of each other where the con- 
ductors are installed in conduit or equivalently protected against 
mechanical injury. 

Exception No. 9: Conductors for ground detection where a single 
ground does not prevent the required normal operation of the system. 



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Exception No. 10: Central station circuits serving notification appli- 
ances within a central station. 

Exception No. 11: Pneumatic rate-ofrise systems of the continuous 
line type in which the wiring terminals of such devices are connected 
in multiple across electrically supervised circuits. 

Exception No. 12: Interconnecting wiring of a stationary computer 
and the computer's keyboard, video monitor, mouse-type device, or 
touch screen, so long as the interconnecting wiring does not exceed 8 ft 
(2. 4 m) in length; is a listed computer/data processing cable as permit- 
ted by NFPA 70, National Electrical Code; and failure of cable does 
not cause the failure of the required system functions not initiated from 
the keyboard, mouse, or touch screen. 

Exception No. 13: Communications and transmission channels ex- 
tending from a supervising station to a subsidiary station(s) or protect- 
ed premises, or both, which are compliant with the requirements of 
Chapter 5 of NFPA 72 and electrically isolated from the fire alarm sys- 
tem (or circuits) by a transmitter(s), are not required to monitor the in- 
tegrity of installation conductors for a ground-fault condition, 
provided that a single ground condition does not affect the required op- 
eration of the fire alarm system. (72:1-5.8.1) 

7-7.3.7.2 Interconnection means shall be arranged so that a 
single break or single ground fault does not cause an alarm sig- 
nal. (72:1-5.8.2) 

7-7.3.7.3 An open, ground, or short-circuit fault on the installa- 
tion conductors of one alarm notification appliance circuit shall 
not affect the operation of any other alarm notification circuit. 
(72:1-5.8.4) 

7-7.3.7.4 The occurrence of a wire-to-wire short-circuit fault 
on any alarm notification appliance circuit shall result in a 
trouble signal at the protected premises. 

Exception No. 1: A circuit employed to produce a supplementary local 
alarm signal, provided that the occurrence of a short circuit on the cir- 
cuit in no way affects the required operation of the fire alarm system. 

Exception No. 2: The circuit of an alarm notification appliance in- 
stalled in the same room with the central control equipment, provided 
that the notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in con- 
duit or are equivalently protected against mechanical injury. 

Exception No. 3: Central station circuits serving notification appli- 
ances within a central station. (72:1-5.8.5) 

7-7.3.8* Power Sources. Fire alarm systems shall be provided 
with at least two independent and reliable power supplies, one 
primary and one secondary (standby), each of which shall be 
of adequate capacity for the application. 

Where dc voltages are employed, they shall be limited to no 
more than 350 volts above earth ground. (72:1-5.2.3). 

Exception No. 1: Where the primary power is supplied by a dedicated 
branch circuit of an emergency system in accordance with NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code, Article 700, or a legally required standby sys- 
tem in accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, Article 
701, a secondary supply shall not be required. 

Exception No. 2: Where the primary power is supplied by a dedicated 
branch circuit of an optional standby system in accordance with NFPA 
70, National Electrical Code, Article 702, which also meets the perfor- 
mance requirements of Article 700 or Article 701, a secondary supply 
shall not be required. 

Where dc voltages are employed, they shall be limited to no 
more than 350 volts above earth ground. (72:1-5.2.3) 



7-7.4 Automatic Fire Detectors. 

7-7.4.1 Before requesting final approval of the installation, if 
required by the authority having jurisdiction, the installing 
contractor shall furnish a written statement stating that the sys- 
tem has been installed in accordance with approved plans and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications 
and the appropriate NFPA requirements. (72:1-6.1.2) 

7-7.4.2 Installation. 

7-7.4.2.1 Where subject to mechanical damage, an initiating 
device shall be protected. A mechanical guard used to protect 
a smoke or heat detector shall be listed for use with the detec- 
tor being used. (72:2-1.3.1) 

7-7.4.2.2 In all cases, initiating devices shall be supported 
independently of their attachment to the circuit conductors. 
(72:2-1.3.2) 

7-7.4.2.3 Detectors shall not be recessed into the mounting 
surface in any manner. 

Exception: If tested and listed for such recessed mounting. (72:2-1.4.1) 

7-7.4.2.4* Spot-type heat-sensing fire detectors shall be 
located on the ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm) from the 
sidewall or on the sidewalls between 4 in. and 12 in. (100 mm 
and 300 mm) from the ceiling. 

Exception No. 1: In the case of solid joist construction, detectors shall 
be mounted at the bottom of the joists. 

Exception No. 2: In the case of beam construction where beams are less 
than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8ft (2.4 m) on center, 
detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the bottom of beams. 
(72:2-2.2.1) 

7-7.4.2.5 Line-type heat detectors shall be located on the ceil- 
ing or on the sidewalls not more than 20 in. (500 mm) from 
the ceiling. 

Exception No. 1: In the case of solid joist construction, detectors shall 
be mounted at the bottom of the joists. 

Exception No. 2: In the case of beam construction where beams are less 
than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center, 
detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the bottom of beams. 

Exception No. 3: If a line-type detector is used in an application other 
than open area protection, the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions shall be followed. (72:2-2.2.2) 

7-7.4.2.6 Spot-type smoke detectors shall be located on the 
ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm) from a sidewall to the near 
edge or, if on a sidewall, between 4 in. and 12 in. (100 mm and 
300 mm) down from the ceiling to the top of the detector. 
(Refer to Figure A-7-7. 4.2.4.) (72:2-3.4.3.1 ) 

7-7.4.2.7* To minimize dust contamination, smoke detectors, 
where installed under raised floors, shall be mounted only in 
an orientation for which they have been listed. (72:2-3.4.3.2) 

7-7.4.2.8 Projected beam-type smoke detectors shall be 
located with their projected beams parallel to the ceiling and 
in accordance with the manufacturer's documented instruc- 
tions. The effects of stratification shall be evaluated when 
locating the detectors. 

Exception: Beams shall be permitted to be installed vertically or at any 
angle needed to afford protection of the hazard involved (for example, 
vertical beams through the open shaft area of a stairwell where there is 
a clear vertical space inside the handrails). (72:2-3.4.4) 



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7-7.4.2.9 Each sampling port of an air sampling-type smoke 
detector shall be treated as a spot-type detector for the pur- 
pose of location and spacing. Maximum air sample transport 
time from the farthest sampling point shall not exceed 120 
seconds. (72:2-3.4.2) 

7-7.4.2.10 Detectors shall not be installed until after the con- 
struction cleanup of all trades is complete and final. 

Exception: Where required by the authority having jurisdiction for pro- 
tection during construction. Detectors that have been installed during 
construction and found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and 
marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned or replaced in accordance with 
Chapter 7 of NFP A 72 at completion of construction. (72:2-3.6.1.3) 

7-7.4.2.1 1 High Air Movement Areas. 

7-7.4.2.11.1 Location. Smoke detectors shall not be located 
direcdy in the airstream of supply registers. (72:2-3.6.6.2) 

7-7.4.2.11.2 Spacing. Smoke detector spacing shall be in 
accordance with Table 2-3.6.6.3 and Figure 2-3.6.6.3 of NFPA 
72. 

Exception: Air-sampling or projected beam smoke detectors installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's documented instructions. 
(72:2-3.6.6.3) 

7-7.4.3 Maintenance and Testing. 

7-7.4.3.1 The maintenance and testing schedules and proce- 
dures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm 
Code. 

7-7.4.3.2 Heat Detectors. 

7-7.4.3.2.1 Fixed-Temperature, Rate-of-Rise, Rate-of-Compen- 
sation, Restorable Line, Spot Type (excluding Pneumatic Tube 
Type). Heat test shall be performed with a heat source per the 
manufacturer's recommendations for response within 1 
minute. A test method shall be used that is recommended by 
the manufacturer or other method shall be used that will not 
damage the nonrestorable fixed-temperature element of a com- 
bination rate-of-rise/fixed-temperature element. (72:Table 
7-2.2, 13, d, 1) 

7-7.4.3.2.2 Fixed-Temperature, Nonrestorable Line Type. Heat 
test shall not be performed. Functionality shall be tested 
mechanically and electrically. Loop resistance shall be mea- 
sured and recorded. Changes from acceptance test shall be 
investigated. (72:Table 7-2.2, 13, d, 2) 

7-7.4.3.2.3 Nonrestorable (General). Heat tests shall not be 
performed. Functionality shall be tested mechanically and 
electrically. (72:Table 7-2.2, 13, d, 4) 

7-7.4.3.2.4 Restorable Line Type, Pneumatic Tube Only. Heat 
tests shall be performed (where test chambers are in circuit) or 
a test with pressure pump shall be conducted. (72:Table 7-2.2, 
13, d, 5) 

7-7.4.3.3 Smoke Detectors. 

7-7.4.3.3.1 Systems Detectors. The detectors shall be tested 
in place to ensure smoke entry into the sensing chamber and 
an alarm response. Testing with smoke or listed aerosol 
approved by the manufacturer shall be permitted as accept- 
able test methods. Other methods approved by the manufac- 
turer that ensure smoke entry into the sensing chamber shall 
be permitted. 



Any of the following tests shall be performed to ensure that 
each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity 
range: 

(1) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit when its sensi- 
tivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test method approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction (72:Table 7-2.2, 13, g, 1) 

7-7.4.3.3.2 Projected Beam Type. The detector shall be tested 
by introducing smoke, other aerosol, or an optical filter into 
the beam path. (72:Table 7-2.2, 13, g, 5) 

7-7.4.3.3.3 A functional test shall be performed on all smoke 
detectors upon initial installation, during reacceptance tests 
and at least annually as required by Table 7-7.3.2.2 (15, h). 

7-7.4.4* Detector sensitivity shall be checked within 1 year after 
installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second 
required calibration test, if sensitivity tests indicate that the 
detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity 
range (or 4 percent obscuration light gray smoke, if not 
marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be 
permitted to be extended to a maximum of 5 years. If the fre- 
quency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms 
and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In 
zones or in areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over 
the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed. 

To ensure that each smoke detector is within its listed and 
marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using any of the fol- 
lowing methods: 

( 1 ) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit where its sen- 
sitivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test methods approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction 

Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and 
marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or 
be replaced. 

Exception No. 1: Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted 
to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and 
cleaned and recalibrated, or they shall be replaced. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to single station de- 
tectors referenced in 7-3.3 and Table 7-2.2 of NFPA 72, National Fire 
Alarm Code. 

The detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured 
using any device that administers an unmeasured concentra- 
tion of smoke or other aerosol into the detector. (72:7-3.2.1) 

7-8 Other Fire Protection Systems. Where other fire protec- 
tion systems are required to be installed by the provisions of 
this Code, or are installed with the approval of the authority 
havingjurisdiction as an alternative or equivalency, the design 
and installation of the system shall comply with the appropri- 
ate standards listed in Table 7-8. The system shall be tested 
and maintained in accordance with Section 1-10. 



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1-58 FIRE PREVENTION CODE 




Table 7-8 Other Required Fire Protection Systems 


Type of System 


NFPA Standard 



Low-expansion foam systems 

Medium- and high-expansion foam systems 

Carbon dioxide systems 

Halon 1301 systems 

Sprinklers in one- and two-family dwellings and 
manufactured homes 

Sprinklers in residential occupancies up to and 
including four stories in height 

Water spray systems 

Deluge foam-water sprinkler, foam-water spray 
systems, and closed-head foam-water sprinkler systems 

Dry chemical extinguishing systems 

Wet chemical extinguishing systems 

Clean agent fire extinguishing systems 



NFPA 11, Standard for Low-Expansion Foam 

NFPA 1 1 A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems 

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 

NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems 

NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- 
and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes 

NFPA 1 3R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Resi- 
dential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height 

NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection 

NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and 
Foam-Water Spray Systems 

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems 



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OCCUPANCY FIRE SAFETY 



1-59 



Chapter 8 Occupancy Fire Safety 

8-1 Assembly Occupancies. 

8-1.1 Application. New and existing assembly occupancies 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-1.2 Operating Features. 

8-1.2.1 Portable Cooking Equipment. Portable cooking 
equipment that is not flue-connected shall be permitted 
only as follows: 

(1) Equipment fueled by small heat sources that can be 
readily extinguished by water, such as candles or alcohol- 
burning equipment, including solid alcohol, shall be per- 
mitted to be used, provided that precautions satisfactory 
to the authority having jurisdiction are taken to prevent 
ignition of any combustible materials. 

(2) Candles shall be permitted to be used on tables used for 
food service where securely supported on substantial 
noncombustible bases located to avoid danger of ignition 
of combustible materials and only where approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

(3) Candle flames shall be protected. 

(4) "Flaming sword" or other equipment involving open 
flames and flamed dishes, such as cherries jubilee or 
crepe suzette, shall be permitted to be used, provided 
that precautions subject to the approval of the authority 
havingjurisdiction are taken. 

(5) *Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food service 
appliances shall be permitted to be used where in accor- 
dance with NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum. Gas Code. 
(101:12.7.1.4; 101:13.7.1.4) 

8-1.2.2 Open Flame Devices and Pyrotechnics. No open 
flame devices or pyrotechnic device shall be used in any assem- 
bly occupancy. 

Exception No. 1: Pyrotechnic special effect devices shall be permitted to 
be used on stages before proximate audiences for ceremonial or religious 
purposes, as part of a demonstration in exhibits, or as part of a perfor- 
mance, provided that precautions satisfactory to the authority having 
jurisdiction are taken to prevent ignition of any combustible material 
and use of the pyrotechnic device complies with NFPA 1126, Standard 
for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a Proximate Audience. 

Exception No. 2: Flame effects before an audience shall be permitted 
in accordance with NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before an 
Audience. 

Exception No. 3: Open flame devices shall be permitted to be used in 
the following situations, provided that precautions satisfactory to the 
authority havingjurisdiction are taken to prevent ignition of any com- 
bustible material or injury to occupants: 

(a)* Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes 

(b) On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance 

(c) Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial 
noncombustible bases and candle flame is protected 

Exception No. 4: This requirement shall not apply to heat-producing 
equipment complying with 9.2.2 of NFPA 101. 
Exception No. 5: This requirement shall not apply to food service op- 
erations in accordance with 12. 7.1 or 13. 7.1 of NFPA 101. 
Exception No. 6: Gas lights shall be permitted to be used, provided 
that precautions subject to the approval of authority havingjurisdic- 
tion are taken to prevent ignition of any combustible materials. 
(101:12. 7.2; 101:13. 7.2) 



8-1.2.3 Furnishings, Decorations, and Scenery. 

8-1.2.3.1 Fabrics and films used for decorative purposes, all 
draperies and curtains, and similar furnishings shall be in 
accordance with the provisions of 8-1.2.3.2. (101:12.7.3.1; 
101:13.7.3.1) 

8-1.2.3.2* Draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as 
demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701 , Stan- 
dardMethods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles andFilms. 
(101:10.3.1) 

8-1.2.3.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. (101:10.3.5) 

8-1.2.3.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions 
encountered in actual use. (101:10.3.6) 

8-1.2.3.5 The authority havingjurisdiction shall impose con- 
trols on the quantity and arrangement of combustible con- 
tents in assembly occupancies to provide an adequate level of 
safety to life from fire. (101:12.7.3.2; 101:13.7.3.2) 

8-1.2.3.6 Exposed foamed plastic materials and unprotected 
materials containing foamed plastic used for decorative pur- 
poses or stage scenery shall have a heat release rate not 
exceeding 100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, 
Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Pur- 
poses. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to individual foamed 
plastic items or items containing foamed plastic where the foamed plas- 
tic does not exceed 1 lb (0.45 kg) in weight. (101:12.7.3.3; 
101:13.7.3.3) 

8-1.2.4 Exposition Facilities and Exhibits. Exposition facili- 
ties and exhibits shall comply with 12-7.4 of NFPA 101 for new 
facilities and 13-7.4 of NFPA 101 for existing facilities. 

8-1.2.5* Crowd Managers. In assembly occupancies having 
occupant loads exceeding 1000, there shall be trained crowd 
managers or crowd manager supervisors at a ratio of 1 crowd 
manager/ supervisor for every 250 occupants. The crowd man- 
ager shall receive approved training in crowd management 
techniques. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to assembly occu- 
pancies used exclusively for religious worship with an occupant load 
not exceeding 2000. 

Exception No. 2: Where, in the opinion of the authority havingjuris- 
diction, the existence of an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system and the nature of the event warrant, the ratio of trained crowd 
managers to occupants shall be permitted to be reduced. (101:12. 7.5; 
101:13.7.5) 

8-1.2.6 Drills. 

8-1.2.6.1 The employees or attendants of assembly occupan- 
cies shall be trained and drilled in the duties they are to per- 
form in case of fire, panic, or other emergency to effect 
orderly exiting. (101:12.7.6.1; 101:13.7.6.1) 

8-1.2.6.2 Employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment where 
provided. (101:12.7.6.2; 101:13.7.6.2) 

8-1.2.6.3 In theaters, motion picture theaters, auditoriums, 
and other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
exceeding 300 where there are noncontinuous programs, an 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



audible announcement shall be made, or a projected image 
shall be shown, prior to the start of each program to notify 
occupants of the location of the exits to be used in case of a 
fire or other emergency. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
in schools where used for nonpublic events. (101:12.7.6.3; 
101:13.7.6.3) 

8-1.2.7 Smoking. 

8-1.2.7.1 Smoking in assembly occupancies shall be regu- 
lated by the authority having jurisdiction. (101:12. 7.7.1; 
101:13.7.7.1) 

8-1.2.7.2 In rooms or areas where smoking is prohibited, 
plainly visible signs shall be posted that read as follows: 

NO SMOKING 

(10LU.7.7.2; 202:13.7.7.2) 

8-1.2.7.3 No person shall smoke in prohibited areas that are 
so posted. 

Exception: The authority having jurisdiction shall permit smoking 
on a stage only where it is a necessary and rehearsed part of a perfor- 
mance and only where the smoker is a regular performing member of 
the cast. (101:12. 7. 7.3; 101:13. 7. 7.3) 

8-1.2.7.4 Where smoking is permitted, suitable ashtrays or 
receptacles shall be provided in convenient locations. 
(202:12.7.7.4; 207:13.7.7.4) 

8-1.2.8 Seating. 

8-1.2.8.1 Seats in assembly occupancies accommodating 
more than 200 persons shall be securely fastened to the floor, 
except where fastened together in groups of not less than 
three and not exceeding seven and as permitted by 8-1.2.8.2. 
All seats in balconies and galleries shall be securely fastened to 
the floor, except in places of religious worship. (702:12.7.8.1; 
707:13.7.8.1) 

8-1.2.8.2 Seats not secured to the floor shall be permitted in 
restaurants, night clubs, and other occupancies where fasten- 
ing seats to the floor might be impracticable. Such unsecured 
seats shall be permitted, provided that, in the area used for 
seating, excluding such areas as dance floors and stages, there 
is not more than one seat for each 15 ft 2 (1.4 m 2 ) of net floor 
area, and adequate aisles to reach exits are maintained at all 
times. Seating diagrams shall be submitted for approval by the 
authority having jurisdiction to permit an increase in occu- 
pant load per 7.3.1.3 of NFPA 101. (101:12.7.8.2; 101:13.7.8.2) 

8-1 .2.8.3 Every room constituting an assembly occupancy and 
not having fixed seats shall have the occupant load of the 
room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from 
the room. Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible 
manner by the owner or authorized agent. Signs shall be dura- 
ble and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for 
each room use. (707:12.7.8.3; 707:13.7.8.3) 

8-1.2.9 Clothing. Clothing and personal effects shall not be 
stored in corridors. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to corridors protect- 
ed by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9. 7 of NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas 
protected by a smoke detection system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. 



Exception No. 3: This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal 
lockers, provided that the required egress width is maintained. 
(101:12.7. 11; 101:13.7. 11) 

8-1.2.10 Projection Room. A conspicuous sign with 1-in. (2.5- 
cm) block letters shall be posted on the outside of each pro- 
jection room door and within the projection room proper, 
unless the projection room is constructed in accordance with 
NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate 
Motion Picture Film. The sign shall state the following: 

SAFETY FILM ONLY PERMITTED IN THIS ROOM 
(707:12.4.6.3; 707:13.4.6.3) 

8-2 Educational Occupancies. 

8-2.1 Application. New and existing educational occupancies 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-2.2 Operating Features. 

8-2.2.1 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

8-2.2.1.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
8-2.2.1.2 through 8-2.2.1.8. (707:14.7.1.1; 207:15.7.1.1) 

8-2.2.1.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills conforming 
to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as specified 
by the provisions of Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or 
by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authori- 
ties. (707:4.7.1) 

8-2.2.1.3* Emergency egress and relocation drills, where 
required by Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the 
authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient fre- 
quency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure and 
to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. Drills 
shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all persons 
subject to the drill participate. (707:4.7.2) 

8-2.2.1.4 Responsibility for the planning and conduct of drills 
shall be assigned only to competent persons qualified to exer- 
cise leadership. (202:4.7.3) 

8-2.2.1.5 In the conduct of drills, emphasis shall be placed on 
orderly evacuation rather than on speed. (202:4.7.4) 

8-2.2.1.6 Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected 
times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual 
conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. (202:4.7.5) 

8-2.2.1.7 Drill participants shall relocate to a predetermined 
location and remain at such location until a recall or dismissal 
signal is given. (202:4.7.6) 

8-2.2.1.8 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session. 

Exception: In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly emer- 
gency egress and relocation drills shall be permitted to be deferred, pro- 
vided that the required number of emergency egress and relocation 
drills is achieved and not less than four are conducted before the drills 
are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for educational occupancies that are open on 



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a year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 
days of operation. (102:14.7.1.2; 101:15.7.1.2) 

8-2.2.1.9 All emergency and relocation drill alarms shall be 
sounded on the fire alarm system. (102.-14.7.1.3; 201:15.7.1.3) 

8-2.2.2 Inspection. 

8-2.2.2.1* It shall be the duty of principals and teachers to 
inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all stairways, doors, 
and other exits are in proper condition. (102:14.7.2.1; 
202:15.7.2.1) 

8-2.2.2.2 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. (202:14.7.2.2; 202:15.7.2.2) 

8-2.2.3 Furnishings and Decorations. 

8-2.2.3.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in educational occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1 ofNFPA 101. (202:14.7.3.1; 
202:15.7.3.1) 

8-2.2.3.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 70 1 , Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(202:10.3.1) 

8-2.2.3.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. (202:10.3.5) 

8-2.2.3.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions 
encountered in actual use. (202:10.3.6) 

8-2.2.3.5 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to corridors protect- 
ed by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9. 7 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas 
protected by a smoke detection system in accordance with Section 9. 6 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 3: This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal 
lockers, provided that the required egress width is maintained. 
(101:14.7.3.2; 101:15.7.3.2) 

8-2.2.3.6 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted 
to be attached directly to the walls and shall not exceed 20 per- 
cent of the wall area. (202:14.7.3.3; 202:15.7.3.3) 

8-2.2.4 Notification. 

8-2.2.4.1 Occupant notification shall be accomplished auto- 
matically in accordance with 9.6.3 ofNFPA 101. Positive alarm 
sequence shall be permitted in accordance with 9.6.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. (202:14.3.4.3.1.1; 202:15.3.4.3.1.1) 

8-2.2.4.2 Where acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, the fire alarm system shall be permitted to be used for 
other emergency signaling or for class changes, provided that 
the fire alarm is distinctive in signal and overrides all other 
use. (202:14.3.4.3.1.2; 201:15.3.4.3.1.2) 

8-2.2.4.3 Fire department notification shall be accomplished 
in accordance with 9.6.4 of NFPA 101. (201:14.3.4.3.2; 
101:15.3.4.3.2) 



8-2.2.4.4 All emergency and relocation drill alarms shall be 
sounded on the fire alarm system. (202:14.7.1.3; 202:15.7.1.3) 

8-2.2.4.5 In order to prevent students from being returned to 
a building that is burning, the recall signal shall be separate 
and distinct from any other signals. Such signal shall be per- 
mitted to be given by use of distinctively colored flags or ban- 
ners. If the recall signal is electric, the push buttons or other 
controls shall be kept under lock. The key for such lock shall 
be in the possession of the principal or another designated 
person in order to prevent a recall at a time when there is an 
actual fire. Regardless of the method of recall, the means of 
giving the signal shall be kept under lock. (202:14.3.4.3.1.3; 
202:15.3.4.3.1.3) 

8-2.2.5 Unvented Fuel-Fired Heating Equipment. Unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment, other than gas space heaters in 
compliance with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, shall be pro- 
hibited. (202:14.5.2.2; 202:15.5.2.2) 

8-3 Day-Care Occupancies. 

8-3.1 Application. New and existing day-care occupancies 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-3.2 General Requirements. Unvented fuel-fired room heat- 
ers, other than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall not be permitted. (201:16.5.2.2; 
101:17.5.2.2) 

8-3.3 Day-Care Centers. 

8-3.3.1 Classification. 

8-3.3.1.1 Section 16.6 of NFPA 101 establishes life safety 
requirements for day-care homes in which more than three, 
but not more than 12, clients receive care, maintenance, and 
supervision by other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) 
for less than 24 hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. 
(Seealso 16.6.1.4 of NFPA 101.) (101:16.6.1.1.2) 

8-3.3.1.2 Where a facility houses more than one age group or 
self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements applica- 
ble to any group present shall apply throughout the day-care 
home or building, as appropriate to a given area, unless the 
area housing such a group is maintained as a separate fire 
area. (101:16.6.1.1.3) 

8-3.3.1.3 Facilities that supervise clients on a temporary basis 
with a parent or guardian in close proximity shall not be 
required to meet the provisions of Section 16.6 ofNFPA 101. 
(101:16.6.1.1.4) 

8-3.3.1.4 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 16.6 ofNFPA 101 where oper- 
ating a nursery while services are being held in the building. 
(101:16.6.1.1.5) 

8-3.3.2* The facility shall have a comprehensive written fire 
emergency response plan. Copies of the plan shall be made 
available to all employees. All employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed with respect to the duties of 
their position under the plan.(101:16.7.1) 

8-3.3.3 Operating Features. 

8-3.3,3.1 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

8-3.3.3.1.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
8-3.3.3.1. (101:16.7.2.1; 101:17.7.2.1) 



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8-3.3.3.1.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills conform- 
ing to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as speci- 
fied by the provisions of Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, 
or by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authori- 
ties. (101:4.7.1) 

8-3.3.3.1.3* Emergency egress and relocation drills, where 
required by Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the 
authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient fre- 
quency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure and 
to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. Drills 
shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all persons 
subject to the drill participate. (101 .4.7.2) 

8-3.3.3.1.4 Responsibility for the planning and conduct of 
drills shall be assigned only to competent persons qualified to 
exercise leadership. (101:4.73) 

8-3.3.3.1.5 In the conduct of drills, emphasis shall be placed 
on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. (101:4.7.4) 

8-3.3.3.1.6* Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected 
times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual 
conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. (101:4.7.5) 

8-3.3.3.1.7 Drill participants shall relocate to a predeter- 
mined location and remain at such location until a recall or 
dismissal signal is given. (101:4.7.6) 

8-3.3.3.1.8 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session. 

Exception: In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly emer- 
gency egress and relocation drills shall be permitted to be deferred, pro- 
vided that the required number of emergency egress and relocation 
drills is achieved and not less than four are conducted before the drills 
are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for day-care occupancies that are open on a 
year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days 
of operation. (707:16.7.2.2; 101:17.7.2.2) 

8-3.3.4 Inspections. 

8-3.3.4.1 Fire prevention inspections shall be conducted 
monthly by a trained senior member of the staff. A copy of the 
latest inspection report shall be posted in a conspicuous place 
in the day-care facility. (101:1 6.7.3.1; 207:17.7.3.1) 

8-3.3.4.2* It shall be the duty of site administrators and staff 
members to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all 
stairways, doors, and other exits are in proper condition. 
(701:16.7.3.2; 707:17.7.3.2) 

8-3.3.4.3 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. (707:16.7.3.3; 707:17.7.3.3) 

8-3.3.5 Furnishings and Decoration. 

8-3.3.5.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in day-care occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 8-3.3.5.2. (707:16.7.4.1; 
707:17.7.4.1) 

8-3.3.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 



furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701 , Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(707:10.3.1) 

8-3.3.5.3 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 

corridors. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to corridors protect- 
ed by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas 
protected by a smoke detection system in accordance with Section 9.6 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 3: This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal 
lockers, provided that the required egress width is maintained. 
(101:16. 7.4.2; 101:1 7. 7.4.2) 

8-3.3.5.4 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted 
to be attached directly to the walls and shall not exceed 20 per- 
cent of the wall area. (707:16.7.4.3; 707:17.7.4.3) 

8-3.3.6* Day-Care Staff. Adequate adult staff shall be on 
duty, alert, awake, and in the facility at all times where clients 
are present. (707:16.7.5; 707:17.7.5) 

8-4 Health Care Occupancies. 

8-4.1 Application. New and existing health care occupancies 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-4.2 Operating Features. 

8-4.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

8-4.2.1.1 The administration of every health care occupancy 
shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, 
written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the 
event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, and for 
their evacuation from the building when necessary. All 
employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed 
with respect to their duties under the plan. A copy of the plan 
shall be readily available at all times in the telephone opera- 
tor's position or at the security center. 

The provisions of 8-4.2.1.2 through 8-4.2.2.3 shall apply. 
(707:18.7.1.1; 707:19.7.1.1) 

8-4.2.1.2 Fire drills in health care occupancies shall include 
the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emer- 
gency fire conditions. Drills shall be conducted quarterly on 
each shift to familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, 
maintenance engineers, and administrative staff) with the sig- 
nals and emergency action required under varied conditions. 
When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. (2100 hours) 
and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours) , a coded announcement shall be 
permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 
Exception: Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required to be 
moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 
(101:18. 7.1.2; 101:19.7.1.2) 

8-4.2.1.3 Employees of health care occupancies shall be 
instructed in life safety procedures and devices. (707:18.7.1.3; 
707:19.7.1.3) 

8-4.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

8-4.2.2.1 For health care occupancies, the proper protection 
of patients shall require the prompt and effective response of 
health care personnel. The basic response required of staff 



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shall include the removal of all occupants directly involved 
with the fire emergency, transmission of an appropriate fire 
alarm signal to warn other building occupants and summon 
staff, confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area, and the relocation of patients as detailed 
in the health care occupancy's fire safety plan. (101:18. 7.2.1; 
707:19.7.2.1) 

8-4.2.2.2 A written health care occupancy fire safety plan shall 
provide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire (707:18.7.2.2; 707:19.7.2.2) 

84.2.2.3 All health care occupancy personnel shall be 
instructed in the use of and response to fire alarms. In addition, 
they shall be instructed in the use of the code phrase to ensure 
transmission of an alarm under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

Personnel hearing the code announced shall first activate 
the building fire alarm using the nearest manual fire alarm 
box and then shall execute immediately their duties as out- 
lined in the fire safety plan. (707:18.7.2.3; 707:19.7.2.3) 

8-4.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. Proper maintenance shall be 
provided to ensure the dependability of the method of evacu- 
ation selected. Health care occupancies that find it necessary 
to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate staff qual- 
ified to release locks and direct occupants from the immediate 
danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or other emer- 
gency. (207:18.7.3; 707:19.7.3) 

8-4.2.4 Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

Exception: In health care occupancies where smoking is prohibited 
and signs are prominently placed at all major entrances, secondary 
signs with language that prohibits smoking shall not be required. 

(2) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

Exception: The requirement of 8-4.2.4(2) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(3) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design 
shall be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(4) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into 
which ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available 
to all areas where smoking is permitted. (707:18.7.4; 
707:19.7.4) 

8-4.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

84.2.5.1 Draperies, curtains, including cubicle curtains, and 
other loosely hanging fabrics and films serving as furnishings or 



decorations in health care occupancies shall be in accordance 
with the provisions of 84.2.5.2. (See 18.3.5.5 of NFPA 101.) 

Exception: Curtains at showers. (101:18. 7.5. 1; 101:1 9. 7.5. 1) 

84.2.5.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(707:10.3.1) 

84.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within 
health care occupancies shall meet the criteria specified when 
tested in accordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 
10.3.3 of NFPA 101. (707:18.7.5.2; 707:19.7.5.2) 

84.2.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses within health care 
occupancies shall meet the criteria specified when tested in 
accordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of 
NFPA 101. (707:18.7.5.3; 707:19.7.5.3) 

84.2.5.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in any 
health care occupancy unless they are flame-retardant. 

Exception: Combustible decorations, such as photographs and paint- 
ings, in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire development or 
spread is not present. (101:18. 7.5.4; 101:19. 7.5.4) 

84.2.5.6 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall not 
exceed 32 gal (121 L) in capacity. The average density of con- 
tainer capacity in a room or space shall not exceed 0.5 gal/ft 2 
(20.4 L/m 2 ). A capacity of 32 gal (121 L) shall not be exceeded 
within any 64-ft 2 (5.9-m 2 ) area. Mobile soiled linen or trash col- 
lection receptacles with capacities greater than 32 gal (121 L) 
shall be located in a room protected as a hazardous area when 
not attended. 

Exception: Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. (101:18. 7.5.5; 101:19. 7.5.5) 

84.2.6 Portable Space Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all health care occupancies. 

Exception: Portable space-heating devices shall be permitted to be used 
in nonsleeping staff and employee areas where the heating elements of 
such devices do not exceed 212°F(100"C). (101:18. 7.8; 101:19. 7.8) 

8-5 Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

8-5.1 Application. New and existing residential board and 
care occupancies shall comply with this section and the refer- 
enced edition of NFPA 101. 

8-5.2 Operating Features. 

8-5.2.1 Emergency Plan. The administration of every resi- 
dential board and care facility shall have, in effect and avail- 
able to all supervisory personnel, written copies of a plan for 
protecting all persons in the event of fire, for keeping persons 
in place, for evacuating persons to areas of refuge, and for 
evacuating persons from the building when necessary. The 
plan shall include special staff response, including the fire 
protection procedures needed to ensure the safety of any res- 
ident, and shall be amended or revised whenever any resident 
with unusual needs is admitted to the home. All employees 
shall be periodically instructed and kept informed with 
respect to their duties and responsibilities under the plan. 
Such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff not less than 
every 2 months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at 
all times within the facility. (707:32.7.1; 707:33.7.1) 



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8-5.2.2 Resident Training. All residents participating in the 
emergency plan shall be trained in the proper actions to be 
taken in the event of fire. This training shall include actions to 
be taken if the primary escape route is blocked. If the resident 
is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, training in fire 
prevention and the actions to be taken in the event of a fire 
shall be a part of the training program. Residents shall be 
trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent that 
their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so with- 
out additional personal risk. (101:32.7.2; 202:33.7.2) 

8-5.2.3 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. Emergency 
egress and relocation drills shall be conducted not less than 
six times per year on a bimonthly basis, with not less than two 
drills conducted during the night when residents are sleeping. 
The drills shall be permitted to be announced in advance to 
the residents. The drills shall involve the actual evacuation of 
all residents to an assembly point as specified in the emer- 
gency plan and shall provide residents with experience in 
egressing through all exits and means of escape required by 
the Code. Exits and means of escape not used in any drill shall 
not be credited in meeting the requirements of this Code for 
board and care facilities. 

Exception No. 1: Actual exiting from windows shall not be required to 
comply with 8-5.2.3; opening the window and signaling for help shall 
be an acceptable alternative. 

Exception No. 2: If the board and care facility has an evacuation ca- 
pability classification of impractical, those residents who cannot mean- 
ingfully assist in their own evacuation or who have special health 
problems shall not be required to actively participate in the drill. Sec- 
tion 18. 7 ofNFPA 101 shall apply in such instances. (101:32. 7.3; 
101:33. 7.3) 

8-5.2.4 Smoking. 

8-5.2.4.1* Smoking regulations shall be adopted by the 
administration of board and care occupancies. (702:32.7.4.1; 
202:33.7.4.1) 

8-5.2.4.2 Where smoking is permitted, noncombustible 
safety-type ashtrays or receptacles shall be provided in conve- 
nient locations. (101:32.7.4.2; 101:33.7.4.2) 

8-5.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

8-5.2.5.1 New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations in board and care facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the provisions of 8-5.2.5.2. 
(202:32.7.5.1; 207:33.7.5.1) 

8-5.2.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701 , Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(202:10.3.1) 

8-5.2.5.3* New upholstered furniture within board and care 
facilities shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 
10.3.2(1) and 10.3.3 ofNFPA 101. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture belonging to the resident in 
sleeping rooms, provided that a smoke alarm is installed in such 
rooms. Battery-powered single-station smoke alarms shall be permit- 
ted. (101:32. 7.5.2; 101:33. 7.5.2) 

8-5.2.5.4* New mattresses within board and care facilities 
shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.2(3) 
and 10.3.4 ofNFPA 101. 



Exception: Mattresses belonging to the resident in sleeping rooms, pro- 
vided that a smoke alarm is installed in such rooms. Battery-powered 
single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted. (101:32. 7.5.3; 
101:33.7.5.3) 

8-6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers. 

8-6.1 Application. New and existing ambulatory health care 
centers shall comply with this section and the referenced edi- 
tion of NFPA 101. 

8-6.2 Operating Features. 

8-6.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

8-6.2.1.1 The administration of every ambulatory health care 
facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory per- 
sonnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all per- 
sons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, 
and for their evacuation from the building when necessary. All 
employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed 
with respect to their duties under the plan. A copy of the plan 
shall be readily available at all times in the telephone opera- 
tor's position or at the security center. 

The provisions of 8-6.2.1.2 through 8-6.2.2.3 shall apply. 
(202:20.7.1.1; 707:21.7.1.1) 

8-6.2.1.2 Fire drills in ambulatory health care facilities shall 
include the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation 
of emergency fire conditions. Drills shall be conducted quar- 
terly on each shift to familiarize facility personnel (nurses, 
interns, maintenance engineers, and administrative staff) with 
the signals and emergency action required under varied con- 
ditions. When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. (2100 
hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announcement 
shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 

Exception: Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required to be 
moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 
(202:20.7.1.2; 202:21.7.1.2) 

8-6.2.1.3 Employees of ambulatory health care facilities shall 
be instructed in life safety procedures and devices. 
(202:20.7.1.3; 202:21.7.1.3) 

8-6.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

8-6.2.2.1 For ambulatory health care facilities, the proper pro- 
tection of patients shall require the prompt and effective 
response of ambulatory health care personnel. The basic 
response required of staff shall include the removal of all 
occupants direcdy involved with the fire emergency, transmis- 
sion of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn other building 
occupants and summon staff, confinement of the effects of the 
fire by closing doors to isolate the fire area, and the relocation 
of patients as detailed in the facility's fire safety plan. 
(202:20.7.2.1; 202:21.7.2.1) 

8-6.2.2.2 A written fire safety plan shall provide for the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire 
(202:20.7.2.2; 202:21.7.2.2) 



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8-6.2.2.3 All personnel shall be instructed in the use of and 
response to fire alarms. In addition, they shall be instructed in 
the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission of an alarm 
under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

Personnel hearing the code announced shall first activate 
the building fire alarm using the nearest fire alarm box and 
then shall execute immediately their duties as outlined in the 
fire safety plan. (207:20.7.2.3; 101:21.7.2.3) 

8-6.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. Proper maintenance shall be 
provided to ensure the dependability of the method of evacu- 
ation selected. Ambulatory health care occupancies that find 
it necessary to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an ade- 
quate staff qualified to release locks and direct occupants from 
the immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire 
or other emergency. (101:20.7.3; 101:21.7.3) 

8-6.2.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

Exception: The requirement of 8-6.2.4(1) shall not apply where smok- 
ing is prohibited and signs are prominently placed at all major en- 
trances, secondary signs with language that prohibits smoking shall 
not be required. 

(2) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

Exception: The requirement of 8-6.2.4(2) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(3) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design 
shall be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(4) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into 
which ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available 
to all areas where smoking is permitted. (101:20.7.4; 
101:21.7.4) 

8-6.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

8-6.2.5.1 Draperies, curtains, including cubicle curtains, and 
other loosely hanging fabrics and films serving as furnishings 
or decorations in ambulatory health care occupancies shall be 
in accordance with the provisions of 8-6.2.5.2. 
Exception: Curtains at showers. (102:20.7.5.1; 101:21.7.5.1) 

8-6.2.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFP A 701 , Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(101:10.3.1) 

8-6.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet 
the criteria specified when tested in accordance with the 
methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3 of NFPA 101. 
(101:20.7.5.2; 101:21.7.5.2) 

8-6.2.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the criteria 
specified when tested in accordance with the methods cited in 
10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. (202:20.7.5.3; 202:21.7.5.3) 



8-6.2.5.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited unless 
they are flame-retardant. 

Exception: Combustible decorations, such as photographs and paint- 
ings, in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire development or 
spread is not present. (202:20.7.5.4; 202:21.7. 5.4) 

8-6.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited. 

Exception: Portable space-heating devices shall be permitted to be used 
in nonsleeping staff and employee areas where the heating elements of 
such devices do not exceed 212°F(100°C). (202:20.7.8; 202:21.7.8) 

8-7 Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

8-7.1 Application. New and existing detention and correc- 
tional occupancies shall comply with this section and the ref- 
erenced edition of NFPA 101. 

8-7.2 Operating Features. 

8-7.2.1 Attendants, Evacuation Plan, Fire Drills. 

8-7.2.1.1 Detention and correctional facilities, or those por- 
tions of facilities having such occupancy, shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or a 300- 
ft (91-m) horizontal distance of the access door of each resi- 
dent housing area. 

In addition, for Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and 
Use Condition V, the arrangement shall be such that the staff 
involved starts the release of locks necessary for emergency 
evacuation or rescue and initiates other necessary emergency 
actions within 2 minutes of alarm. 

Exception: For areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely in com- 
pliance with 22.2.11.6 of NFPA 101, staff shall not be required to be 
within three floors or 300 ft (104 m) of the access door. The exception 
to 22.2.11.6 of NFPA 101 shall not be used in conjunction with this 
exception. (101:22. 7. 1.1; 101:23. 7.1.1) 

8-7.2.1.2* Provisions shall be made so that residents in Use 
Condition III, Use Condition rV, and Use Condition V shall be 
able to notify staff of an emergency. (202:22.7.1.2; 
202:23.7.1.2) 

8-7.2.1.3* The administration of every detention or correc- 
tional facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervi- 
sory personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of 
all persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of 
refuge, and for evacuation from the building when necessary. 
All employees shall be instructed and drilled with respect to 
their duties under the plan. The plan shall be coordinated 
with and reviewed by the fire department legally committed to 
serve the facility. (202:22.7.1.3; 202:23.7.1.3) 

8-7.2.1.4 Employees of detention and correctional occupan- 
cies shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. Such 
training shall be provided to new staff promptly upon com- 
mencement of duty. Refresher training shall be provided to 
existing staff at not less than annual intervals. (202:22.7.1.4; 
202:23.7.1.4) 

8-7.2.2 Books, clothing, and other combustible personal 
property allowed in sleeping rooms shall be stored in clos- 
able metal lockers or a fire-resistant container. (202:22.7.2; 
202:23.7.2) 

8-7.2.3 The number of heat-producing appliances, such as 
toasters and hot plates, and the overall use of electrical power 



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within a sleeping room shall be controlled by facility adminis- 
tration. (101:22.7.3; 101:23.7.3) 

8-7.2.4 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

8-7.2.4.1 Draperies and curtains, including privacy curtains, 
in detention and correctional occupancies sball be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 8-7.2.4.2. 

8-7.2.4.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(101:10.3.1) 

8-7.2.4.3 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in any 
detention or correctional occupancy unless flame-retardant. 
(101:22.7 .4.4; 101:23.7.4.4) 

8-7.2.4.4 Wastebaskets and other waste containers shall be of 
noncombustible or other approved materials. Waste contain- 
ers with a capacity exceeding 20 gal (76 L) shall be provided 
with a noncombustible lid or lid of other approved material. 
(702:22.7.4.5; 101:23.7.4.5) 

8-7.2.5 Keys. All keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identified by both 
touch and sight. (101:22.7.5; 101:23.7.5) 

8-7.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all detention and cor- 
rectional occupancies. (102:22.7.6; 102:23.7.6) 

8-8 Hotels and Dormitories. 

8-8.1 Application. New and existing hotels and dormitories 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-8.2 Operating Features. 

8-8.2.1 Hotel Emergency Organization. 

8-8.2.1.1 Employees of hotels shall be instructed and drilled 
in the duties they are to perform in the event of fire, panic, or 
other emergency. 

8-8.2.1.2 Drills of the emergency organization shall be held at 
quarterly intervals and shall cover such points as the operation 
and maintenance of the available first aid fire appliances, the 
testing of devices to alert guests, and a study of instructions for 
emergency duties (201:28.7.1.2; 202:29.7.1.2) 

8-8.2.2 Emergency Duties. Upon discovery of a fire, employ- 
ees shall carry out the following duties: 

(1) Activate the facility fire protection signaling system, if 
provided 

(2) Notify the public fire department 

(3) Take other action as previously instructed (201:28.7.2; 
107:29.7.2) 

8-8.2.3 Drills in Dormitories. Emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be regularly conducted in accordance with 
8-8.2.3.1 through 8-8.2.3.6. (102:28.7.3; 202:29.7.3) 

8-8.2.3.1 Emergency egress and relocation drills conforming 
to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as specified 
by the provisions of Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or 
by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authori- 
ties. (207:4.7.1) 



8-8.2.3.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills, where 
required by Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the 
authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient fre- 
quency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure and 
to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. Drills 
shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all persons 
subject to the drill participate. (202:4.7.2) 

8-8.2.3.3 Responsibility for the planning and conduct of drills 
shall be assigned only to competent persons qualified to exer- 
cise leadership. (202:4.7.3) 

8-8.2.3.4 In the conduct of drills, emphasis shall be placed on 
orderly evacuation rather than on speed. (101:4.7.4) 

8-8.2.3.5 Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected 
times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual 
conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. (101:4.7.5) 

8-8.2.3.6 Drill participants shall relocate to a predetermined 
location and remain at such location until a recall or dismissal 
signal is given. (101:4.7.6) 

8-8.2.4 Emergency Instructions for Residents or Guests. 

8-8.2.4.1 A floor diagram reflecting the actual floor arrange- 
ment, exit locations, and room identification shall be posted 
in a location and manner acceptable to the authority having 
jurisdiction on, or immediately adjacent to, every guest room 
door in hotels and in every resident room in dormitories. 
(101:28.7.4.1; 101:29.7.4.1) 

8-8.2.4.2 Fire safety information shall be provided to allow 
guests to make the decision to evacuate to the outside, to evac- 
uate to an area of refuge, to remain in place, or to employ any 
combination of the three options. (101:28.7.4.2; 107:29.7.4.2) 

8-8.2.5 Furnishings and Decorations. 

8-8.2.5.1* New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations in hotels and dormito- 
ries shall be in accordance with the provisions of 8-8.2.5.2. 
(707:28.3.3.4; 707:29.3.3.4) 

8-8.2.5.2 Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701 , Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
(707:10.3.1) 

8-8.2.6 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used. 

Exception: Gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, National 
Fuel Gas Code. (101:28.5.2.2; 101:29.5.2.2) 

8-9 Apartment Buildings. 

8-9.1 Application. New and existing apartment buildings 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-9.2 Operating Features. 

8-9.2.1 Emergency instructions shall be provided annually to 
each dwelling unit to indicate the location of alarms, egress 
paths, and actions to be taken, both in response to a fire in the 
dwelling unit and in response to the sounding of the alarm sys- 
tem. (101:30.7.1; 101:31.7.1) 

8-9.2.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used. 



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Exception: Gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, National 
Fuel Gas Code. (101:30.5.2.2; 101:31.5.2.2) 

8-10 Lodging or Rooming Houses. 

8-10.1 Application. New and existing lodging or rooming 
houses shall comply with this section and the referenced edi- 
tion of NFPA 1 01. 

8-10.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used. 

Exception: Gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, National 
Fuel Gas Code. (101:26.5.2.2) 

8-11 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured 
Housing. 

8-11.1 Application. New and existing one- and two-family 
dwellings shall comply with this section and the referenced 
edition of NFPA 101. 

8-11.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used. 

Exception: Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters in one- 
and two-family dwellings. (101:24.5.1.2) 

8-11.3 Manufactured Housing. New manufactured housing 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 501 , Standard on Manufactured Housing. 

8-12 Mercantile Occupancies. 

8-12.1 Application. 

8-12.1.1 New and existing mercantile occupancies shall com- 
ply with this section and the referenced edition of NFPA 101. 

8-12.2 Operating Features. 

8-12.2.1 Drills. 

8-12.2.1.1 In every Class A or Class B mercantile occupancy, 
employees shall be periodically trained in accordance with 
8-12.2.1.2 through 8-12.2.1.7. (101:56.7.1; 101:37.7.1) 

8-12.2.1.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills conforming 
to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as specified 
by the provisions of Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or 
by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authori- 
ties. (101:4.7.1) 

8-12.2.1.3 Emergency egress and relocation drills, where 
required by Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the 
authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient fre- 
quency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure and 
to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. Drills 
shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all persons 
subject to the drill participate. (202:4.7.2) 

8-12.2.1.4 Responsibility for the planning and conduct of 
drills shall be assigned only to competent persons qualified to 
exercise leadership. (101:4.73) 

8-12.2.1.5 In the conduct of drills, emphasis shall be placed 
on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. (202:4.7.4) 

8-12.2.1.6 Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected 
times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual 
conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. (101:4.7.5) 



8-12.2.1.7 Drill participants shall relocate to a predetermined 
location and remain at such location until a recall or dismissal 
signal is given. (101:4.7.6) 

8-12.2.2 Extinguisher Training. Employees of mercantile 
occupancies shall be periodically instructed in the use of por- 
table fire extinguishers. (101:36.7.2; 101:37.7.2) 

8-13 Business Occupancies. 

8-13.1 Application. New and existing business occupancies 
shall comply with this section and the referenced edition of 
NFPA 101. 

8-13.2 Operating Features. 

8-13.2.1 Drills. 

8-13.2.1.1 In any business occupancy building occupied by 
more than 500 persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the street level, employees and supervisory personnel 
shall be periodically instructed in accordance with 8-13.2.1.2 
through 8-13.2.1.7 and shall hold drills periodically where 
practicable. (202:38.7.1; 101:39.7.1) 

8-13.2.1.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills conforming 
to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as specified 
by the provisions of Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or 
by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authori- 
ties. (101:4.7.1) 

8-13.2.1.3 Emergency egress and relocation drills, where 
required by Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101 or the 
authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient fre- 
quency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure and 
to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. Drills 
shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all persons 
subject to the drill participate. (101:4.7.2) 

8-13.2.1.4 Responsibility for the planning and conduct of 
drills shall be assigned only to competent persons qualified to 
exercise leadership. (101:4.7.3) 

8-13.2.1.5 In the conduct of drills, emphasis shall be placed 
on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. (202:4.7.4) 

8-13.2.1.6 Drills shall be held at expected and unexpected 
times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual 
conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. (101:4.7.5) 

8-13.2.1.7 Drill participants shall relocate to a predetermined 
location and remain at such location until a recall or dismissal 
signal is given. (202:4.7.6) 

8-13.2.2 Extinguisher Training. Designated employees of 
business occupancies shall be periodically instructed in the 
use of portable fire extinguishers. (202:38.7.2; 202:39.7.2) 

8-14 Industrial Occupancies, Application. New and existing 
industrial occupancies shall comply with this section and the 
referenced edition of NFPA 101. 

8-15 Storage Occupancies. 

8-15.1 Application. New and existing storage occupancies 
shall comply with this section, appropriate codes or standards 
referenced in Chapter 32 and NFPA 1 01. 



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8-15.2 Special Provisions. 

8-15.2.1* The storage of combustibles up to 30 ft (9 m), or the 
storage of plastics (Group B and Group C — all configurations; 
Group A — free-flowing only) up to 30 ft (9 m) in height, or 
the storage of Group A plastics (except free-flowing) up to 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in height shall comply with Section 8-15, NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and NFPA 230, 
Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

8-15.2.2 The storage of combustibles stored over 12 ft (3.7 m) 
in height on racks shall comply with Section 8-15, NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and NFPA 230, 
Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

8-15.3 Bulk Storage Elevators. Bulk storage elevators shall 
comply with 8-15.3 and NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of 
Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Products Facili- 
ties. 

8-15.3.1 Bulk storage elevators shall include all of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) All facilities that handle, process, use, blend, mill, 
receive, load, ship, package, store, or unload dry agricul- 
tural bulk materials, their by-products, or dusts that 
include grains, oilseeds, agricultural seeds, legumes, 
sugar, flour, spices, feeds, and other related materials 

(2) All facilities designed for manufacturing and handling 
starch, including drying, grinding, conveying, process- 
ing, packaging, and storage of dry or modified starch, 
and dry products and dusts generated from these pro- 
cesses 

(3) Those seed preparation and meal-handling systems of oil- 
seed processing plants not covered by NFPA 36, Standard 
for Solvent Extraction Plants (61:1-1.1) 

8-15.3.2 NFPA 61 shall not apply to oilseed extraction plants 
that are covered by NFPA 36, Standard for Solvent Extraction 
Plants. (61:1-1.2) 

8-15.3.3 Applicability. Unless otherwise noted, the provisions 
of 8-15.3 on bulk storage elevators shall not be applied to facil- 
ities, equipment, structures, or installations that were existing 
or approved for construction or installation prior to the effec- 
tive date of this Code, except in those cases where it is deter- 



mined by the authority having jurisdiction that the existing 
situation involves a distinct hazard to life or adjacent property. 
Exception: The requirements of Chapter 11 of NFPA 61, Standard for 
the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food 
Products Facilities, shall apply to all facilities. 

8-15.4 Rubber Tire Storage. 

8-15.4.1 Storage of rubber tires shall comply with NFPA 231D, 
Standard for Storage of Rubber Tires. 
Exception: Existing buildings. 

8-15.4.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

8-15.5 Record Storage. 

8-15.5.1 Records protection equipment, facilities, and 
records handling techniques that provide protection from the 
hazards of fire shall comply with this section and NFPA 232, 
Standard for the Protection of Records. 

8-15.5.2* Because of the volume of records, 8-15.5.1 shall not 
cover large archives or records storage buildings. 

8-15.6 Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film Storage. The 

storage and handling of cellulose nitrate film records shall 
comply with this section and NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage 
and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film. 

8-16 Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings, Applica- 
tion. New and existing special structures and high-rise build- 
ings shall comply with the referenced edition of NFPA 101. 
Motion picture and television production studio soundstages 
and approved production facilities shall comply with NFPA 
140, Standard on Motion Pictures and Television Production Studio 
Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities. 

8-17 Historical Buildings. 

8-17.1 The provisions of this Code relating to the construc- 
tion, repair, alteration, enlargement, restoration, and moving 
of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing 
buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or 
local government authority as historic buildings where such 
buildings are judged by the authority having jurisdiction to be 
safe and to not constitute a serious life safety hazard. 

8-17.2* Historic buildings shall comply with NFPA 909, Stan- 
dard for the Protection of Cultural Resources, Including Museums, 
Libraries, Places of Worship, and Historic Properties. 



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AIRPORTS AND HELIPORTS 



1-69 



Chapter 9 Aerosol Products 

9-1 Application. 

9-1.1 The manufacture, storage, and display of aerosol prod- 
ucts shall be in accordance with this chapter and NFPA 30B, 
Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products. 

9-1.2 This chapter shall not apply to the following: 

(1) *The manufacture, storage, and display of aerosol prod- 
ucts that contain only a nonflammable base product and 
a nonflammable propellant. (30B:1-1.2) 

(2) *The storage and display of containers whose contents 
are comprised entirely of LP-Gas products. (30B:1-1.3) 



Chapter 10 Airports and Heliports 

10-1 Hangars. The construction and protection of aircraft 
hangars from fire shall comply with this section and NFPA 
409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars. 

10-2 Terminals. 

10-2.1 Application. Airport terminal buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of this section and NFPA 415, Standard 
on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Load- 
ing Walkways. 

10-2.2 General. 

10-2.2.1* Airport terminal buildings shall be of Type I, Type 
II, or Type IV construction, as defined in NFPA 220, Standard 
on Types of Building Construction. (415:2-1.1) 

10-2.2.2* Interior finish shall be limited to that permitted in 
Class A places of assembly as specified in NFPA 101®, Life Safety 
Code®. (415:2-1.2) 

10-2.2.3 Below grade areas or blind spaces in airport terminal 
buildings shall be protected against flammable fuel or vapor 
penetration or shall be mechanically ventilated to provide at 
least four complete air changes per hour. The mechanical ven- 
tilation system shall be installed in accordance with Chapters 
2 and 3 of NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Convey- 
ing of Materials. (415:2-1.4) 

10-2.3 Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning. 

10-2.3.1* Air supply intake and exhaust openings for air condi- 
tioning or ventilating equipment serving the terminal building, if 
located on the ramp side, shall be not less than 10 ft (3 m) above 
the grade level of the ramp and shall be at least 50 ft (15.2 m) 
from any point of flammable vapor release. (415:2-2.2) 

10-2.3.2* Openings to rooms containing coal-, gas-, or oil- 
fired equipment, or any rooms containing any other open 
flame device, that face the ramp side of the terminal shall be 
above ramp grade and 50 ft (15.2 m) from any point of flam- 
mable vapor release. (415:2-2.3) 

10-2.3.3 Stacks or chimneys from a boiler, heater, or inciner- 
ator shall terminate at least 20 ft (6.1 m) above ramp grade 
and above the roof of the building. Stacks or chimneys from 
boilers or heaters using solid fuel or from any incinerator shall 
be fitted with double screening to control fly ash and sparks. 
Such stacks or chimneys shall be located so the outlet is at least 



100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from any aircraft position or point 
of flammable vapor release. (415:2-2.4) 

10-2.4* Exits. Exits that discharge onto an airport ramp and 
are provided solely for the purpose of meeting emergency 
egress requirements from public areas shall be placarded 
"Emergency Exit Only" in letters at least 2 in. (4.9 cm) high. 
(415:2-3.2) 

10-2.5 Fire Protection. 

10-2.5.1 Fire Hydrants. Fire hydrants shall be provided on 
both the ramp and street sides of airport terminal buildings. 
Such hydrants shall be located so that no portion of the termi- 
nal building is more than 500 ft (152.4 m) from a hydrant. 
(415:2-5.3) 

10-2.5.2 Standpipe and Hose Systems. Standpipe and hose 
systems shall be provided for all airport terminal buildings 
in excess of two stories [35 ft (10.7 m)] in height or 100 ft 
(30.5 m) in shortest horizontal dimension. Standpipe and 
hose systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and 
Hose Systems. (415:2-5.4) 

10-2.5.2.1 Class I standpipe systems shall be provided in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system. Each 2 1 / 2 -in. (65 mm) hose connection shall be 
equipped with a 2V2-m. x lV 2 -in. (65-mm X 38-mm) reducer 
and cap. (415:2-5.4.1) 

10-2.5.2.2 Class III standpipe systems shall be provided in 
nonsprinklered buildings. The exceptions in NFPA 14, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Sys- 
tems, for Class III systems shall be applicable to this 
requirement. (415:2-5.4.2) 

10-2.5.3 Water Supply. Water supply from public or private 
sources shall be adequate to supply maximum calculated sprin- 
kler demand plus a minimum of 500 gpm (1893 L/min) for 
hose streams. The supply shall be available at the rate specified 
for a period of at least 1 hour. (415:2-5.5) 

10-2.5.4 Fire Alarm System. Means to alert the public fire 
department or the airport fire station shall be available 
through manual fire alarm pull stations. Manual fire alarm ser- 
vices shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72, National 
Fire Alarm Code. (415:2-5.2.1) 

10-2.5.5 Portable Fire Extinguishers. Portable fire extin- 
guishers shall be provided throughout the airport terminal 
building in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire 
Extinguishers. (415:2-5.6) 

10-2.6 Covered Plane-Loading Positions. Airport terminal 
buildings having canopy areas or roofed-over recesses at air- 
craft loading positions that, in effect, place the aircraft 
totally or substantially under such canopies or roofs shall 
have these canopies or roofs protected by automatic sprin- 
kler systems in accordance with NFPA 409, Standard on Air- 
craft Hangars. (415:2-5.1.3) 

10-3 Roof-Top Heliport Construction and Protection. 

10-3.1 Application. Rooftop heliport construction and pro- 
tection shall comply with this section and NFPA 418, Standard 
for Heliports. 

10-3.2 Structural Support. Main structural support members 
that could be exposed to a fuel spill shall be made fire resistant 



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using listed materials and methods to provide a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 2 hours. (418:3-1) 

10-3.3 Landing Pad Pitch. The rooftop landing pad shall be 
pitched to provide drainage that flows away from passenger 
holding areas, access points, stairways, elevator shafts, ramps, 
hatches, and other openings. (418:3-2) 

10-3.4 Landing Pad Construction Materials. The rooftop land- 
ing pad surface shall be constructed of noncombustible, nonpo- 
rous materials that are approved. The contiguous building roof 
covering within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge shall 
have a Class A rating. (418:3-3) 

10-3.5* Means of Egress. At least two approved means of 
egress from the rooftop landing pad edge shall be provided 
and shall be remotely located from each other to the extent 
practical. (418:3-4) 

10-3.5.1 For heliports occupied by 50 or more people, two 
approved means of egress from the roof shall be provided and 
shall be remotely located from each other to the extent prac- 
tical but shall not be located less than 30 ft (9.1 m) from each 
other. For heliports occupied by fewer than 50 people, one 
approved means of egress from the roof shall be provided. 
(418:3-4.1) 

10-3.5.2 Means of egress from the rooftop landing pad and 
roof shall not obstruct flight operations. (418:3-4.2) 

10-3.6 Fire-Fighting Access. The helicopter rooftop landing 
pad shall have at least two access points for fire-fighting pur- 
poses. Access for fire-fighting personnel through the landing 
pad egress shall be permitted. (418:3-5) 

10-3.7 Fire Protection. A foam fire extinguishing system shall 
be designed and installed to protect the rooftop landing pad. 

Exception No. 1: A foam fire extinguishing system shall not be re- 
quired for heliports located on parking garages, unoccupied buildings, 
or other similar unoccupied structures. 

Exception No. 2: For H-l heliports, two portable foam extinguishers, 
each having a rating of 20-A.160-B, shall be permitted to be used to 
satisfy this requirement. (418:3-6) 

10-3.7.1* The foam discharge rate shall be as follows: 
AFFF 0.10 gpm/ft 2 [4.1 (L/min)/m 2 ] 

Fluoroprotein 0.16 gpm/ft 2 [6.5 (L/min)/m 2 ] 
Protein 0.20 gpm/ft 2 [8.1 (L/min)/m 2 ] 

(418:3-6.1) 

10-3.7.2 The area of application of foam discharge for fixed 
discharge oudet systems shall be the entire rooftop landing 
pad. The duration shall be 5 minutes. (418:3-6.2) 

10-3.7.3* The area of application of foam discharge for hose 
line systems shall be the practical critical fire area, as shown in 
Table 10-3.7.3, for the category of the helicopter landing facil- 
ity. The duration shall be 2 minutes. (418:3-6.3) 



Table 10-3.7.3 Practical Critical Fire Areas 





Helicopter Overall 


Practical Critical 


Category 


Length* 


Fire Area 


H-l 


Up to but not including 
50 ft (15.2 m) 


375 ft 2 (34.8 m 2 ) 


H-2 


From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to 
but not including 80 ft 
(24.4 m) 


840 ft 2 (78.0 m 2 ) 


H-3 


From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to 
but not including 120 ft 
(36.6 m) 


1440 ft 2 (133.8 m 2 ) 



'Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
(418:Table 3-6.3) 

10-3.7.4 The water supply for the foam system shall be from a 
reliable source, approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 
(418:3-6.4) 

10-3.7.4.1 Fire pumps, if used, shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire 
Pumps. (418:3-6.4.1) 

10-3.7.4.2 Standpipes and hose stations, if used, shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 14, Standard for the Installa- 
tion of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. (418:3-6.4.2) 

10-3.7.4.3 Where freezing is possible, adequate freeze protec- 
tion shall be provided. (418:3-6.4.3) 

10-3.7.5 The foam components shall be installed in a readily 
accessible area of the heliport and shall not penetrate the pri- 
mary, approach, departure, and transitional surfaces defined 
in paragraphs 3J, 3K, 3L, 13, and 21 of FAA A/C 150/5390-2, 
Heliport Design Advisory Circular. (418:3-6.5) 

10-3.7.6 At facilities where there is more than one rooftop 
landing pad, the supply of foam available shall be sufficient to 
cover an incident on at least one of the pads. (418:3-6.6) 

10-3.7.7 Where fixed foam systems utilizing fixed deck noz- 
zles or oscillating foam turrets, or both, are installed, system 
components shall be listed or approved. (418:3-6.7) 

10-3.8 Standpipes. If a building with a rooftop heliport is sup- 
plied with a standpipe system, a Class II standpipe shall be 
extended to the roof level on which the rooftop heliport is 
located. Such standpipe systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, 
Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. (418:3-7) 

10-3.9 Fire Alarm. Where buildings are provided with a fire 
alarm system, a manual pull station shall be provided for each 
designated means of egress from the roof. (See 10-3.5.1.) 
(418:3-8) 

10-3.10 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

10-3.10.1 Quantity and Rating. At least one portable fire 
extinguisher as specified in Table 10-3.10.1 shall be provided 
for each takeoff and landing area, parking area, and fuel stor- 
age area. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to unattended ground 
level heliports. (418:5-1) 



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Table 10-3.10.1 Minimum Ratings of Portable Fire 
Extinguishers for Heliport Categories 



Category 


Helicopter Overall 
Length* 


Minimum 
Rating 


H-l 


Up to but not including 50 ft 
(15.2 m) 


4-A:80-B 


H-2 


From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to, but not 
including, 80 ft (24.4 m) 


10-A:120-B 


H-3 


From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to, but not 
including, 120 ft (36.6 m) 


30-A:240-B 



Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
(4I8:Table5-l) 

10-3.10.2 Servicing. Portable fire extinguishers shall comply 
with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, Chapters 
1,4, 5, and 6. (418:5-2) 



Chapter 1 1 Cleanrooms 

11-1 General. All semiconductor facilities containing a clean- 
room or a clean zone, or both, shall comply with this chapter 
and NFPA 318, Standard for the Protection of Cleanrooms. 

11-2 Applicability. Unless otherwise noted in NFPA 318, it is 
not intended that the provisions of NFPA 318 be applied to 
facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that were 
existing or approved for construction or installation prior to 
the effective date of this Code, except in those cases where it 
is determined by the authority having jurisdiction that the 
existing situation involves a distinct hazard to life or adjacent 
property. 



Chapter 12 Combustible Waste, Refuse, and Fibers 

12-1 Combustible Waste and Refuse. 

12-1.1 No person owning or having control of any property 
shall allow any combustible waste material to accumulate in 
any area or in any manner that creates a fire hazard to life or 
property. 

12-1.2 Combustible waste or refuse shall be properly stored or 
disposed of to prevent unsafe conditions. 

12-1.3 Fire extinguishing capabilities approved by the author- 
ity having jurisdiction shall be provided at waste disposal sites 
including, but not limited to, fire extinguishers, water supply 
and hose, and earth-moving equipment. 

12-1.4 Burning debris shall not be dumped at a waste disposal 
site except at a remote location on the site where fire extin- 
guishment can be accomplished before compacting, covering, 
or other disposal activity is carried out. 

12-1.5 Vehicles or conveyances used to transport combusti- 
ble waste or refuse over public thoroughfares shall have all 
cargo space covered and maintained tight enough to 
ensure against ignition from external fire sources and scat- 
tering burning and combustible debris that can come in 
contact with ignition sources. Transporting burning waste 
or refuse shah be prohibited. 



12-2 Combustible Fibers. 

12-2.1 Application. 

12-2.1.1 All facilities handling or storing combustible fibers 
shall comply with this section. 

12-2.1.2 This section shall not apply to buildings completely pro- 
tected by an approved automatic fire extinguishing system; how- 
ever, this does not preclude the need for good housekeeping. 

12-2.1.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

12-2.2 Loose Storage of Combustible Fibers. 

12-2.2.1 Loose combustible fibers (not in suitable bales or 
packages), whether housed or in the open, shall not be stored 
within 100 ft (30 m) of any building, except as hereinafter 
specified. 

12-2.2.2 Quantities of loose combustible fibers up to 100 ft 3 
(2.83 m 3 ) shall not be kept in any building unless stored in a 
metal or metal-lined bin that is equipped with a self-closing 
cover. 

12-2.2.3 Quantities exceeding 100 ft 3 (2.83 m 3 ) of loose com- 
bustible fibers, but not exceeding 500 ft 3 (14.2 m 3 ), shall be 
permitted to be stored in rooms or compartments in which 
the floors, walls, and ceilings have a fire resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. Each opening into such rooms or com- 
partments from other parts of the building shall be equipped 
with an approved self-closing fire door. 

12-2.2.4 Quantities exceeding 500 ft 3 (14.2 m 3 ) of loose com- 
bustible fibers shall be permitted to be stored in approved 
vaults, constructed as follows: 

(1) Storage vaults shall be located outside of buildings or, if 
located inside, shall be provided with approved safety 
vents to the outside. 

(2) Walls, floors, and ceilings shall be constructed of 
approved noncombustible material having a fire resis- 
tance rating of not less than 1 hour. Roofs of outside 
vaults shall be of noncombustible material, but shall be 
permitted to be constructed so as to readily give way in 
case of an internal explosion. 

(3) Openings, if any, between vault and main building shall 
be protected on each side of the wall by an approved fire 
door. Wall openings in outside vaults exposing other 
buildings (not sufficiently detached to be considered cut- 
off) shall be protected by approved fire doors. 

(4) Vaults located within buildings and exceeding 1000 ft 3 
(28.3 m 3 ) storage capacity shall be protected by an 
approved, automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

12-2.2.5 Not more than 2500 ft 3 (71 m s ) of loose fibers shall 
be permitted to be stored in a detached loose house suitably 
located, with openings properly protected against the 
entrance of sparks. The loose house shall be used for no other 
purpose. 

12-2.3 Baled Storage. 

12-2.3.1 No single block or pile shall contain more than 
25,000 ft 3 (708 m 3 ) of combustible fibers, exclusive of aisles or 
clearances. Blocks or piles of baled fiber shall be separated 
from adjacent storage by aisles not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) wide 
or by flash fire barriers consisting of continuous sheets of non- 
combustible material extending from the floor to a height of 
at least 2 ft (0.6 m) beyond the top of the piles. 



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12-2.3.2 Sisal and other fibers in bales bound with combusti- 
ble tie ropes or jute and other fibers that are liable to swell 
when wet shall be stored in a manner that allows for expansion 
in any direction without endangering building walls, ceilings, 
or columns. Not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) of clearance shall be left 
between walls and sides of piles, except that in storage com- 
partments not more than 30 ft (9 m) in width, 1 ft (0.3 m) 
clearance at side walls shall be sufficient, provided that a cen- 
ter aisle not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) wide is maintained. 

12-2.3.3 Unlimited quantities of hay, straw, and other agricul- 
tural products shall be permitted to be stored in or near farm 
buildings located outside of closely built areas. 

12-2.3.4 Combustible fibers shall not be stored in rooms or 
buildings with hazardous gases, flammable liquids, dangerous 
chemicals, or other similar materials. 

12-2.4 Sources of Ignition. 

12-2.4.1 Trucks or automobiles, other than mechanical han- 
dling equipment and approved industrial trucks as listed in 
NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard far Powered Industrial Trucks 
Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Mainte- 



nance, and Operation, shall not enter any fiber storage room or 
building but shall be permitted to be used at loading plat- 
forms. 

12-2.4.2 Electrical wiring and equipment in any combustible 
fiber storage room or building shall be installed in accordance 
with the requirements of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, for 
Class III hazardous locations. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall be responsible for designating the areas requiring 
hazardous location electrical classifications and shall classify 
the area in accordance with the classification system set forth 
in NFPA 70. 

12-2.4.3 No smoking or open flame shall be permitted in any 
area where combustible fibers are handled or stored, nor 
within 50 ft (15 m) of any uncovered pile of such fibers. "No 
Smoking" signs shall be posted. 

12-2.5 Portable Extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
shall be installed as required for extra-hazard occupancy pro- 
tection as applicable in NFPA 10, Standardfor Portable Fire Extin- 
guishers. 



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COMMERCIAL COOKING EQUIPMENT 



1-73 



Chapter 13 Commercial Cooking Equipment 

13-1 Commercial Cooking Equipment. 

13-1.1 Cooking equipment used in processes producing 
smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be equipped with an 
exhaust system that complies with all the equipment and per- 
formance requirements of NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation 
Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations, and 
all such equipment and performance shall be maintained per 
NFPA 96 during all periods of operation of the cooking equip- 
ment. Specifically, the following equipment shall be kept in 
good working condition: 

( 1 ) Cooking equipment 

(2) Hoods 

(3) Ducts (if applicable) 

(4) Fans 

(5) Fire suppression systems 

(6) Special effluent or energy control equipment 

All airflows shall be maintained. Maintenance and repairs 
shall be performed on all components at intervals necessary to 
maintain these conditions. (96:1-3.1) 

13-1.2 All solid fuel cooking equipment shall comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 11 of NFPA 96, Standard for Ventila- 
tion Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. 
(96:1-3.1.1) 

13-1.3 Cooking equipment used in fixed, mobile, or temporary 
concessions, such as trucks, buses, trailers, pavilions, tents, or 
any form of roofed enclosure, shall comply with NFPA 96, Stan- 
dard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking 
Operations, unless all or part of the installation is exempted by 
the authority havingjurisdiction. (96:1-3.1.4) 

13-1.4* Clearance. 

13-1.4.1 Except where enclosures are required, hoods, grease 
removal devices, exhaust fans, and ducts shall have a clearance 
of at least 18 in. (457.2 mm) to combustible material, 3 in. 
(76.2 mm) to limited-combustible material, and in. (0 mm) 
to noncombustible material. [See Figures A-l-3. 2(a) through (e) of 
NFPA 96.] 

Exception No. 1: Where the hood duct, or grease removal device is list- 
ed for lesser clearances. 

Exception No. 2: Clearance to combustible material shall be permitted 
to be reduced where the combustible material is protected as follows: 

(a) 0.01 3-in. (0.33-mm) (28-gauge) sheet metal spaced out 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) on noncombustible spacers shall have 9-in. (228.6-mm) 
clearance to combustible material. 

(b) 0.027-in. (0.69-mm) (22-gauge) sheet metal on 1-in. 
(25.4-mm) mineral wool bats or ceramic fiber blanket reinforced 
with wire mesh or equivalent spaced out 1 in. (25.4 mm) on non- 
combustible spacers shall have 3-in. (76.2-mm) clearance to com- 
bustible material. See Figures A-l-3. 2(f) and (g) of NFPA 96 for 
examples of clearance reduction systems. 

Exception No. 3: Clearance to limited-combustible materials shall be 
permitted to be reduced to zero clearance where protected by metal lath 
and plaster, ceramic tile, quarry tile, other noncombustible materials or 
assembly of non-combustible materials, or materials and products that 
are listed for the purpose of reducing clearance and are acceptable to 
the authority having jurisdiction. The listed materials shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the conditions of the listing and the manu- 
facturer's instructions and shall be acceptable to the authority having 
jurisdiction. (96:1-3.2.1) 



13-1.4.2 Measures shall be taken to prevent physical damage 
to any material or product used for the purpose of reducing 
clearances. In the event of damage, the material or product 
shall be repaired and restored to meet its intended listing or 
clearance requirements and shall be acceptable to the author- 
ity havingjurisdiction. In the event of a fire within a kitchen 
exhaust system, the duct and its enclosure (rated shaft, factory- 
built grease duct enclosure, or field applied grease duct enclo- 
sure) shall be inspected by qualified personnel to determine 
whether the duct and protection method are structurally 
sound, capable of maintaining their fire protection function, 
and suitable for continued operation. (96:1-3.2.1.1) 

13-1.5 Cleaning. 

13-1.5.1* Hoods, grease removal devices, fans, ducts, and 
other appurtenances shall be cleaned to bare metal at fre- 
quent intervals prior to surfaces becoming heavily contami- 
nated with grease or oily sludge. After the exhaust system is 
cleaned to bare metal, it shall not be coated with powder or 
other substance. The entire exhaust system shall be inspected 
by properly trained, qualified, and certified company or per- 
son (s) acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction in accor- 
dance with Table 13-1.5.1. (96:8-3.1) 



Table 13-1.5.1 Exhaust System Inspection Schedule 



Type or Volume of Cooking 



Frequency 



Systems serving solid fuel cooking operations Monthly 

Systems serving high-volume cooking opera- Quarterly 
tions such as 24-hour cooking, charbroiling 
or wok cooking 

Systems serving moderate-volume cooking Semiannually 
operations 

Systems serving low-volume cooking opera- Annually 

tions, such as churches, day camps, seasonal 
businesses, or senior centers 



(96:Table 8-3.1) 



13-1.5.1.1 Upon inspection, if found to be contaminated with 
deposits from grease-laden vapors, the entire exhaust system 
shall be cleaned by a properly trained, qualified, and certified 
company or person(s) acceptable to the authority havingjuris- 
diction in accordance with 13-1.5 through 13-1.5.6. (96:8-3.1.1) 

13-1.5.1.2 When a vent cleaning service is used, a certificate 
showing date of inspection or cleaning shall be maintained on 
the premises. After cleaning is completed, the vent cleaning 
contractor shall place or display within the kitchen area a label 
indicating the date cleaned and the name of the servicing 
company. The label shall also indicate areas not cleaned. 
(96:8-3.1.2) 

13-1.5.2 Flammable solvents or other flammable cleaning aids 
shall not be used. (96:8-3.2) 

13-1.5.3 At the start of the cleaning process, electrical 
switches that could be activated accidentally shall be locked 
out. (96:8-3.3) 

13-1.5.4 Components of the fire suppression system shall not 
be rendered inoperable during the cleaning process. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Exception: Servicing by properly trained and qualified persons in ac- 
cordance with Section 8-2 ofNFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Con- 
trol and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. (96:8-3. 4) 

13-1.5.5 Care shall be taken not to apply cleaning chemicals 
on fusible links or other detection devices of the automatic 
extinguishing system. (96:8-3.5) 

13-1.5.6 When cleaning procedures are completed, all electri- 
cal switches and system components shall be returned to an 
operable state. All access panels (doors) and cover plates shall 
be replaced. Dampers and diffusers shall be positioned for 
proper airflow. (96:8-3.6) 

13-1.6 Deep fat fryers shall be equipped with a separate high- 
limit control in addition to the adjustable operating control 
(thermostat) to shut off fuel or energy when the fat tempera- 
ture reaches 475°F (246°C) at 1 in. (25.4 mm) below the sur- 
face. (96:9-2) 

13-1.7 Food preparation facilities protected in accordance 
with Section 13-3 shall not be required to have openings pro- 
tected between food preparation areas and dining areas. 
Where domestic cooking equipment is used for food warming 
or limited cooking, protection or segregation of food prepara- 
tion facilities shall not be required. 

13-2 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

13-2.1* Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in 
kitchen cooking areas in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard 
for Portable Fire Extinguishers. Such extinguishers shall use 
agents that saponify upon contact with hot grease such as 
sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate dry chemical 
and potassium carbonate solutions. Class B gas-type portables 
such as C0 2 and halon shall not be permitted in kitchen cook- 
ing areas. Manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed. 
(96:7-10.1) 

13-2.2 Portable fire extinguishers listed specifically for use in 
the kitchen cooking areas shall also be permitted. (96:7-10.1.1) 

13-2.3* Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of 
cooking appliances that use combustible cooking media (veg- 
etable or animal oils and fats) shall be listed and labeled for 
Class K fires. 

Exception: Extinguishers installed specifically for these hazards prior 
to June 30, 1998. (10:2-3.2) 

13-2.4 Other fire extinguishers in the kitchen area shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire 
Extinguishers. (96:7-10.2) 

13-3 Extinguishing Systems for Commercial Cooking 
Equipment. 

13-3.1 General. 

13-3.1.1 The design, installation, protection, and mainte- 
nance of exhaust system components including hoods, grease 
removal devices, exhaust ducts, dampers, air-moving devices, 
auxiliary equipment, and fire-extinguishing equipment for 
the exhaust system and the cooking equipment in commer- 
cial, industrial, institutional, and similar cooking applications 
shall be in accordance with this section and NFPA 96, Standard 
for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking 
Operations. 



13-3.1.2 Prior to installation of any extinguishing system, 
shop drawings shall be reviewed and approved by the author- 
ity having jurisdiction. (See Section 1-16 for permits required.) 

13-3.2 Where Required. 

13-3.2.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment for the protection of 
grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and exhaust 
duct systems shall be provided. (96:7-1.1) 

13-3.2.2 Cooking equipment that produces grease laden 
vapors (such as, but not limited to, deep fat fryers, ranges, 
griddles, broilers, woks, tilting skillets, and braising pans) shall 
be protected by fire-extinguishing equipment. (96:7-1.2) 

13-3.3 Types of Equipment. 

13-3.3.1 Fire-extinguishing systems equipment shall include 
both automatic fire-extinguishing systems as primary protec- 
tion and portable fire extinguishers as secondary backup. 
(96:7-2.1) 

13-3.3.2 A placard identifying the use of the extinguisher as a 
secondary backup means to the automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem shall be conspicuously placed near each portable fire 
extinguisher in the cooking area. (96:7-2.1.1) 

13-3.3.3* Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall comply 
with standard UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems 
for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, or other equivalent 
standards and shall be installed in accordance with their list- 
ing. 

Exception: Automatic fire-extinguishing equipment provided as part of 
listed recirculating systems complying with standard UL 197, Standard 
for Safety — Commercial Electric Cooking Appliances. (96:7-2.2) 

13-3.3.4 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed in accordance with the terms of their listing, the man- 
ufacturer's instructions, and the following standards where 
applicable: 

( 1 ) NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 

(2) NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(3) NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems 

(4) NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
(96:7-2.2.1) 

13-3.3.5 Grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, 
and exhaust ducts requiring protection in accordance with 
13-3.2.1 shall be permitted to be protected by a listed fixed 
baffle hood containing a constant or fire-actuated water-wash 
system that is listed to extinguish a fire in the grease removal 
devices, hood exhaust plenums, and exhaust ducts. Each 
such area not provided with a listed water-wash extinguishing 
system shall be provided with an appropriate fire suppression 
system listed for the purpose. (96:7-2.3) 

13-3.3.5.1 The water for listed fixed baffle hood assemblies 
shall be permitted to be supplied from the domestic water sup- 
ply when the minimum water pressure and flow are provided 
in accordance with the terms of the listing. The water supply 
shall be monitored by an annunciated low-water pressure 
switch. (96:7-2.3.1) 

13-3.3.5.2 The water wash in the fixed baffle hood shall be 
activated by the cooking equipment extinguishing system. 
(96:7-2.3.2) 

13-3.4 Simultaneous Operation. Fixed pipe extinguishing sys- 
tems in a single hazard area (see Section 1-2 ofNFPA 96 for the def- 



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1-75 



inition of single hazard area) shall be arranged for simultaneous 
automatic operation upon actuation of any one of the systems. 

Exception No. 1: Where the fixed pipe extinguishing system is an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system. 

Exception No. 2: A dry or wet chemical system shall be permitted to be 
used to protect common exhaust ductwork by one of the methods speci- 
fied in NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 
orNEPA 17 A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems, in 
lieu of simultaneous automatic operation. (96:7-3) 

13-3.5 FuelShutoff. 

13-3.5.1 Upon activation of any fire-extinguishing system for 
a cooking operation, all sources of fuel and electric power that 
produce heat to all equipment requiring protection by that 
system shall automatically shut off. 

Exception No. 1: Steam supplied from an external source. 
Exception No. 2: Solid fuel cooking operations. (96:7-4.1) 

13-3.5.2 Any gas appliance not requiring protection, but 
located under the same ventilating equipment, shall also auto- 
matically shut off upon activation of any extinguishing system. 
(96:7-4.2) 

13-3.5.3 Shutoff devices shall require manual reset. (96:7-4.3) 

13-3.6 Manual Activation. 

13-3.6.1 A readily accessible means for manual activation shall 
be located between 42 in. and 60 in. (1067 mm and 1524 mm) 
above the floor, located in a path of exit or egress and clearly 
identify the hazard protected. The automatic and manual 
means of system activation external to the control head or 
releasing device shall be separate and independent of each 
other so that failure of one will not impair the operation of the 
other. 

Exception No. 1: The manual means of system activation shall be per- 
mitted to be common with the automatic means if the manual activa- 
tion device is located between the control head or releasing device and 
the first fusible link. 

Exception No. 2: An automatic sprinkler system. (96:7-5.1) 

13-3.6.2 The means for manual actuator(s) shall be mechani- 
cal and shall not rely on electrical power for actuation. 

Exception: Electrical power shall be permitted to be used for manual 
activation if a standby power supply is provided or if supervision is 
provided as per 13-3.8. (96:7-5.2) 



13-3.7 System Annunciation. 

13-3.7.1 Upon activation of an automatic fire-extinguishing 
system, an audible alarm or visual indicator shall be provided 
to show that the system has activated. (96:7-6.1) 

13-3.7.2 Where a fire alarm signaling system is serving the 
occupancy where the extinguishing system is located, the acti- 
vation of the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall activate 
the fire alarm signaling system. (96:7-6.2) 

13-3.8 System Supervision. Where electrical power is required 
to operate the automatic fire-extinguishing system, it shall be 
monitored by a supervisory alarm, with a standby power supply 
provided. 

Exception No. 1: Where automatic fire-extinguishing systems include 
automatic mechanical detection and actuation as a backup detection 
system. 

Exception No. 2: Where fire-extinguishing systems are interconnected 
or interlocked with the cooking equipment power sources so that if the 
fire-extinguishing system becomes inoperable due to power failure, all 
sources of fuel or electric power that produce heat to all cooking equip- 
ment serviced by that hood shall automatically shut off. (96:7-7. 1) 

13-3.9 Inspection. An inspection and servicing of the fire 
extinguishing system and listed exhaust hoods containing a 
constant or fire-actuated water system shall be made at least 
every 6 months by properly trained and qualified persons. 
(96:8-2) 

13-3.9.1 All actuation components, including remote manual 
pull stations, mechanical or electrical devices, detectors, actu- 
ators, fire-actuated dampers, etc., shall be checked for proper 
operation during the inspection in accordance with the man- 
ufacturer's listed procedures. In addition to these require- 
ments, the specific inspection requirements of the applicable 
NFPA standard shall also be followed. (96:8-2. 1 ) 

13-3.9.2 Fusible links (including fusible links on fire-actuated 
damper assemblies) and automatic sprinkler heads shall be 
replaced at least annually, or more frequendy if necessary, to 
ensure proper operation of the system. Other detection 
devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the 
manufacturer's recommendations. 

Exception: Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray nozzles are 
used and annual examination shows no buildup of grease or other ma- 
terial on the sprinkler or spray nozzles. (96:8-2.2) 

13-3.9.3 If required, certificates of inspection and mainte- 
nance shall be forwarded to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(96:8-2.3) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Chapter 14 Drycleaning 



14-1 General. 



14-1.1 Drycleaning plants shall comply with this chapter and 
NFPA 32, Standard for Drycleaning Plants. 

14-1.2 Drycleaning plants or systems using solvents that have 
a flash point below 100°F (37.8°C) shall be prohibited. 

14-2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1-16. 



Chapter 15 Dust Explosion Prevention 

15-1 General. Equipment, processes, and operations that 
involve the manufacture, processing, blending, repackaging, 
or handling of combustible particulate solids or combustible 
dusts regardless of concentration or particle size shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with the following 
standards as applicable: 

NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Products Facilities 

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems 



NFPA 1 20, Standard for Coal Preparation Plants 

NFPA 480, Standard for the Storage, Handling, and Processing 
of Magnesium Solids and Powders 

NFPA 481, Standard for the Production, Processing, Handling, 
and Storage of Titanium 

NFPA 482, Standard for the Production, Processing Handling, 
and Storage of Zirconium 

NFPA 485, Standard for the Storage, Handling, Processing, and 
Use of Lithium Metal 

NFPA 650, Standard for Pneumatic Conveying Systems for Han- 
dling Combustible Particulate Solids 

NFPA 65 1 , Standard for the Machining and Finishing of Alumi- 
num and the Production and Handling of Aluminum Powders 

NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combus- 
tible Particulate Solids 

NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions 

NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in 
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities 

NFPA 8503, Standard for Pulverized Fuel Systems 

15-2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1-16. 



2000 Edition 



FIREWORKS, MODEL ROCKETRY, AND EXPLOSIVES 



1-77 



Chapter 16 Fireworks, Model Rocketry, 
and Explosives 

16-1 Fireworks Displays. The construction, handling, and 
use of fireworks intended solely for outdoor display as well as 
the general conduct and operation of the display shall comply 
with the requirements of NFPA 1123, Code for Fireworks Display. 

16-2 Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate Audience. The use of 

pyrotechnic special effects in the performing arts in conjunc- 
tion with theatrical, musical, or any similar productions before 
a proximate audience, performers, or support personnel shall 
comply with NFPA 1 126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before 
a Proximate Audience. Any indoor display of pyrotechnic special 
effects; any outdoor use of pyrotechnic special effects at dis- 
tances less than those required by NFPA 1 123, Code for Fireworks 
Display, the use of pyrotechnic special effects during any video- 
taping, audiotaping, or filming of any television, radio, or 
movie production if such production is before a proximate 
audience; or the rehearsal of any production in which pyro- 
technic special effects are used shall also comply with NFPA 
1126. 

16-3 Flame Effects Before an Audience. The use of flame 
effects before an audience shall comply with NFPA 160, Stan- 
dard for Flame Effects Before an Audience. 

16-4 Fireworks Manufacturing. The manufacture, transpor- 
tation, or storage of fireworks shall comply with NFPA 1124, 
Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and Storage of Fireworks 
and Pyrotechnic Articles. 

16-5 Model Rocketry. The design, construction, limitations of 
propellant mass and power, and reliability of model rocket 
motors and model rocket motor reloading kits and their com- 
ponents produced commercially for sale to or use by the public 
for purposes of education, recreation, and sporting competi- 
tion, shall comply with NFPA 1122, Code for Model Rocketry. 

16-6 Rocketry Manufacturing. The manufacture of model 
rocket motors designed, sold, and used for the purpose of pro- 
pelling recoverable aero models shall comply with NFPA 1125, 
Code for the Manufacture of Model Rocket and High Power Rocket 
Motors. 

16-7 High Power Rocketry. The design, construction, limita- 
tions of propellant mass and power, and reliability of all 
high-power rocket motors and motor components produced 
commercially for sale to or use by the certified user for edu- 
cation, recreation, and sporting competition shall comply 
with NFPA 1 1 27, Code for High Power Rocketry. 

16-8 Explosives. The manufacture, transportation, storage, 
sale, and use of explosive materials shall comply with NFPA 
495, Explosive Materials Code, and NFPA 498, Standard for Safe 
Havens and Interchange Lots for Vehicles Transporting Explosives. 

16-9 Ammonium Nitrate. The storage of ammonium nitrate 
in the form of crystals, flakes, grains, or prills including fertil- 
izer grade, dynamite grade, nitrous oxide grade, technical 
grade, and other mixtures containing 60 percent or more by 
weight of ammonium nitrate shall comply with NFPA 490, 
Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. 

16-10 Sale, Handling, and Storage of Consumer Fireworks. 

16-10.1 Application. Where permitted, the storage and sale, 
retail or wholesale, of consumer fireworks (DOT Classified) 
shall be in accordance with this section to ensure public safety. 



All storage of display fireworks shall comply with NFPA 1124, 
Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and Storage of Fireworks 
and Pyrotechnic Articles. 

16-10.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

16-10.3 Reserved. 

16-10.4 Reserved. 

16-10.5 Fire Protection. 

16-10.5.1 Reserved. 

16-10.5.2 Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed as 
required for extra-hazard occupancy protection as applicable 
in NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

16-10.6 Reserved. 

16-10.7 Storage Area. All storage of fireworks shall be secured 
to prevent unauthorized access by the public. All storage of con- 
sumer fireworks shall not be located in direct sunlight. Loose or 
piled combustible material and weeds and long grass shall not 
be permitted within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the storage facility. 

16-10.7.1 Means of egress in all buildings shall comply with 
the applicable requirements of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

Exception: Trailers, semitrailers or metal shipping containers that are 
not normally occupied. (1124:4-2.2.1) 

16-10.7.2 All doors shall open outward, and all exits shall be 
marked clearly. Aisles and exit doors shall be kept free of 
obstructions. (1124:4-2.3) 

16-10.7.3 Doors shall be equipped with panic hardware. 
Doors shall be unlocked during operations. 

Exception: Trailers, semitrailers or metal shipping containers that are 
not normally occupied. (1124:4-2.3.1) 

16-10.7.4 Buildings used for the storage of consumer fire- 
works shall be non-residential, shall not exceed one-story, and 
shall be without basements. (1124:4-2.4) 

16-10.7.5 Consumer fireworks stored in a building that is also 
used for other purposes shall be stored in a room or area used 
exclusively for the storage of consumer fireworks. Interior 
walls of such room shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating 
of 1-hour with doors having a 45-minute fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: When acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction, non- 
combustible materials shall be permitted to be stored in the same room 
or area with consumer fireworks. (1124:4-2.4.1) 

16-10.8 Sources of Ignition. 

16-10.8.1 Smoking or open flame shall be prohibited at all 
times within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the facility. "No Smoking" signs 
shall be posted. 

16-10.8.2 All electrical wiring shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 

16-10.8.3 Electrical receptacles or unguarded light fixtures 
shall not be permitted within 25 ft (7.6 m) of any fireworks. 
Light fixtures within 25 ft (7.6 m) of any fireworks shall have 
guards. (1124:4-3.2) 

16-10.8.4 No extension cords or other temporary wiring shall 
be permitted within 25 ft (7.6 m) of any stored consumer fire- 
works. (1124:4-3.5) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Chapter 17 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 

17-1 General. This chapter shall apply to the storage, han- 
dling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids, includ- 
ing spray applications, dipping and coating operations, and 
solvent extraction. 

17-2* Storage, Handling and Use. The storage, handling, 
and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including 
waste liquids, shall comply with this section and NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 

17-2.1 Section 17-2 shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Any liquid that has a melting point equal to or greater 
than 100°F (37.8°C) or that does not meet the criteria for 
fluidity given in the definition for Liquidin Section 1-6 of 
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(2) Any liquefied gas or cryogenic liquid as defined in Sec- 
tion 1-6 of NFPA 30 

(3) Any liquid that does not have a flash point, which can be 
flammable under some conditions, such as certain halo- 
genated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing haloge- 
nated hydrocarbons 

(4) Any aerosol product 

(5) Any mist, spray, or foam 

(6) Storage of flammable and combustible liquids as covered 
by NFPA 395, Standard for the Storage of Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids at Farms and Isolated Sites 

17-2.2 Section 17-2 shall also not apply to the following: 

(1) Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids as 
governed by the U.S. Department of Transportation 

(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and contain- 
ers connected with oil-burning equipment 

17-2.3 Permit Required. Permits, where required, shall com- 
ply with Section 1-16. 

17-3 Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible 
Materials. 

17-3.1 Application. 

17-3.1.1* Operations involving the spray application of flam- 
mable and combustible materials shall comply with Section 
17-3 and NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flam- 
mable or Combustible Materials. 

17-3.1.2 Section 17-3 shall apply to the spray application of 
flammable liquids, combustible liquids or combustible pow- 
ders either continuously or intermittently, by any of the follow- 
ing methods: 

( 1 ) Compressed air atomization 

(2) Airless or hydraulic atomization 

(3) Electrostatic application methods 

(4) Fluidized bed application methods 

(5) Electrostatic fluidized bed application methods 

(6) Other acceptable application means 

17-3.1.3 Section 17-3 shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Spray application processes or operations that are con- 
ducted outdoors 

(2) Small portable spraying equipment or aerosol products 
that are not used repeatedly in the same location 

(3) Spray application of noncombustible materials. 
Exception: Where certain waterborne, spray-applied materials that 
contain flammable or combustible liquids or that produce combustible 



residues or deposits are used, the applicable provisions of this section 
shall apply. 

17-3.1.4 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

17-3.2 Location of Spray Application Operations. 

17-3.2.1 Spray application operations and processes shall be 
confined to spray booths, spray rooms, or spray areas, as 
defined in this Code. (33:2-1) 

17-3.2.2 Spray application operations and processes shall not 
be conducted in any building that is classified as an assembly, 
educational, institutional, or residential occupancy, unless 
they are located in a room that is separated both vertically and 
horizontally from all surrounding areas by construction hav- 
ing a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours and that is 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard 
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (33:2-2) 

17-3.3 Spray Area. 

17-3.3.1 Walls and ceilings that intersect or enclose a spray area 
shall be constructed of noncombustible or limited-combustible 
materials or assemblies and shall be securely and rigidly 
mounted or fastened. The interior surfaces of the spray area 
shall be smooth, designed and installed to prevent pockets that 
can trap residues, and designed to facilitate ventilation and 
cleaning. Air intake filters that are a part of a wall or ceiling 
assembly shall be listed as Class 1 or Class 2, in accordance with 
UL 900, Test Performance of Air Filter Units. The floor of the spray 
area shall be constructed of noncombustible material, limited- 
combustible material, or combustible material that is com- 
pletely covered by noncombustible material. Aluminum shall 
not be used. (33:3-1) 

17-3.3.1.1 If walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of 
sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 
0.0478 in. (1.2 mm) and each sheet of double-skin assemblies 
shall be no thinner than 0.0359 in. (0.9 mm). (33:3-1.1) 

17-3.3.1.2 Structural sections of spray booths shall be permit- 
ted to be sealed with latex-based or similar caulks and sealants 
to minimize air leakage. (33:3-1.2) 

17-3.3.1.3 Spray rooms shall be constructed of and separated 
from surrounding areas of the building by construction assem- 
blies that have a fire resistance rating of 1 hour. (33:3-1.3) 

17-3.3.1.4 Enclosed spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
provided with means of egress that meet the requirements of 
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. (33:3-1 .4) 

17-3.3.1.5 Spray booths that are used exclusively for powder 
coating shall meet the requirements of Chapter 13 of NFPA 
33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible 
Materials. They shall be permitted to be constructed of suitable 
fire retardant combustible materials where approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

Exception: Listed spray booth assemblies that are constructed of other 
materials shall be permitted. (33:3-1.5) 

17-3.3.2 Spray booths shall be separated from other opera- 
tions by a minimum distance of 3 ft (915 mm) or by a parti- 
tion, wall, or floor/ ceiling assembly having a minimum fire 
resistance rating of 1 hour. Multiple connected spray booths 
shall not be considered as "other operations." 



2000 Edition 



FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 



1-79 



Exception: As provided for in Section 11-3 ofNFPA 33, Standard for 
Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. (33:3-3) 

17-3.3.2.1 Spray booths shall be installed so that all parts of 
the booth are readily accessible for cleaning. (33:3-3.1) 

17-3.3.2.2 A clear space of not less than3ft (915 mm) shall be 
maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space 
shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray 
booth closer than 3ft (915 mm) to or directly against an interior par- 
tition, wall, or floor/ ceiling assembly that has afire resistance rating 
of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray booth can be adequately 
maintained and cleaned. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not prohibit beating a spray 
booth closer than 3 ft (915 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly 
provided the wall or roof is constructed of non-combustible material 
and provided the spray booth can be adequately maintained and 
cleaned. (33:3-3.2) 

17-3.3.3 Panels for light fixtures or for observation shall be of 
heat-treated glass, wired glass, or hammered-wired glass and 
shall be sealed to confine vapors, mists, residues, dusts, and 
deposits to the spray area. Panels for light fixtures shall be sep- 
arated from the fixture to prevent the surface temperature of 
the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C). (33:3-5) 

17-3.3.4 Spray areas that are equipped with ventilation distri- 
bution or baffle plates or with dry overspray collection filters 
shall meet the requirements of 17-3.3.4.1 through 17-3.3.4.5. 
(33:3-6) 

17-3.3.4.1 Distribution plates or baffles shall be constructed 
of noncombustible materials and shall be readily removable or 
accessible for cleaning on both sides. (33:3-6.1) 

17-3.3.4.2 Filters shall not be used when applying materials 
known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating or 
spontaneous ignition. (33:3-6.2) 

17-3.3.4.3 Supports and holders for filters shall be con- 
structed of noncombustible materials. (33:3-6.3) 

17-3.3.4.4 Overspray collection filters shall be readily remov- 
able or accessible for cleaning or replacement. (33:3-6.4) 

17-3.3.4.5 Filters shall not be alternately used for different 
types of coating materials if the combination of the materials 
might result in spontaneous heating or ignition. (See also Sec- 
tion 8-8 ofNFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flamma- 
ble or Combustible Materials.) (33:3-6.5) 

17-3.4 Electrical and Other Sources of Ignition. 

17-3.4.1 General. Electrical wiring and utilization equipment 
shall meet all the applicable requirements of Articles 500, 501 , 
502, and 516 ofNFPA 70, National Electrical Code, and 17-3.4.1 
through 17-3.4.7. 

Exception No. 1: Powered vehicles shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 3-4 ofNFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flamma- 
ble or Combustible Materials. 

Exception No. 2: Resin application operations shall meet the require- 
ments of Chapter 15 ofNFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Us- 
ing Flammable or Combustible Materials. (33:4-1) 



17-3.4.1.1 Electrostatic spray application apparatus also shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 9 or Chapter 10 of NFPA 
33, whichever is applicable. (33:4-1.1) 

17-3.4.1.2 Drying, curing, and fusing apparatus also shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 11 ofNFPA 33. (33:4-1.2) 

17-3.4.1.3 Automobile undercoating operations also shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 12 ofNFPA 33. (33:4-1.3) 

17-3.4.1.4 Powder coating apparatus also shall meet the 
requirements of Chapter 13 ofNFPA 33. (33:4-1.4) 

17-3.4.1.5 Open flames, spark-producing equipment or pro- 
cesses, and equipment whose exposed surfaces exceed the 
autoignition temperature of the material being sprayed shall 
not be located in the spray area or in surrounding areas classi- 
fied as Division 2. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to drying curing, or fus- 
ing apparatus as covered by Chapter 11 ofNFPA 33. (33:4-1.5) 

17-3.4.1.6 Any utilization equipment or apparatus that is 
capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal and is 
located above or adjacent to either the spray area or the sur- 
rounding Division 2 areas shall be of the totally enclosed type 
or shall be constructed to prevent the escape of sparks or par- 
ticles of hot metal. (33:4-1.6) 

17-3.4.2 Electrical Devices in Spray Areas. 

17-3.4.2.1 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment that is 
located in the spray area and is not subject to deposits of com- 
bustible residues shall be suitable for Class I, Division 1 or 
Class II, Division 1 locations, whichever is applicable. (See 
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.) (33:4-2.1) 

17-3.4.2.2 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment that is 
located in the spray area and is subject to deposits of combus- 
tible residues shall be listed for such exposure and shall be 
suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 locations, 
whichever is applicable. (See NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.) 
(33:4-2.2) 

17-3.4.3 Electrical Devices Adjacent to Spray Areas. Electrical 
wiring and utilization equipment located adjacent to the spray 
area shall be classified in accordance with 17-3.4.3.1 through 
17-3.4.3.5. (33:4-3) 

17-3.4.3.1 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment 
located outside, but within 20 ft (6100 mm) horizontally and 
10 ft (3050 mm) vertically, of an unenclosed spray area and 
not separated from the spray area by partitions extending to 
the boundaries of the area designated as Division 2 in Figure 
17-3.4.3.1 shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, 
Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable. (33:4-3.1) 

17-3.4.3.2 If spray application operations are conducted 
within a closed-top, open-face or open-front booth or room, 
any electrical wiring or utilization equipment located outside 
of the booth or room but within the boundaries designated as 
Division 2 in Figures l7-3.4.3.2(a) and 17-3.4.3.2 (b), shall be 
suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, 
whichever is applicable. 



2000 Edition 



1-80 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE 17-3.4.3.1 Electrical area classification for open 
spray areas. (33:Figure 4-3.1) 




20 ft 
(6100 mm) 



Top (plan) 



Roof 



10ft . 

(3050mm) /Spray area 




Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 
\^\V Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 



FIGURE 1 7-3.4.3.2 (a) Class I (or Class H) , Division 2 loca- 
tions adjacent to an open-faced or open-front spray booth or 
spray room where exhaust ventilation is interlocked with spray 
application equipment. [33:Figure 4-3. 2(a)] 



5ft R (1525 mm) 
_., 3ft R (915 mm) 




3ft R (915 mm), 
3ft R (915 mm). 



C 



-3ft R (915 mm) J, 

3ft R (915 mm) ; 

3ft R (915 mm) 





Conveyor 
opening 



5ft R (1525 mm) 



FIGURE 173.4.3.2(b) Class I (or Class II), Division 2 loca- 
tions adjacent to an open-faced or open-front spray booth or 
spray room where exhaust ventilation is not interlocked with 
spray application equipment. [33: Figure 4-3. 2(b)] 



- 1 0ft R (3050 mm) 

3ft R (915 mm) 




3ft R (91 5 mm), 
3ft R (915 mm). 



C 



3ft R 
'*--..! (915 mm) 

3ft R (915 mm) 

3ft R (915 mm) 





Conveyor 

;opening 



10ft R (3050 mm) 



The Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations 
shown in Figures 17-3.4.3.2(a) and 17-3.4.3.2(b) shall extend 
from the edges of the open face or open front of the booth or 
room in accordance with the following: 

(1) If the exhaust ventilation system is interlocked with the 
spray application equipment, then the Division 2 location 
shall extend 5 ft (1525 mm) horizontally and 3 ft 
(915 mm) vertically from the open face or open front of 
the booth or room, as shown in Figure 17-3.4.3.2 (a). 

(2) If the exhaust ventilation system is not interlocked with 
the spray application equipment, then the Division 2 
location shall extend 10 ft (3050 mm) horizontally and 
3 ft (915 mm) vertically from the open face or open front 
of the booth or room, as shown in Figure 17-3.4.3. 2(b). 

For the purposes of this subsection, "interlocked" shall 
mean that the spray application equipment cannot be oper- 
ated unless the exhaust ventilation system is operating and 
functioning properly and spray application is automatically 
stopped if the exhaust ventilation system fails. (33:4-3.2) 

17-3.4.3.3 If spray application operations are conducted within 
an open-top booth, any electrical wiring or utilization equip- 
ment located within the space 3 ft (915 mm) vertically of the top 
of the booth shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, 
Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable. In addition, any 
electrical wiring or utilization equipment located within 3 ft 
(915 mm) in all directions of openings other than the open top 
also shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
locations, whichever is applicable. (33:4-3.3) 

17-3.4.3.4 If spray application operations are confined to an 
enclosed spray booth or room, any electrical wiring or utiliza- 
tion equipment located within 3 ft (915 mm) of any opening 
shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 loca- 
tions, whichever is applicable. (SeeFigure 17-3.4.3.4.) (33:4-3.4) 



2000 Edition 



FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 



1-81 



FIGURE 17-3.4.3.4 Class I (or Class II), Division 2 locations 
adjacent to an enclosed spray booth or spray room. (33:Figure 
4-3.4) 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 

3ft R 
(915 mm) 



Extent of Class I or 
Class II, Division 2 area 





Enclosed spray 

booth or room 

(Class I, Division 1 or 

Class II, Division 1 within) 



Plan view 



(V 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 



?^> 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 



3ft R 
(915 mm) 

AX 



Elevation 



17-3.4.3.5 Where spray application equipment and supply 
containers are located in an adequately ventilated area that is 
adjacent to the spray area, but outside of the storage room or 
mixing room, the area within 3 ft (915 mm) in all directions 
from any open container or equipment and extending to the 
floor or grade level shall be classified as Class I, Division 1 or 
Class II, Division 1, whichever is applicable. The area extend- 
ing 2 ft (610 mm) beyond the Division 1 location shall be clas- 
sified as Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2, whichever is 
applicable. In addition, the area within 10 ft (3050 mm) hori- 
zontally of the perimeter of such open container or equip- 
ment, up to a height of 18 in. (458 mm) above the floor or 
grade level shall be classified as Class I, Division 2 or Class II, 
Division 2, whichever is applicable. Electrical wiring and utili- 
zation equipment installed in these areas shall be suitable for 
the location. (See Figure 17-3.4.3.5 for an example.) (33:4-3.5) 

17-3.4.4 Light Fixtures. 

17-3.4.4.1 Light fixtures that are attached to the walls or ceil- 
ings of a spray area, but are outside of any classified area and 
are separated from the spray area by glass panels that meet the 
requirements of 17-3.3.3 shall be suitable for use in ordinary 
hazard (general purpose) locations. (See Figure 17-3.4.4.1.) 
Such fixtures shall be serviced from outside the spray area. 
(33:4-4.1) 

17-3.4.4.2 Light fixtures that are attached to the walls or ceil- 
ings of a spray area; are located within the Class I, Division 2 or 
Class II, Division 2 location; and are separated from the spray 
area by glass panels that meet the requirements of 17-3.3.3 
shall be suitable for use in that location. Such fixtures shall be 
serviced from outside the spray area. (See Figure 17-3.4.4.1.) 
(33:44.2) 



FIGURE 17-3.4.3.5 Electrical area classification around an open container. (33:Figure 4-3.5) 



2 ft (610 




18 in. 
(458 mm) 



(3050 mm) 



(3050 mm) 







Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 



X\\\ Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 



2000 Edition 



1-82 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE 1 7-3.4.4. 1 Example of a light fixture mounted 
outside of the spray area and serviced from outside the spray 
area. (33:Figure 4-4.1) 



Removable panel 



Light fixture 




Frame 



FIGURE 17-3.4.4.3 Examples of light fixtures that are an 
integral part of the spray area and are serviced from inside the 
spray area. (33:Figure 4-4.3) 



Exterior of 
spray area 



Cover 




Interior of 
spray area 






/ / ^\ Hinged 
,f' panel 



-Gasket 



Glass panel 



17-3.4.4.3 Light fixtures that are an integral part of the walls 
or ceiling of a spray area shall be permitted to be separated 
from the spray area by glass panels that are an integral part of 
the fixture. Such fixtures shall be listed for use in Class I, Divi- 
sion 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable, 
and also shall be suitable for accumulations of deposits of 
combustible residues. Such fixtures shall be permitted to be 
serviced from inside the spray area. (See Figure 17-3.4.4.3.) 
(33:4-4.3) 

17-3.4.4.4 Light fixtures that are located inside the spray 
area shall meet the requirements of 17-3.4.2 and 17-3.4.5. 
(33:4-4.4) 

17-3.4.5* Static Electricity. In order to prevent sparks from 
the accumulation of static electricity, all persons, all electri- 
cally-conductive parts of the spray room or spray booth, the 
exhaust ducts, spray equipment, objects or containers that 
receive the spray stream, and piping systems that convey flam- 
mable or combustible liquids or aerated combustible solids 
shall be electrically bonded and grounded. (33:4-5) 

17-3.4.6 Flexible Power Cords. For automated equipment 
and robotic equipment, flexible power cords shall be permit- 
ted to be used in hazardous (classified) locations and shall be 
permitted to be connected to the fixed part of the electrical 
circuit, provided they meet all of the following conditions: 

(1 ) They are approved for extra-hard usage. 

(2) They are equipped with a grounding conductor that 
meets the requirements of Section 400-2 of NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code. 

(3) They are connected to terminals or conductors in an 
approved manner. 

(4) They are supported by a positive mechanical clamp in 
such a manner that permits the cord to be readily 
replaced and prevents strain at the cord connections 
within the terminal enclosure. 

(5) They are provided with explosionproof seals where the 
cord enters junction boxes, fittings, or enclosures. 

(6) They are listed for deposits of combustible residues. 
(33:4-6) 

the ventilation system shall not exceed 25 percent of the lower 



Fixture mounted behind 



Opening for fixture 



Mounting gasket 

Removable 
glass panel 




Spray area, 
wall or ceiling 



17-3.4.7 Portable Electric lights. Portable electric light fix- 
tures shall not be used in any spray area while spray applica- 
tion operations are being conducted. 

Exception: Where portable electric light fixtures are required for use in 
spaces that are not readily illuminated by fixed light fixtures within the 
spray area, they shall meet the requirements of 17-3.4.2.2. (33:4-7) 

17-3.5 Ventilation. 

17-3.5.1 Ventilating and exhaust systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with the applicable requirements 
of NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of 
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, except 
as amended by the requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA 33, 
Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible 
Materials. (33:5-1) 

17-3.5.2 Each spray area shall be provided with mechanical 
ventilation that is capable of confining and removing vapors 
and mists to a safe location and is capable of confining and 
controlling combustible residues, dusts, and deposits. The 
concentration of the vapors and mists in the exhaust stream of 

flammable limit. 



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Exception: In confined spaces, where ventilation might not be cap 
of providing the necessary ventilation, a properly applied inerting pro- 
cedure shall be permitted to be used. Such procedures shall meet the ap- 
plicable requirements ofNFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention 
Systems, and shall be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(33:5-2) 

17-3.5.2.1 Spray areas equipped with overspray collection fil- 
ters shall have visible gauges, audible alarms, or an effective 
inspection program to ensure that the required air velocity is 
being maintained. (33:5-2.1) 

17-3.5.2.2 Powder coating systems also shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 13-6 ofNFPA 33. (33:5-2.2) 

17-3.5.2.3 Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at 
all times while spray operations are being conducted and for a 
sufficient time thereafter to allow the vapors from drying coated 
objects or material and residues to be exhausted. Where spray 
operations are conducted automatically without an attendant 
constandy on duty, the operating controls of the spray appara- 
tus shall be arranged so that the spray apparatus cannot func- 
tion unless the exhaust fans are operating. (33:5-2.3) 

17-3.5.3 Individual spray booths shall be separately ducted to 
the building exterior. 

Exception No. 1: Multiple cabinet spray booths whose combined fron- 
tal area does not exceed 18 ft 2 (1. 7 m 2 ) shall be permitted to be mani- 
folded, if the sprayed materials used are not likely to react and cause 
ignition of the residue in the ducts. 

Exception No. 2: Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air pol- 
lution control or for energy conservation, ducts shall be permitted to be 
manifolded if all of the following conditions are met: 

(a) The sprayed materials used shall be unlikely to react and 
cause ignition of the residue in the ducts. 

(b) No nitrocellulose-based finishing material shall be used. 

(c) An air-cleaning system shall be provided to reduce the amount 
of overspray carried into the duct manifold. (A booth filter system 
shall be considered adequate.) 

(d) Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided at the junc- 
tion of each booth exhaust with the manifold, in addition to the pro- 
tection required by Chapter 7 ofNFPA 33. 

(e) The installation shall be approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. (33:5-6) 

17-3.5.4 Air exhausted from spray operations shall be con- 
ducted by ducts directiy to the outside of the building. Exhaust 
ducts shall follow the most direct route to the point of dis- 
charge, but shall not penetrate a fire wall. The exhaust dis- 
charge shall be directed away from any fresh air intakes. The 
exhaust duct discharge point shall be at least 6 ft (1830 mm) 
from any exterior wall or roof. The exhaust duct shall not dis- 
charge in the direction of any combustible construction that is 
within 25 ft (7625 mm) of the exhaust duct discharge point 
nor shall it discharge in the direction of any unprotected 
opening in any noncombustible or limited-combustible con- 
struction that is within 25 ft (7625 mm) of the exhaust duct 
discharge point. (33:5-4) 

17-3.5.5 Exhaust ducts shall be permitted to be round, rectan- 
gular, or any other suitable shape. They shall be provided with 
doors, panels, or other means to facilitate inspection, mainte- 
nance, cleaning, and access to fire protection devices. (33:5-9) 



17-3.5.6 Belts shall not enter any spray area unless the belt 
and pulley within the spray area is completely enclosed. 
(33:5-10.3) 

17-3.6 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Storage, 
Handling, and Distribution. 

17-3.6.1 General. Storage, handling, and mixing of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids shall meet all the applicable 
requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. Storage, handling, and mixing of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids at process areas shall also meet the require- 
ments of 17-3.6. (33:6-1) 

17-3.6.2 Storage. 

17-3.6.2.1 There shall be not more than three approved flam- 
mable liquid storage cabinets in any single process area with- 
out the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. Storage 
cabinets shall be listed or shall be designed and constructed to 
meet the requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids Code. Any single cabinet shall contain not more than 
120 gal (454 L) of Class I, Class II, or Class IIIA liquids, of 
which not more than 60 gal (227 L) shall be Class I and Class 
II liquids. (33:6-2.1) 

17-3.6.2.2 The quantity of liquid located in the vicinity of 
spraying operations, but outside of a storage cabinet, an inside 
storage room, a cut-off room or attached building, or other 
specific process area that is cut off by at least a 2-hour fire-rated 
separation from the spraying operations, shall not exceed the 
quantity given in either (1) or (2), whichever is greater: 

( 1 ) A supply for one day 

(2) A total of not over 

a. 25 gal (95 L) of Class IA liquids in containers, plus 

b. 120 gal (454 L) of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in con- 
tainers, plus 

c. Two portable tanks each not exceeding 660 gal (2498 L) 
of Class IB, IC, Class II, or Class IIIA liquids, plus 

d. Twenty portable tanks each not exceeding 660 gal 
(2498 L) of Class IIIB liquids. (33:6-2.2) 

17-3.6.2.3 The quantity of flammable and combustible liquids 
located in a spray area or in a mixing room adjacent to a spray 
area shall meet the requirements of 17-3.6.3. (33:6-2.3) 

17-3.6.3 Mixing. 

17-3.6.3.1 The withdrawal of flammable or combustible liq- 
uids from containers and the filling of containers, including 
portable mixing tanks, shall be done only in a mixing room or 
in a spray area. The amount of liquid that shall be permitted 
to be mixed or located in a spray area shall not exceed 60 gal 
(227 L). The ventilation system shall be in operation and pre- 
cautions shall be taken to protect against spills of liquid and 
sources of ignition. (See maximum volume of liquid allowed in Fig- 
ure 17-3.6.3.2.) (33:6-3.1) 

17-3.6.3.2 Mixing rooms shall be permitted to be located adja- 
cent to the spray area, provided quantities of liquid are less 
than 2 gal/ft 2 (81.5 L/m 2 ), the floor area is less than 150 ft 2 
(14 m 2 ), and the installation meets the requirements of 
17-3.6.3.2.1 through 17-3.6.3.2.6. (See Figure 17-3.6.3.2 for an 
example of this arrangement.) (33:6-3.2) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE 17-3.6.3.2 Spray area (booth, room, or open area) 
with adjacent detached mixing room, including maximum 
volume of liquid allowed. (33:Figure 6-3.2) 



* 



< 



Detached 
mix room 

150ft 2 (14m 2 ) 
(max.) 



Exhaust ventilation 




■> ' ^ 



Air intake 



Enclosed vestibule 
(optional) 



Spray booth, 
room, or area 



Maximum volume of liquid allowed: 

Gallons Liters 
Spray area 60 227 

Mix room 300 1 1 35 



17-3.6.3.2.1 Where the combined quantities of liquids located 
in a spray area and in the mixing room do not exceed 60 gal 
(227 L), then the mixing room shall be permitted to be located 
less than 6 ft (1830 mm) from the spray area or shall be permit- 
ted to be an integral part of the spray booth or spray room. [See 
Figures 17-3. 6.3. 2.1(a), 17-3.6.3.2. 1(b) and 17-3. 6.3. 2.1(c) for 
examples.] (33:6-3.2.1) 

17-3.6.3.2.2 Construction shall meet the requirements of 
17-3.3.1, 17-3.3.1.1, and 17-3.3.1.2. (33:6-3.2.2) 

17-3.6.3.2.3 The room shall be designed to contain a liquid 
spill. (33:6-3.2.3) 

17-3.6.3.2.4 The room shall be provided with continuous 
mechanical ventilation with a capacity of not less than 1 cftn/ 
ft 2 (0.3 m 3 /m 2 ) with a minimum rate of 150 cfm (4 m 3 /min). 
(33:6-3.2.4) 

FIGURE 17-3.6.3.2.1(a) Spray booth or spray room with 
adjacent three-sided mixing room, with or without vestibule. 
[33:Figure 6-3.2.1 (a)] 

Exhaust ventilation 




Air intake 



Optional 
vestibule 



FIGURE 1 7-3.6.3.2. 1 (b) Spray booth or spray room with 
integral mixing room. [33:Figure 6-3.2.1 (b)] 



Exhaust — 
ventilation 



Air intake 



S 



Spray booth 
or room 



30ft 2 (2.8m 2 )(min.) 

60 gal (227 L) 



1 



Maximum volume of liquid allowed: 
Gallons Liters 
Spray area and 
mixing room 60 227 

Note: Additional ventilation might be required. 



FIGURE 17-3.6.3.2.1 (c) Spray booth or spray room 
connected by enclosed mixing room. [33:Figure 6-3.2. 1(c)] 

Exhaust 



-e-- 



Spray booth or 
spray room 



ventilation 



y 






$ 



60 gal 
(227 L) 




--&- 



Spray booth or 
spray room 



Air intake 



Maximum volume of liquid allowed: 60 gal (227 L) 



17-3.6.3.2.5 An approved automatic fire extinguishing system 
that meets the requirements of Chapter 7 of NFPA 33 shall be 
provided. (33:6-3.2.5) 

17-3.6.3.2.6 An adequate number of suitable fire extinguish- 
ers shall be provided and shall be located immediately adja- 
cent to the mixing room. (See NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire 
Extinguishers.) (33:6-3.2.6) 

17-3.6.4 Distribution Systems — General. 

17-3.6.4.1 Closed containers, approved portable tanks, 
approved safety cans, or a properly arranged system of piping 
shall be used for transporting liquids. Open containers shall 
not be used for transportation or storage. (33:6-5.1) 

17-3.6.4.2* Wherever liquids are transferred from one con- 
tainer to another, both containers shall be effectively bonded 
and grounded to dissipate static electricity. (33:6-5.2) 



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17-3.6.4.3 Containers that supply spray nozzles shall be of the 
closed type or shall be provided with metal covers that are kept 
closed. Containers that do not rest on the floor shall have 
properly designed supports or shall be suspended by wire 
cables. Containers that supply spray nozzles by gravity flow 
shall not exceed 10-gal (38-L) capacity. (33:6-5.3) 

17-3.7 Fire Protection Equipment Required. 

17-3.7.1 Spray areas and mixing rooms shall be protected with 
an approved automatic fire extinguishing system. (33:7-1) 

17-3.7.1.1 For continuous spray application operations, acti- 
vation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically 
accomplish all of the following: 

(1) Activate a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying oper- 
ation and activate the facility's alarm system, if such a sys- 
tem is provided. 

(2) Shut down the coating material delivery system. 

(3) Terminate all spray application operations. 

(4) Stop any conveyors into and out of the spray area. 

(See Sections 17-3. 7. 7 and 17-3. 7.8 for additional requirements 
for fixed powder application systems and fixed liquid electrostatic 
application systems.) (33:7-1.1) 

17-3.7.1.2 Also for continuous spray application operations, a 
manual fire alarm and emergency system shut-down station 
shall be installed to serve each spray area. When activated, this 
station shall accomplish all of the functions listed in 
17-3.7.1.1(1) through (4). At least one such station shall be 
within ready access of operating personnel. If access to this sta- 
tion is likely to involve exposure to danger, an additional station 
shall be located adjacent to an exit from the area. (33:7-1.2) 

17-3.7.1.3 Air make-up and spray area exhaust systems shall 
not be interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain 
functioning during any fire alarm condition. 

Exception No. 1: Where the type of fire extinguishing system used re- 
quires that ventilation be discontinued, air make-up and exhaust sys- 
tems shall be permitted to be shut down and dampers shall be permitted 
to close. 

Exception No. 2: For powder coating systems, the requirements of 
1 7-3. 7. 7 shall be met instead of 1 7-3. 7. 1.3. (33: 7-1.3) 

17-3.7.2 The automatic sprinkler system in spray areas and 
mixing rooms shall meet all applicable requirements of NFPA 
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, for Extra Haz- 
ard (Group 2) occupancies. 
Exception: As provided for in Section 15-3 of NFPA 33. (33:7-2.1) 

17-3.7.3 Water supply for sprinklers shall be sufficient to supply 
all sprinklers likely to open in any one fire incident without 
depleting the available water for use in hose streams. Where 
sprinklers are installed to protect spray areas and mixing rooms 
only, water shall be permitted to be furnished from the domestic 
supply, subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdic- 
tion and provided the domestic supply can meet the design cri- 
teria for Extra Hazard (Group 2) occupancies, as defined in 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (33:7-2.3) 

17-3.7.4 Sprinklers protecting spray areas and mixing rooms 
shall be protected against overspray residue so that they will 
operate quickly in event of fire. If covered, cellophane bags 
having a thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or less, or thin 
paper bags shall be used. Coverings shall be replaced fre- 
quently so that heavy deposits of residue do not accumulate. 
Sprinklers that have been painted or coated, except by the 



sprinkler manufacturer, shall be replaced with new listed 
sprinklers having the same characteristics. (33:7-2.5) 

17-3.7.5 Where automatic sprinkler protection is not available 
or where another type of extinguishing means is better suited to 
provide the required protection for the spray application oper- 
ation, spray areas and mixing rooms shall be permitted to be 
protected with a dry chemical extinguishing system installed in 
accordance with the requirements of NFPA 17, Standard for Dry 
Chemical Extinguishing Systems; a carbon dioxide system installed 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 12, Standard on 
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems; or a gaseous agent extin- 
guishing system installed in accordance with NFPA 2001, Stan- 
dard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. (33:7-3. 1 ) 

17-3.7.6 An adequate supply of approved portable fire extin- 
guishers shall be installed near all spray areas and mixing 
rooms. (See NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers.) 
(33:7-4) 

17-3.7.7 Automated powder application equipment shall be 
protected further by the installation of an approved, super- 
vised flame detection apparatus that shall, in event of ignition, 
react to the presence of flame within one-half (0.5) second 
and shall accomplish all of the following: 

( 1 ) Shut down all energy supplies (electrical and compressed 
air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, transfer, and 
powder collection equipment. 

(2) Close segregation dampers in associated ductwork to 
interrupt airflows from application equipment to powder 
collectors. 

(3) Activate an alarm. (33:7-5) 

17-3.7.8 Automated liquid electrostatic spray application 
equipment shall be further protected by the installation of an 
approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in 
the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame within one- 
half (0.5) second and shall accomplish all of the following: 

(1) Meet all of the requirements of 17-3.7.1.1. 

(2) Disconnect power to the high voltage elements in the 
spray area and de-energize the system. (33:7-6) 

17-3.8 Operations and Maintenance. 

17-3.8.1 Maintenance procedures shall be established to 
ensure that all spray application apparatus and processes are 
operated and maintained in accordance with the manufactur- 
ers' specifications and the requirements of NFPA 33, Standard 
for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials. 
Proper maintenance shall be the responsibility of the users of 
the apparatus and processes. (33:8-1 ) 

17-3.8.2 Spray application operations shall not be conducted 
outside of predetermined spray areas, and all requirements of 
this Code and NFPA 33 that apply to spray areas shall be fol- 
lowed strictly. (33:8-1.1) 

17-3.8.3 All spray areas shall be kept free of the accumulation 
of deposits of combustible residues. Combustible coverings 
(thin paper, plastic, etc.) and strippable coatings shall be per- 
mitted to be used to facilitate cleaning operations in spray areas. 
If residue accumulates to excess in booths, duct or duct dis- 
charge points, or other spray areas, then all spraying operations 
shall be discontinued until conditions are corrected. (33:8-2) 

17-3.8.4 Maintenance Procedures. 

17-3.8.4.1 Maintenance procedures shall be established to 
ensure that overspray collector filters are replaced before 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



excessive restriction to airflow occurs. Overspray collectors 
shall be inspected after each period of use, and clogged filters 
shall be discarded and replaced. (33:8-4.1) 

17-3.8.4.2 All discarded overspray collector filters, residue 
scrapings, and debris contaminated with residue shall be 
removed immediately to a safe, well-detached location or 
placed in a water-filled metal container and disposed of at the 
close of the day's operation unless maintained completely sub- 
merged in water. (33:8-4.2) 

17-3.8.5 Approved metal waste cans shall be provided wher- 
ever rags or waste are impregnated with sprayed material and 
all such rags or waste deposited therein immediately after use. 
The contents of waste cans shall be disposed of properly at 
least once daily at the end of each shift. (33:8-5) 

17-3.8.6 Employees' clothing contaminated with sprayed 
material shall not be left on the premises overnight unless 
kept in metal lockers. (33:8-6) 

17-3.8.7 Cleaning Solvents. 

17-3.8.7.1 Solvents for cleaning operations shall have flash 
points above 100°F (37.8°C). 

Exception: For cleaning spray nozzles and auxiliary equipment, sol- 
vents having flash points not less than those normally used in spray 
operations shall be permitted to be used. (33:8-7. 1) 

17-3.8.7.2 Cleaning operations using flammable or combustible 
solvents shall be conducted inside spray areas with ventilating 
equipment operating or in other adequately ventilated locations 
that meet the requirements of 17-3.4 through 17-3.4.7. (33:8-7.2) 

17-3.8.8 "NO SMOKING OR OPEN FLAMES" signs in large let- 
ters on contrasting color background shall be conspicuously 
posted at all spray areas and paint storage rooms. (33:8-10) 

17-3.8.9 Welding, cutting, and similar spark-producing oper- 
ations shall not be permitted in or adjacent to spray areas until 
a written permit authorizing such work has been issued. The 
permit shall be issued by a person in authority following his or 
her inspection of the area to ensure that proper precautions 
have been taken and will be followed until the job is com- 
pleted. (SeeNFPA 5 IB, Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cut- 
ting and Welding Processes. ) (33:8-11) 

17-3.9 Training. All personnel involved in the spray applica- 
tion processes covered by this chapter shall be instructed in 
the potential safety and health hazards; the operational, main- 
tenance, and emergency procedures required; and the impor- 
tance of constant operator awareness. (33:16-1) 

17-3.9.1 Personnel required to handle or use flammable or 
combustible materials shall be instructed in the safe handling, 
storage, and use of the materials, as well as the emergency pro- 
cedures that might be required. (33:16-1.1) 

17-3.9.2 All personnel required to enter or to work within 
confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the 
nature of the hazard involved, the necessary precautions to be 
taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment 
required. (33:16-1.2) 

17-3.9.3 All personnel shall be instructed in the proper use, 
maintenance, and storage of all emergency, safety, or personal 
protective equipment that they might be required to use in 
their normal work performance. (33:16-1.3) 



17-3.9.4 Some appropriate form of documentation shall be 
employed to record the type and date of training provided to 
each individual involved in these processes. (33:16-1.4) 

17-4 Dipping and Coating Processes. 

17-4.1 Dipping and coating processes in which articles or 
materials are passed through tanks, vats, containers, or pro- 
cess equipment that contain flammable or combustible liquids 
shall comply with this section and NFPA 34, Standard for Dip- 
ping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Liquids. 
Such processes include, but are not limited to, dipping, roll 
coating, flow coating, curtain coating, and cleaning. 

17-4.2 Section 17-4 shall not apply to processes involving non- 
combustible liquids. 

Exception: Where certain waterborne liquids that contain flammable 
or combustible liquids or that produce combustible residues or deposits 
are used, the applicable provisions of this section shall apply. 

17^4.3* Section 17-4 shall not apply to quench tanks that are 
addressed in Chapter 19 of this Code. 

17-4.4* Where unusual industrial processes are involved, the 
authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to require addi- 
tional safeguards or modifications to the requirements of NFPA 
34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or 
Combustible Liquids, provided equivalent safety is achieved. 

17-5 Solvent Extraction. 

17-5.1 Solvent extraction plants shall comply with this section 
and NFPA 36, Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants. 

17-5.2 Application. 

17-5.2.1 This section shall apply to the following: 

(1) The commercial scale extraction processing of animal 
and vegetable oils and fats by the use of Class I flammable 
hydrocarbon liquids, hereinafter referred to as solvents 

( 2) Any equipment and buildings that are located within 1 00 ft 
(30 m) of the extraction process 

Exception: As provided for in 17-5.2.1(3) through (6). 

(3) The unloading, storage, and handling of solvents, regard- 
less of distance from the extraction process 

(4) The means of conveying material to be extracted from 
the preparation process to the extraction process 

(5) The means of conveying extracted desolventized solids 
and oil from the extraction process 

(6) Preparation and meal finishing processes that are con- 
nected by conveyor to the extraction process, regardless 
of intervening distance 

17-5.2.2 This section shall not apply to the following: 

( 1 ) The storage of raw materials or finished products 

(2) Extraction processes that use liquids that are miscible 
with water 

(3) Extraction processes that use flammable gases, liquefied 
petroleum gases, or nonflammable gases 

17-5.2.3 The use of processes that employ oxygen-active com- 
pounds that are heat or shock sensitive, such as certain 
organic peroxides, shall be prohibited within the area defined 
in 17-5.2.1(2). 

17-6* Handling Underground Releases of Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids. Handling of a suspected escape of 
flammable or combustible liquid shall be conducted by a 
means acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 



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1-87 



Chapter 18 Hot Work Operations 

18-1 General. 

18-1.1 Welding, cutting, and use of torches shall comply with 
this chapter and NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During 
Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work. 

18-1.2 Acetylene cylinder charging plants shall comply with 
NFPA 51 A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants. 

18-2 Fire Prevention Precautions. 

18-2.1 Permissible Areas. Hot work shall be allowed only in 
areas that are or have been made fire safe. Hot work shall be 
performed in either designated areas or permit-required 
areas. (51B:3-1) 

18-2.1.1 Designated Area. A designated area shall be a spe- 
cific area designed or approved for such work, such as a main- 
tenance shop or a detached outside location that is of 
noncombustible or fire-resistive construction, essentially free 
of combustible and flammable contents, and suitably segre- 
gated from adjacent areas. (51B:3-1.1) 

18-2.1.2 Permit-Required Area. A permit-required area shall 
be an area that is made fire safe by removing or protecting 
combustibles from ignition sources. (51B:3-1.2) 

18-2.2 Nonpermissible Areas. Hot work shall not be allowed 
in the following areas: 

(1 ) In areas not authorized by management 

(2) In sprinklered buildings while such protection is 
impaired 

(3) *In the presence of explosive atmospheres (that is, where 
mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts 
with air exist) 

(4) In explosive atmospheres that can develop inside 
uncleaned or improperly prepared drums, tanks, or 
other containers and equipment that have previously 
contained such materials 

(5) In explosive atmospheres that can develop in areas with 
an accumulation of combustible dusts (51B:3-2) 

18-2.3 Hot Work Permit. 

18-2.3.1 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

18-2.3.2* Before hot work operations begin in a nondesig- 
nated location, a written hot work permit by the permit autho- 
rizing individual (PAI) shall be required. (51B:3-3.1) 

18-2.3.3 Before a hot work permit is issued, the following con- 
ditions shall be verified by the PAI: 

(1) Hot work equipment to be used shall be in satisfactory 
operating condition and in good repair. 

(2) Where combustible materials, such as paper clippings, 
wood shavings, or textile fibers, are on the floor, the floor 
shall be swept clean for a radius of 35 ft (11 m). Combus- 
tible floors (except wood on concrete) shall be kept wet, 
be covered with damp sand, or be protected by noncom- 
bustible or fire-retardant shields. Where floors have been 
wet down, personnel operating arc welding or cutting 
equipment shall be protected from possible shock. 

(3) *A11 combustibles shall be relocated at least 35 ft (11 m) 
horizontally from the work site. If relocation is impracti- 
cal, combustibles shall be protected with fire-retardant 



covers or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-retardant 
guards or curtains. Edges of covers at the floor shall be 
tight to prevent sparks from going under them, including 
where several covers overlap when protecting a large pile. 

(4) Openings or cracks in walls, floors, or ducts within 35 ft 
(11m) of the site shall be tightly covered with fire-retardant 
or noncombustible material to prevent the passage of 
sparks to adjacent areas. 

(5) Conveyor systems that might carry sparks to distant com- 
bustibles shall be shielded. 

(6) If hot work is done near walls, partitions, ceilings, or roofs 
of combustible construction, fire-retardant shields or 
guards shall be provided to prevent ignition. 

(7) If hot work is to be done on a wall, partition, ceiling, or 
roof, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of com- 
bustibles on the other side by relocating combustibles. If it 
is impractical to relocate combustibles, a fire watch on the 
opposite side from the work shall be provided. 

(8) Hot work shall not be attempted on a partition, wall, ceil- 
ing, or roof that has a combustible covering or insulation, 
or on walls or partitions of combustible sandwich-type 
panel construction. 

(9) Hot work that is performed on pipes or other metal that 
is in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceilings, 
roofs, or other combustibles shall not be undertaken if 
the work is close enough to cause ignition by conduction. 

(10) Fully charged and operable fire extinguishers that are 
appropriate for the type of possible fire shall be available 
immediately at the work area. If existing hose lines are 
located within the hot work area defined by the permit, 
they shall be connected and ready for service, but shall 
not be required to be unrolled or charged. 

(11) If hot work is done in close proximity to a sprinkler head, 
a wet rag shall be laid over the head and then removed at 
the conclusion of the welding or cutting operation. Dur- 
ing hot work, special precautions shall be taken to avoid 
accidental operation of automatic fire detection or sup 
pression systems (for example, special extinguishing sys- 
tems or sprinklers) . 

(12) Nearby personnel shall be suitably protected against 
heat, sparks, slag, and so on. (51B:3-3.2) 

18-2.3.4* Based on local conditions, the PAI shall determine 
the length of the period for which the hot work permit is valid. 
(518:3-3.3) 

18-2.3.5* The area shall be inspected by the PAI at least once 
per day while the hot work permit is in effect to ensure that it 
is a fire-safe area. (51B:3-3.4) 

18-2.4 Fire Watch. 

18-2.4.1 A fire watch shall be required by the PAI when hot 
work is performed in a location where other than a minor fire 
might develop, or where the following conditions exist: 

(1) *Combustible materials in building construction or con- 
tents are closer than 35 ft (11 m) to the point of operation. 

(2) Combustible materials are more than 35 ft (11 m) away 
but are easily ignited by sparks. 

(3) Wall or floor openings within a 35-ft (11-m) radius 
expose combustible materials in adjacent areas, includ- 
ing concealed spaces in walls or floors. 

(4) Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side 
of partitions, walls, ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be 
ignited. (51B-.3-4.1) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



18-2.4.2 A fire watch shall be maintained for at least V 2 hour 
after completion of hot work operations in order to detect and 
extinguish smoldering fires. (51B:3^4.2) 

18-2.4.3* More than one fire watch shall be required if com- 
bustible materials that could be ignited by the hot work oper- 
ation cannot be directly observed by the initial fire watch. 
(51B:3-4.3) 

18-2.4.4 The fire watch shall be aware of the inherent hazards 
of the work site and of the hot work. (51B:2-4.1 ) 

18-2.4.5 The fire watch shall ensure that safe conditions are 
maintained during hot work operations. (51B:2-4.2) 

18-2.4.6 The fire watch shall have the authority to stop the hot 
work operations if unsafe conditions develop. (51B:2-4.3) 

18-2.4.7* The fire watch shall have fire-extinguishing 
equipment readily available and shall be trained in its use. 
(518:2-4.4) 

18-2.4.8 The fire watch shall be familiar with the facilities and 
procedures for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. 

(518:2-4.5) 

18-2.4.9 The fire watch shall watch for fires in all exposed 
areas and try to extinguish them only when the fires are obvi- 
ously within the capacity of the equipment available. If the fire 
watch determines that the fire is not within the capacity of the 
equipment, he or she shall sound the alarm immediately. 
(51B:2-4.6) 

18-3 Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems. 

18-3.1 General. The design and installation of oxygen-fuel 
gas systems for welding, cutting, and allied processes shall 
comply with this section and NFPA 51, Standard for the Design 
and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding Cutting, 
and Allied Processes. 

18-3.2 Cylinders and Containers. 

18-3.2.1 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

18-3.2.2 Cylinders shall be designed, fabricated, tested, and 
marked (stamped) in accordance with regulations of the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), Transport Canada 
(TC) , or the "Rules for the Construction of Unfired Pressure 
Vessels," Section VIII, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 
(51:2-1.1) 



18-3.2.3* For the primary identification of cylinder, con- 
tainer, or manifold gas supply unit content, each cylinder, 
container, or unit shall be legibly marked with the name of the 
gas in accordance with CGA-C-4, Method of Marking Portable 
Compressed Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained. 
These markings shall not be cut into the metal of the cylinder. 
(51:2-1.3) 

18-3.2.4 Cylinders permitted inside of buildings shall be 
stored at least 20 ft (6 m) from flammable and combustible liq- 
uids and easily ignited forms of materials such as wood, paper, 
oil, and grease, and where they will not be exposed to exces- 
sive rise in temperature, physical damage, or tampering by 
unauthorized persons. (51:2-2.1) 

18-3.2.5 Separate rooms or buildings used for gas cylinder stor- 
age shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation 
designed to provide a minimum of 1 cfrn per sq ft (0.3 m 3 /m 2 ) 
of floor area. Ventilation systems shall discharge a minimum of 
50 ft (15 m) from intakes of air handling systems, air condition- 
ing equipment, and air compressors. (51:2-2.2) 

18-3.2.6 Cylinders shall be secured in a manner so as to not be 
easily overturned. 

18-3.2.7 Calcium carbide shall be stored in packages meeting 
DOT or TC regulations. (51:7-1.1) 

18-3.3 Any person using a torch or other flame-producing 
device for removing paint, sweating pipe joints, or similar use 
in or around any building or structure or combustibles shall 
be responsible for the prevention of fire and shall comply with 
the following: 

(1) Provide, in a ready state, within 15 ft (4.6 m) travel dis- 
tance of the work being done, either an approved fire 
extinguisher having a minimum 2A rating or a water hose 
connected to a reliable water supply. If a water hose is 
used as the approved extinguisher, it shall be charged 
and equipped with a suitable nozzle. 

(2) Provide shielding, wetting, or other approved means to 
protect combustible material in close proximity of the 
flame. Approved, stored pressure water fire extinguishers 
shall not be used to wet combustible material. 

(3) In all cases, the person operating the torch or a designee 
shall remain in the immediate vicinity for a minimum of 
30 minutes or a period of time sufficient to ensure that 
no fire results from the work that was completed. This 
person's responsibilities shall include detecting and 
reporting any fire. 



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LABORATORIES USING CHEMICALS 



1-89 



Chapter 19 Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 

19-1 General. 

19-1.1 Application. Industrial ovens and furnaces shall comply 
with this chapter and the applicable provisions of NFPA 86, 
Standard for Ovens and Furnaces; NFPA 86C, Standard for Indus- 
trialFurnaces Using a Special Processing Atmosphere; and NFPA 86D, 
Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as an Atmosphere. 

19-1.2 Permits. 

19-1.2.1 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

19-1.2.2 Applications for a permit shall be accompanied by 
plans showing all essential details and calculations for safe 
operation. 

19-2 Location. Special consideration shall be given to the 
location of equipment using flammable liquids or when using 
gas fuels with a vapor density greater than air. 

19-3 Safety Controls. Safety controls, as specified in NFPA 
86, NFPA 86C, and NFPA 86D, shall be sufficient in number 
and substantially constructed and arranged to maintain the 
required conditions of safety and prevent the development of 
fire and explosion hazards. 



Chapter 20 Laboratories Using Chemicals 

20-1 General. 

20-1.1* The handling or storing of chemicals in laboratory 
buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas whether 
located above or below grade shall comply with this chapter 
and NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals. 

20-1.2 This chapter shall apply to substances with one or more 
of the following hazard ratings as defined in NFPA 704, Stan- 
dard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emer- 
gency Response: 

Health — 2, 3, or 4 

Flammability — 2, 3, or 4 

Reactivity — 2, 3, or 4 

20-1.3 This chapter shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Laboratory units with less than or equal to 4 L (1.1 gal) 
of flammable or combustible liquid and less than 2.2 stan- 
dard m 3 (75 standard ft 3 ) of flammable gas 

(2) Laboratories that are pilot plants 

(3) Laboratories that are primarily manufacturing plants 

(4) Incidental testing facilities 

(5) Physical, electronic, instrument, laser, or similar laborato- 
ries that use chemicals only for incidental purposes, such 
as cleaning 

(6) *Laboratories that work only with radioactive materials 

(7) Laboratories that work only with explosive material that 
are covered by NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code 

20-2 Laboratories in Health Care Occupancies. 

20-2.1 Any building, space, room, or group of rooms in a 
health care facility intended to serve activities involving proce- 
dures for investigation, diagnosis, or treatment in which flam- 
mable, combustible, or oxidizing materials are to be used shall 
comply with Section 20-1 and Chapter 10 of NFPA 99, Standard 
for Health Care Facilities. 

20-2.2 The requirements of 20-2.1 shall not apply to isolated 
frozen section laboratories; areas in which oxygen is adminis- 
tered; blood donor rooms in which flammable, combustible, 
or otherwise hazardous materials normally used in laboratory 
procedures are not present; and clinical service areas not 
using hazardous materials. 

Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 



20-3 Permits. 

tion 1-16. 



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Chapter 21 Liquefied Petroleum Gases and 
Liquefied Natural Gases 

21-1 General Provisions. 
21-1.1 Application. 

21-1.1.1 The storage and handling of liquefied petroleum 
gases (LP-Gas) shall be in accordance with this chapter and 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

21-1.1.2 Plans for stationary installations utilizing storage con- 
tainers of over 2000 gal (7.6 m 3 ) individual water capacity, or 
with aggregate water capacity exceeding 4000 gal (15.1 m 3 ), 
and all rooftop installations of ASME containers, shall be sub- 
mitted to the authority having jurisdiction before the installa- 
tion is started. The fire department shall be advised of each 
such installation. (58:1-4.1) 

21-1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

21-2 LP-Gas Equipment and Appliances. 

21-2.1 Containers. 

21-2.1.1 Refrigerated containers shall comply with Chapter 9 
of NFPA58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. (58:2-2.1.2) 

21-2.1.2* Containers shall be designed, fabricated, tested, 
and marked (or stamped) in accordance with the Regulations 
of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, "Rules for the Construction of 
Unfired Pressure Vessels," Section VIII, or the API-ASME Code 
for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases, which- 
ever is applicable at the date of manufacture. (See Appendixes C 
and D of NFPA 58.) The following shall also apply: 

(1) Adherence to applicable ASME Code Case Interpreta- 
tions and Addenda shall be considered as compliance 
with the ASME Code. 

(2) Containers fabricated to earlier editions of regulations, 
rules, or codes listed in 21-2.1.2 and the ICC Rules for Con- 
struction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, prior to April 1, 1967, 
shall be permitted to be continued to be used in accor- 
dance with 1-1.5 of NFPA 58. (58:2-2.1.3) 

21-2.1.3 Containers that show serious denting, bulging, goug- 
ing, or excessive corrosion shall be removed from service. 
(58:2-2.1.8) 

21-2.1.4 Repair or alteration of containers shall comply with 
the regulations, rules, or code under which the container was 
fabricated. Other welding shall be permitted only on saddle 
plates, lugs, or brackets attached to the container by the con- 
tainer manufacturer. (58:2-2.1.9) 

21-2.1.5 Containers for general use shall not have individual 
water capacities greater than 120,000 gal (454 m 3 ). Containers 
in dispensing stations shall have an aggregate water capacity 
not greater than 30,000 gal (114 m 3 ). This capacity restriction 
shall not apply to LP-Gas bulk plants, industrial plants, or 
industrial applications. (58:2-2.1.10) 

21-2.1.6 Cylinders of 1000 lb (454 kg) water capacity [nomi- 
nal 420 lb (191 kg) LP-Gas capacity] or less shall incorporate 
protection against physical damage to cylinder appurtenances 
and immediate connections to these when in transit, when in 
storage, when being moved into position for use, and when in 



use, except in residential and commercial installations, by the 
following: 

(1) A ventilated cap or collar designed to permit pressure 
relief valve discharge and capable of withstanding a blow 
from any direction equivalent to that of a 30-lb (14-kg) 
weight dropped 4 ft (1.2 m). Construction shall be such 
that the force of the blow will not be transmitted to the 
valve. 

(2) Collars shall be designed so that they do not interfere 
with the free operation of the cylinder valve. (58:2-2.4.1) 

21-2.1.7 Portable containers of more than 1000 lb (454 kg) 
water capacity [nominal 420 lb (191 kg) LP-Gas capacity], 
including skid tanks or for use as cargo containers, shall incor- 
porate protection against physical damage to container appur- 
tenances by recessing, by protective housings, or by location 
on the vehicle. Such protection shall comply with the provi- 
sions under which the tanks are fabricated and shall be 
designed to withstand static loadings in any direction equal to 
twice the weight of the container and attachments when filled 
with LP-Gas, using a safety factor of not less than four, based 
on the ultimate strength of the material to be used. (See Chap- 
ters 3 and 6 of NFPA 58 for additional provisions applying to the LP- 
Gas system used.) (58:2-2.4.2) 

21-2.1.8 Horizontal ASME containers of 2000 gal (7.6 m 3 ) water 
capacity or less designed for permanent installation in stationary 
service shall be permitted to be equipped with non-fireproofed 
structural steel supports and designed to allow mounting on 
firm foundations in accordance with the following: 

(1) For installation on concrete foundations raised above the 
ground level by more than 12 in. (300 mm), the structural 
steel supports shall be designed so that the bottoms of the 
horizontal members are not less than 2 in. (51 mm) nor 
more than 12 in. (300 mm) below the outside bottom of 
the container shell. 

(2) For installation on paved surfaces or concrete pads within 
4 in. (102 mm) of ground level, the structural steel sup- 
ports shall be permitted to be designed so that the bot- 
toms of the structural members are not more than 24 in. 
(610 mm) below the outside bottom of the container 
shell. [See 3-2.4.2 (a) (4) of NFPA 58 for installation provi- 
sions for such containers, which are customarily used as 
components of prefabricated container-pump assem- 
blies.] (58:2-2.5.2) 

21-2.1.9 ASME containers that are used as portable storage 
containers (see definition of Portable Container in Section 1-6 of 
NFPA 58) for temporary (less than 6 months at any given loca- 
tion) stationary service and are moved only when substantially 
empty of liquid shall comply with the following (this shall 
apply to movable fuel storage tenders including farm carts): 

(1) If mounted on legs or supports, then such supports shall 
be of steel and either shall be welded to the container by 
the manufacturer at the time of fabrication or shall be 
attached to lugs that have been so welded to the con- 
tainer. The legs or supports or the lugs for the attach- 
ment of these legs or supports shall be secured to the 
container in accordance with the code or rule under 
which the container was designed and built, with a mini- 
mum safety factor of four, to withstand loading in any 
direction equal to twice the weight of the empty con- 
tainer and attachments. 

(2) If the container is mounted on a trailer or semi-trailer 
running gear so that the unit can be moved by a conven- 



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1-91 



tional over-the-road tractor, then attachment to the vehi- 
cle, or attachments to the container to make it a vehicle, 
shall comply with the appropriate DOT requirements for 
cargo tank service, except that stress calculations shall be 
based on twice the weight of the empty container. The 
unit also shall comply with applicable state and DOT 
motor carrier regulations and shall be approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction. (58:2-2.5.4) 

21-2.1.10 Container Markings. 

21-2.1.10.1 Containers shall be marked as provided in the reg- 
ulations, rules, or code under which they are fabricated and 
shall be in accordance with the following: 

( 1 ) Where LP-Gas and one or more other compressed gases 
are to be stored or used in the same area, the cylinders 
shall be marked "Flammable" and either "LP-Gas," "LP- 
GAS," "Propane," or "Butane." Compliance with marking 
requirements of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations 
shall meet this provision. 

(2) When being transported, cylinders shall be marked and 
labeled in accordance with Tide 49 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations. (58:2-2.6.1) 

21-2.1.10.2 Cylinders shall be marked with the following 
information: 

(1) The water capacity of the cylinder in pounds 

(2) The tare weight of the cylinder in pounds, fitted for ser- 
vice. The tare weight is the cylinder weight plus the 
weight of all permanendy attached valves and other fit- 
tings but does not include the weight of protecting 
devices that are removed in order to load the cylinder. 
(58:2-2.6.2) 

21-2.1.10.3 ASME containers shall be marked in accordance 
with the following: 

(1) The marking specified shall be on a stainless steel metal 
nameplate attached to the container, located to remain 
visible after the container is installed. The nameplate 
shall be attached in such a way as to minimize corrosion 
of the nameplate or its fastening means and not contrib- 
ute to corrosion of the container. 

Exception: Where the container is buried, mounded, insulated, or oth- 
erwise covered so the nameplate is obscured the information contained 
on the nameplate shall be duplicated and installed on adjacent piping 
or on a structure in a clearly visible location. 

(2) Service for which the container is designed (for example, 
underground, aboveground, or both) 

(3) Name and address of container supplier or trade name of 
container 

(4) Water capacity of container in pounds or U.S. gallons 

(5) Design pressure in pounds per square inch 

(6) The wording "This container shall not contain a product 
that has a vapor pressure in excess of psi at 100 F" (See 
Table 2-2. 2. 2 ofNFPA 58.) 

(7) Outside surface area in square feet 

(8) Year of manufacture 

(9) Shell thickness and head thickness 

(10) OL, OD, HD 



(11) Manufacturer's serial number 

(12) ASME Code symbol (58:2-2.6.3) 

21-2.2 Container Appurtenances. Container appurtenances 
shall be fabricated of materials that are suitable for LP-Gas ser- 
vice and, shall be resistant to the action of LP-Gas under ser- 
vice conditions, and shall comply with Section 2-3 ofNFPA 58, 
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

21-2.3 Piping (Including Hose), Fittings, and Valves. 

21-2.3.1 Piping (including hose), fittings, and valves shall 
comply with Section 2-4 of NFPA 58. 

21-2.3.2 Emergency shutoff valves shall be approved and shall 
incorporate all of the following means of closing: 

(1) Automatic shutoff through thermal (fire) actuation. 
Where fusible elements are used, they shall have a melt- 
ing point not exceeding 250°F (121°C). 

(2) Manual shutoff from a remote location. 

(3) Manual shutoff at the installed location. (58:2-4.5.4) 

21-2.3.3 Hose, hose connections, and flexible connectors 
shall be fabricated of materials that are resistant to the action 
of LP-Gas both as liquid and vapor. If wire braid is used for 
reinforcement, it shall be of corrosion-resistant material such 
as stainless steel. (58:2-4.6.1) 

21-2.3.4 Hydrostatic relief valves designed to relieve the hydro- 
static pressure that might develop in sections of liquid piping 
between closed shutoff valves shall have pressure settings not 
less than 400 psi (2.8 MPa) or more than 500 psi (3.5 MPa) 
unless installed in systems designed to operate above 350 psi 
(2.4 MPa). Hydrostatic relief valves for use in systems designed 
to operate above 350 psi (2.4 MPa) shall have settings not less 
than 110 percent or more than 125 percent of the system design 
pressure. (58:24.7) 

21-3 Installation of LP-Gas Systems. 

21-3.1 General Provisions. 

21-3. 1 . 1 Location of Containers. 

21-3.1.1.1 Containers installed outside of buildings, whether 
of the portable type replaced on a cylinder exchange basis or 
permanently installed and refilled at the installation, shall be 
located with respect to the nearest container, important 
building, group of buildings, or line of adjoining property 
that can be built upon, in accordance with the following and 
Table 21-3.1.1.1, Table 21-3.1.1.3, and Table 21-3.1.1.6(6). 

(1 ) At a consumer site, if the aggregate water capacity of a mul- 
ticontainer installation comprised of individual containers 
having a water capacity of less than 125 gal (0.5 m 3 ) is 501 
gal (1.9 m 3 ) or more, the minimum distance shall comply 
with the appropriate portion of Table 21-3.1.1.1, applying 
the aggregate capacity rather than the capacity per con- 
tainer. If more than one such installation is made, each 
installation shall be separated from any other installation 
by at least 25 ft (7.6 m). The minimum distances between 
containers shall not be applied to such installations. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table 21-3.1.1.1 







Minimum Distances 








ft(m) 




Water Capacity 

per Container 

gallons (m 3 ) 


Mounded or 
Underground Containers 

[see 21-3.1.1.1(6)] 


Aboveground Containers 

[see 21-3.1.1.1(8)] 


Between Containers 

[see 21-3.1.1.1(7)] 


Less than 125 (0.5) 
[see 21-3.1.1.1(1)] 


10(3) 


None 
[see 21-3.1.1.1(2), (3), and (4)] 


None 


125 to 250 (0.5 to 1.0) 


10(3) 


10(3) 


None 


251 to 500 (1.0+ to 1.9) 


10(3) 


10(3) 


3(1) 


501 to 2,000 (1.9+ to 7.6) 


10(3) 


25 (7.6) 
[see 21-3.1.1.1(5)] 


3(1) 


2,001 to 30,000 (7.6+ to 114) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


5 (1.5) 


30,001 to 70,000 (114+ to 265) 


50 (15) 


75 (23) 


* 


70,001 to 90,000 (265+ to 341) 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


* 


90,001 to 120,000 (341+ to 454) 


50 (15) 


125 (38) 


* 


120,001 to 200,000 (454 to 757) 


50 (15) 


200 (61) 


* 


200,001 to 1,000,000 (757 to 3,785) 


50 (15) 


300(91) 


* 


Over 1,000,000 (3,785) 


50 (15) 


400 (122) 


* 



*One-quarter of the sum of the diameters of adjacent containers. 
(58:Table 3-2.2.2) 



(2) Cylinders installed alongside of buildings shall be located 
and installed so that the discharge from the cylinder pres- 
sure relief device is at least 3 ft (1 m) horizontally away 
from any building opening that is below the level of such 
discharge. Cylinders shall not be located and installed 
underneath any building unless the space is not enclosed 
for more than 50 percent of its perimeter. The discharge 
from container pressure relief devices shall be located 
not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) in any direction away from any 
exterior source of ignition, openings into direct-vent 
(sealed combustion system) appliances, or mechanical 
ventilation air intakes. 

(3) The distance measured horizontally from the point of 
discharge of a container pressure relief valve to any build- 
ing opening below the level of such discharge shall be in 
accordance with Table 21-3.1.1.1(4). 

(4) The distance measured in any direction from the point of 
discharge of a container pressure relief valve, the vent of 
a fixed maximum liquid level gauge on a container, or 
the installed location of the filling connection of a con- 
tainer to any exterior source of ignition, openings into 
direct-vent (sealed combustion system) appliances, or 
mechanical ventilation air intakes shall be in accordance 
with Table 21-3.1.1.1(4). 

(5) The 25 ft (7.6 m) distance from aboveground contain- 
ers of 501 gal to 2000 gal (1.9 m 3 to 7.6 m 3 ) capacity to 
buildings, group of buildings, or line of adjoining prop- 
erty that can be built upon shall be permitted to be 
reduced to not less than 10 ft (3 m) for a single con- 
tainer of 1200 gal (4.5 m 3 ) water capacity or less pro- 
vided such container is at least 25 ft (7.6 m) from any 
other LP-Gas container of more than 125 gal (0.5 m 3 ) 
water capacity. 



Table 21-3.1.1.1(4) 







Distance 


Discharge from Relief 






Horizontally 


Valve, Vent Discharge, 






from Relief 


and Filling Connection 






Valve 


to Exterior Source of 






Discharge to 


Ignition, Openings into 






Opening 


Direct-Vent Appliances, 




Exchange 


Below 


Mechanical Ventilation 


Container 


or Filled 


Discharge 


Air Intakes 


Type 


on Site 


ft 


ft 


Cylinder 


Exchange 


3 


5 


Cylinder 


Filled on 
site 


3 


10 


ASME 


Filled on 
site 


5 


10 



[58:Table 3-2.2.2 (d)] 



(6) Minimum distances for underground or mounded ASME 
containers of 2001 gal through 30,000 gal (7.6 m 3 
through 114 m 3 ) water capacity incorporating all the pro- 
visions of Section 3-11 shall be permitted to be reduced 
to 10 ft (3 m). Distances for all underground and 
mounded ASME containers shall be measured from the 
relief valve and the filling connection. No part of an 
underground ASME container shall be less than 10 ft 
(3 m) from a building or line of adjoining property that 
can be built upon, and no part of a mounded ASME con- 
tainer that is installed above grade shall be less than 5 ft 
(1.5 m) from a building or line of adjoining property that 
can be built upon. 

(7) Where underground multicontainer installations are 
made of individual containers having a water capacity of 
125 gal (0.5 m 3 ) or more, such containers shall be 



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installed so as to permit access at their ends or sides to 
facilitate working with cranes or hoists. 
(8) In applying the distance between buildings and ASME 
containers of 125 gal (0.5 m 3 ) or more water capacity, a 
minimum of 50 percent of this horizontal distance shall 
also apply to all portions of the building that project 
more than 5 ft (1.5 m) from the building wall and that are 
higher than the relief valve discharge outlet. This hori- 
zontal distance shall be measured from a point deter- 
mined by projecting the outside edge of such 
overhanging structure vertically downward to grade or 
other level upon which the container is installed. Under 
no condition shall the distances to the building wall be 
less than those specified except when the provisions of 
3-11.3 and 3-11.4 of NFPA 58 are met. These distances 
shall be permitted to be reduced by one-half for ASME 
containers of 2001 gal through 30,000 gal (7.6 m 3 
through 114 m 3 ) water capacity used in systems comply- 
ing with Section 3-11 of NFPA 58. 

Exception: Not applicable to installations in which overhanging 
structure is 50ft (15 m) or more above the relief valve discharge outlet. 
(58:3-2.2.2) 

21-3.1.1.2 Where storage containers having an aggregate 
water capacity of more than 4000 gal (15.1 m 3 ) are located 
in heavily populated or congested areas, the siting provi- 
sions of 21-3.1.1.1 and Table 21-3.1.1.1 shall be permitted to 
be modified as indicated by the fire safety analysis described 
in 21-3.4.1.3. (58:3.2.2.3) 

21-3.1.1.3 Aboveground multicontainer installations com- 
prised of containers having an individual water capacity of 
12,000 gal (45 m 3 ) or more installed for use in a single loca- 
tion shall be limited to the number of containers in one 
group, and with each group separated from the next group in 
accordance with the degree of fire protection provided in 
Table 21-3.1.1.3. 

The separation distance between groups of ASME contain- 
ers protected by hose stream only shall be permitted to be 
reduced by one-half when the provisions of 3-11.3 and 3-11.4 
of NFPA 58 are met. (58:3.2.2.4) 

Table 21-3.1.1.3 





Maximum 


Minimum 


Fire Protection 


Number of 
Containers in 


Separation 
between Groups 


Provided by 


One Group 


ft(m) 


Hose streams only (see 
21-3.1.1.3 and 21-3.4.1.3) 


6 


50 (15) 


Fixed monitor nozzles 
per 21-3.4.2.5 


6 


25 (7.6) 


Fixed water spray 
per 21-3.4.2.4 


9 


25 (7.6) 


Insulation per 21-3.4.2.1 


9 


25 (7.6) 



(58:Table 3.2.2.4) 

21-3.1.1.4 Underground or mounded containers shall be 
located outside of any buildings. Buildings shall not be con- 
structed over any underground or mounded containers. Sides 
of adjacent containers shall be separated in accordance with 
Table 21-3.1.1.1 but not less than 3 ft (1 m). 

Where containers are installed parallel with ends in line, 
any number of containers shall be permitted to be in one 
group. Where more than one row is installed, the adjacent 



ends of the tanks in each row shall be separated by not less 
than 10 ft (3 m). (58:3.2.2.5) 

21-3.1.1.5 In the case of buildings of other than wood-frame 
construction devoted exclusively to gas manufacturing and dis- 
tribution operations, the distances specified in Table 21-3.1.1.1 
shall be permitted to be reduced provided that containers hav- 
ing a water capacity exceeding 500 gal (1.9 m 3 ) shall not be 
located closer than 10 ft (3 m) to such gas manufacturing and 
distributing buildings. (58:3.2.2.6) 

21-3.1.1.6 The following provisions shall also apply: 

(1) Containers shall not be stacked one above the other. 

(2) Loose or piled combustible material and weeds and long 
dry grass shall not be permitted within 10 ft (3.0 m) of 
any container. 

(3) *Means shall be used to prevent the accumulation or flow 
of liquids having flash points below 200°F (93.4°C) under 
adjacent LP-Gas containers such as by dikes, diversion 
curbs, or grading. 

(4) LP-Gas containers shall be located at least 10 ft (3.0 m) 
from the centerline of the wall of diked areas containing 
flammable or combustible liquids. 

(5) The minimum horizontal separation between above- 
ground LP-Gas containers and aboveground tanks con- 
taining liquids having flash points below 200°F (93.4°C) 
shall be 20 ft (6 m). No horizontal separation shall be 
required between aboveground LP-Gas containers and 
underground tanks containing flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids installed in accordance with NFPA 30, Flamma- 
ble and Combustible Liquids Code. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply where LP-Gas containers of 
125 gal (0.5 nfi) or less water capacity are installed adjacent to fuel 
oil supply tanks of 660 gal (2.5 m 3 ) or less capacity. 

(6) *The minimum separation between LP-Gas containers 
and oxygen or gaseous hydrogen containers shall be in 
accordance with Table 21-3.1.1.6(6) of this document. 

Exception: Shorter distances shall be permitted where protective struc- 
tures having a minimum fire resistance rating of 2 hours interrupt the 
line of sight between uninsulated portions of the oxygen or hydrogen 
containers and the LP-Gas containers. The location and arrangement 
of such structures shall minimize the problems cited in A-21-3.1.1. 7. 

(7) The minimum separation between LP-Gas containers 
and liquefied hydrogen containers shall be in accordance 
with NFPA 50B, Standard for Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at 
Consumer Sites. 

(8) Where necessary to prevent flotation due to possible high 
flood waters around aboveground or mounded contain- 
ers, or high water table for those underground and par- 
tially underground, containers shall be securely anchored. 

(9) Where LP-Gas containers are to be stored or used in the 
same area with other compressed gases, the containers 
shall be marked to identify their content in accordance 
with ANSI/CGA C-4, Method of Marking Portable Compressed 
Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained. 

(10) No part of an aboveground LP-Gas container shall be 
located in the area 6 ft (1.8 m) horizontally from a verti- 
cal plane beneath overhead electric power lines that are 
over 600 volts, nominal. (58:3-2.2.7) 

21-3.1.1.7* Structures such as fire walls, fences, earth or con- 
crete barriers, and other similar structures, shall be avoided 
around or over installed nonrefrigerated containers. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table 21-3.1.1.6(6) 



Separation from Oxygen Containers 
Aggregate Capacity 



Separation from Gaseous Hydrogen 

Containers 

Aggregate Capacity 



LP-Gas 

Containers 
Aggregate Water 
Capacity gal (m 3 ) 



400 ft 3 
(1 1 m 3 )* or less 



More than 400 ft 3 (11 m 3 )* to 
20,000 ft 3 (566 m 3 )* including 
unconnected reserves ft (m) 



More than 

20,000 ft 3 (566 m 3 )* 

including unconnected 

reserves ft (m) 



Less than 
400 ft 3 
(11 m 3 )* 



400 ft 3 (11m 3 )* 
to 3000 ft 3 

(85m 3 )*ft(m) 



More than 

3000 ft 3 

(85 m 3 )* ft (m) 



1200 (4.5) or less 
Over 1200 (4.5) 
500 (1.9) or less 
Over 500 (1.9) 



None 
None 



20(6) 
20(6) 



25 (7.6) 
50(15) 



None 
None 



10(3) 
25 (7.6) 



25 (7.6) 
50 (15) 



"Cubic feet (m s ) measured at 70 C F (21°C) and atmospheric pressure. 
[58:Table3-2.2.7(f)] 



Exception No. 1: Such structures partially enclosing containers shall 
be permitted if designed in accordance with a sound fire protection 
analysis. 

Exception No. 2: Structures used to prevent flammable or combustible 
liquid accumulation or flow shall be permitted in accordance with 
21-3. 1. 1.6(3) of this document. 

Exception No. 3: Structures between LP-Gas containers and gaseous 
hydrogen containers shall be permitted in accordance with 21- 
3.1.1.6(6) of this document. 

Exception No. 4: Fences shall be permitted in accordance with 21- 
3.2.1 of this document. (58:3-2.2.9) 

21-3.1.2 Installation of Containers. Containers shall be installed 
in accordance with the following: 

(1) Cylinders shall be installed only aboveground, and shall 
be set upon a firm foundation or be otherwise firmly 
secured. Flexibility shall be provided in the connecting 
piping. (See 3-2. 10. 6 and 3-2. 10.10 ofNFPA 58.) 

(2) All containers shall be positioned so that the pressure 
relief valve is in direct communication with the vapor 
space of the container. 

(3) Where physical damage to LP-Gas containers, or systems 
of which they are a part, from vehicles is a possibility, pre- 
cautions shall be taken against such damage. 

(4) The installation position of ASME containers shall make 
all container appurtenances accessible for their normally 
intended use. 

(5) Field welding on containers shall be limited to attach- 
ments to nonpressure parts, such as saddle plates, wear 
plates, or brackets applied by the container manufacturer. 
Welding to container proper shall comply with 21-2.1.4 of 
this document. 

(6) *Aboveground containers shall be kept properly painted. 
(58:3-2.4.1) 

21-3.1.3 Installation of Pipe, Tubing, Pipe and Tubing 
Fittings, Valves, and Hose. 

21-3.1.3.1 Provision shall be made in piping including inter- 
connecting of permanently installed containers, to compen- 
sate for expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration, and for 
settling. Where necessary, flexible connectors complying with 
2-4.6 of NFPA 58 shall be permitted to be used. (See 3-2.10.10 
ofNFPA 58.) The use of nonmetallic pipe, tubing, or hose for 
permanently interconnecting such containers shall be prohib- 
ited. (58:3-2.10.6) 



21-3.1.3.2 Underground metallic piping shall be protected 
against corrosion as warranted by soil conditions. (See 3-2. 14 of 
NFPA 58.) 

LP-Gas piping shall not be used as a grounding electrode. 
(58:3-2.10.9) 

21-3.1.3.3 Hose shall be permitted to be used on the low- 
pressure side of regulators to connect to other than domestic 
and commercial appliances as follows: 

(1) The appliance connected shall be of a portable type. 

(2) For use inside buildings, the hose shall be of a minimum 
length, not exceeding 6 ft (1 .8 m) [except as provided in 
3-4.2.3(b) ofNFPA 58], and shall not extend from one 
room to another nor pass through any partitions, walls, 
ceilings, or floors (except as provided for in 21-3.3.2.7). 
It shall not be concealed from view or used in concealed 
locations. For use outside buildings, hose length shall be 
permitted to exceed 6 ft ( 1 .8 m) but shall be kept as short 
as practical. 

(3) Hose shall be securely connected to the appliance. The 
use of rubber slip ends shall not be permitted. 

(4) A shutoff valve shall be provided in the piping immedi- 
ately upstream of the inlet connection of the hose. Where 
more than one such appliance shutoff is located near 
another, precautions shall be taken to prevent operation 
of the wrong valve. 

(5) Hose used for connecting appliances to wall or other 
oudets shall be protected against physical damage. 
(58:3-2.10.12) 

21-3.1.4 Vehicle Fuel Dispenser and Dispensing Stations. 

21-3.1.4.1 Application. The location, installation, and operat- 
ing provisions for vehicle fuel dispensers and dispensing sta- 
tions shall comply with 21-3.1.4.1 through 21-3.1.4.4.3. The 
general provisions of Section 3-2 of NFPA 58 shall apply unless 
specifically modified in 21-3.1.4.1 through 21-3.1.4.4.3. 

21-3.1.4.2 Location. 

21-3.1.4.2.1 Location shall be in accordance with Table 3-2.3.3 
of NFPA 58. (58:3-9.2.1) 

21-3.1.4.2.2 Vehicle fuel dispensers and dispensing stations 
shall be located away from pits in accordance with Table 
3-2.3.3 of NFPA 58, with no drains or blow-offs from the unit 
directed toward or within 15 ft (4.6 m) of a sewer system's 
opening. (58:3-9.2.2) 



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21-3.1.4.3 General Installation Provisions. 

21-3.1.4.3.1 Vehicle fuel dispensers and dispensing stations shall 
be installed as recommended by the manufacturer. (58:3-9.3.1) 

21-3.1.4.3.2 Installation shall not be within a building but 
shall be permitted to be under weather shelter or canopy, pro- 
vided this area is adequately ventilated and is not enclosed for 
more than 50 percent of its perimeter. (58:3-9.3.2) 

21-3.1.4.3.3 Control for the pump used to transfer LP-Gas 
through the unit into containers shall be provided at the 
device in order to minimize the possibility of leakage or acci- 
dental discharge. (58:3-9.3.3) 

21-3.1.4.3.4 An excess-flow check valve complying with 2-3.3.3(b) 
of NFPA 58 or an emergency shutoff valve complying with 21-2.3.2 
shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the 
dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping. A differential 
back pressure valve shall be considered as meeting this provision. 
(58:3-9.3.4) 

21-3.1.4.3.5 Piping and the dispensing hose shall be provided 
with hydrostatic relief valves as specified in 3-2.11 of NFPA 58. 
(58:3-9.3.5) 

21-3.1.4.3.6 Protection against trespassing and tampering 
shall be in accordance with 21-3.2.1. (58:3-9.3.6) 

21-3.1.4.3.7 A manual shutoff valve and an excess-flow check 
valve of suitable capacity shall be located in the liquid line 
between the pump and dispenser inlet where the dispensing 
device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a com- 
plete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common 
base. (58:3-9.3.7) 

21-3.1.4.3.8 All dispensers shall either be installed on a con- 
crete foundation or be part of a complete storage and dispens- 
ing unit mounted on a common base and installed in 
accordance with 3-2.4.2 (a) 3 and 2-2.5.2 (a) and (b) of NFPA 
58. Protection shall be provided against physical damage. 
(58:3-9.3.8) 

21-3.1.4.3.9 A listed quick-acting shutoff valve shall be 
installed at the discharge end of the transfer hose. (58:3-9.3.9) 

21-3.1.4.3.10 A clearly identified and an easily accessible 
switch (es) or circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location 
not less than 20 ft (6.1 m) nor more than 100 ft (30.5 m) from 
the dispensing device (s) to shut off the power in the event of 
a fire, accident, or other emergency. The marking for the 
switch (es) or breaker(s) shall be visible at the point of liquid 
transfer. (58:3-9.3.10) 

21-3.1.4.4 Installation of Vehicle Fuel Dispensers. 

21-3.1.4.4.1 Hose length shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). All 
hose shall be listed. When not in use, hose shall be secured to 
protect it from damage. 

Exception: Hoses longer than 18 ft (5.5 m) shall be permitted where 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. (58:3-9.4.1) 

21-3.1.4.4.2 A listed emergency breakaway device complying 
with UL 567, Standard Pipe Connectors for Flammable and Combus- 
tible Liquids and LP-Gas, and designed to retain liquid on both 
sides of the breakaway point, or other device^ 1 affording equiv- 
alent protection approved by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, shall be installed. (58:3-9.4.2) 

21-3.1.4.4.3 Dispensing devices for liquefied petroleum gas 
shall be located at least 10 ft (3.0 m) for conventional systems 



and at least 3 ft (1 m) for low emission transfer systems in 
accordance with Section 3-1 1 of NFPA 58 from any dispensing 
device for Class I liquids. (58:3-9.4.3) 

21-3.2 Distributing and Industrial LP-Gas Systems. 

21-3.2.1 Protection against Tampering for Systems at Bulk 
Plants, Industrial Plants, and Vehicle Fuel Dispensing Sta- 
tions. To minimize the possibilities for trespassing and tam- 
pering, the area that includes container appurtenances, 
pumping equipment, loading and unloading facilities, and 
container filling facilities shall be protected by one of the fol- 
lowing methods: 

(1) Enclosure with at least a 6-ft (1.8-m) high industrial-type 
fence, unless otherwise adequately protected. There shall 
be at least two means of emergency access from the 
fenced or other enclosure. Clearance shall be provided 
to allow maintenance to be performed, and a clearance 
of at least 3 ft (1.0 m) shall be provided to allow emer- 
gency access to the required means of egress. If guard ser- 
vice is provided, it shall be extended to the LP-Gas 
installation. Guard personnel shall be properly trained. 

Exception: If a fenced or otherwise enclosed area is not over 100 ft 2 
(9 m 2 ) in area, the point of transfer is within 3 ft (1.0 m) of agate and 
containers being filled are not located within the enclosure, a second 
gate shall not be required. 

(2) As an alternate to fencing the operating area, suitable 
devices that can be locked in place shall be provided. 
Such devices, when in place, shall effectively prevent 
unauthorized operation of any of the container appurte- 
nances, system valves, or equipment. (58:3-3.6) 

21-3.2.2 Lighting. If operations are normally conducted dur- 
ing other than daylight hours, lighting shall be provided to 
illuminate storage containers, containers being loaded, con- 
trol valves, and other equipment. (58:3-3.7) 

21-3.3 LP-Gas Systems in Buildings or on Building Roofs or 
Exterior Balconies. 

21-3.3.1 General Provisions for Cylinders, Equipment, Pip- 
ing, and Appliances. 

21-3.3.1.1 Cylinders, regulating equipment, manifolds, pipe, 
tubing, and hose shall be located to minimize exposure to 
abnormally high temperatures (such as might result from 
exposure to convection and radiation from heating equip- 
ment or installation in confined spaces), physical damage, or 
tampering by unauthorized persons. (58:3-4.2.4) 

21-3.3.1.2 Heat-producing equipment shall be located and 
used to minimize the possibility of the ignition of combusti- 
bles. (58:3-4.2.5) 

21-3.3.1.3 Where cylinders are located on a floor, roof, or bal- 
cony, provisions shall be made to minimize the possibility of 
cylinders falling over the edge. (58:3-4.2.6) 

21-3.3.1.4 Transportation (movement) of cylinders within a 
building shall comply with the following: 

(1) Containers having water capacities greater than 2.7 lb 
(1.2 kg) within a building shall be restricted to movement 
direcdy associated with the uses covered by 21-3.3.2 
through 21-3.3.8 and shall be conducted in accordance 
with these provisions and 21-3.3.1.4(2) through (4). 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



(2) Valve outlets on cylinders having water capacities greater 
than 2.7 lb (1.2 kg) shall be tightly plugged or capped 
and shall comply with the provisions of 21-2.1.6. 

(3) Only emergency stairways not generally used by the pub- 
lic shall be used, and precautions shall be taken to pre- 
vent the cylinder from falling down the stairs. 

(4) Freight or passenger elevators shall be permitted to be 
used when occupied only by those engaged in moving the 
cylinder. (58:3-4.2.7) 

21-3.3.1.5 Portable heaters, including salamanders, shall be 
equipped with an approved automatic device to shut off the 
flow of gas to the main burner and to the pilot, if used, in the 
event of flame extinguishment or combustion failure. Such 
portable heaters shall be self-supporting unless designed for 
cylinder mounting (see 21-3.3.2.4). Cylinder valves, connec- 
tors, regulators, manifolds, piping, or tubing shall not be used 
as structural supports. The following shall also apply. 

Portable heaters manufactured on or after May 17, 1967, 
having an input of more than 50,000 Btu/hr (53 MJ/hr), and 
those manufactured prior to May 17, 1967, with inputs of 
more than 100,000 Btu/hr (105 MJ/hr), shall be equipped 
with either of the following: 

(1 ) A pilot that must be lighted and proved before the main 
burner can be turned on 

(2) An approved electric ignition system. 

Exception: The provisions of 21-3.3.1.5 shall not be applicable to the 
following: 

(a) Tar kettle burners, hand torches, or melting pots. 

(b) Portable heaters with less than 7500 Btu/hr (8 MJ/hr) input 
if used with cylinders having a maximum water capacity of 2.7 lb 
(1.2 kg) and filled with no more than 16.8 oz (0.522 kg) ofLP-Gas. 
(58:3-4.2.8) 

21-3.3.2 Buildings Under Construction or Undergoing Major 
Renovation. 

21-3.3.2.1 Cylinders shall be permitted to be used and trans- 
ported in buildings or structures under construction or under- 
going major renovation where such buildings are not 
occupied by the public or, if partially occupied by the public, 
cylinders shall be permitted to be used and transported in the 
unoccupied portions with the prior approval of the authority 
having jurisdiction. Such use shall be in accordance with 
21-3.3.2.2 through 21-3.3.2.8. (58:3-4.3.1) 

21-3.3.2.2 Cylinders, equipment, piping, and appliances shall 
comply with 3-4.2 of NFPA 58. (58:3-4.3.2) 

21-3.3.2.3 For temporary heating, such as curing concrete, 
drying plaster, and similar applications, heaters (other than 
integral heater-container units covered in 21-3.3.2.4) shall be 
located at least 6 ft (1.8 m) from any cylinder. (58:3-4.3.3) 

21-3.3.2.4 Integral heater-cylinder units specifically designed 
for the attachment of the heater to the cylinder, or to a sup- 
porting standard attached to the cylinder, shall be permitted 
to be used, provided they are designed and installed so as to 
prevent direct or radiant heat application to the cylinder. 
Blower-type and radiant-type units shall not be directed 
toward any cylinder within 20 ft (6.1 m). (58:3-4.3.4) 

21-3.3.2.5 If two or more heater-cylinder units of either the 
integral or nonintegral type are located in an unpartitioned 
area on the same floor, the cylinder(s) of each such unit shall 
be separated from the cylinder (s) of any other such unit by at 
least 20 ft (6.1 m). (58:3-4.3.5) 



21-3.3.2-6 If heaters are connected to cylinders manifolded 
together for use in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, 
the total water capacity of cylinders manifolded together serv- 
ing any one heater shall not be greater than 735 lb (333 kg) 
[nominal 300 lb (136 kg) LP-Gas capacity] and, if there is 
more than one such manifold, it shall be separated from any 
other by at least 20 ft (6.1 m). (58:3-4.3.6) 

21-3.3.2.7 On floors on which no heaters are connected for 
use, cylinders shall be permitted to be manifolded together 
for connection to a heater or heaters on another floor, pro- 
vided the following: 

(1) The total water capacity of the cylinders connected to any 
one manifold is not greater than 2450 lb ( 1 1 1 1 kg) [nom- 
inal 1000 lb (454 kg) LP-Gas capacity] , and 

(2) Manifolds of more than 735 lb (333 kg) water capacity 
[nominal 300 lb (136 kg) LP-Gas capacity], if located in 
the same unpartitioned area, shall be separated from 
each other by at least 50 ft (15 m). (58:3-4.3.7) 

21-3.3.2.8 The provisions of 21-3.3.2.5, 21-3.3.2.6, and 
21-3.3.2.7 shall be permitted to be altered by the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction if compliance is impractical. (58:3-4.3.8) 

21-3.3.3 Buildings Undergoing Minor Renovation When Fre- 
quented by the Public. Cylinders shall be permitted to be 
used and transported for repair or minor renovation in build- 
ings frequented by the public as follows: 

(1) During the hours the public normally occupies the build- 
ing, the following shall apply: 

a. The maximum water capacity of individual cylinders 
shall be 50 lb (23 kg) [nominal 20 lb (9.1 kg) LP-Gas 
capacity] , and the number of cylinders in the building 
shall not exceed the number of workers assigned to 
the use of the LP-Gas. 

b. Cylinders having a water capacity greater than 2.7 lb 
(1.2 kg) shall not be left unattended. 

(2) During the hours the building is not open to the public, 
cylinders shall be permitted to be used and transported 
within the building for repair or minor renovation in 
accordance with 3-4.2 and 34.3 of NFPA 58, provided 
that cylinders with a greater water capacity than 2.7 lb 
(1.2 kg) shall not be left unattended. (58:3-4.4) 

21-3.3.4 Buildings Housing Industrial Occupancies. 

21-3.3.4.1 Cylinders shall be permitted to be used in buildings 
housing industrial occupancies for processing, research, or 
experimental purposes as follows: 

(1) Cylinders, equipment, and piping used shall comply with 
3-4.2 of NFPA 58. 

(2) If cylinders are manifolded together, the total water capac- 
ity of the connected cylinders shall be not more than 735 
lb (333 kg) [nominal 300 lb (136 kg) LP-Gas capacity]. If 
there is more than one such manifold in a room, it shall 
be separated from any other by at least 20 ft (6.1 m) . 

(3) The amount of LP-Gas in cylinders for research and 
experimental use in the building shall be limited to the 
smallest practical quantity. (58:3-4.5.1) 

21-3.3.4.2 Cylinders shall be permitted to be used to supply 
fuel for temporary heating in buildings housing industrial 
occupancies with essentially noncombustible contents, if 
portable equipment for space heating is essential and a per- 
manent heating installation is not practical, provided cylin- 



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1-97 



ders and heaters comply with and are used in accordance 
with 21-3.3.2. (58:3-4.5.2) 

21-3.3.5 Buildings Housing Educational and Institutional 
Occupancies. Cylinders shall be permitted to be used in 
buildings housing educational and institutional laboratory 
occupancies for research and experimental purposes, but not 
in classrooms, as follows: 

(1) The maximum water capacity of individual cylinders used 
shall be 50 lb (23 kg) [nominal 20 lb (9.1 kg) LP-Gas 
capacity] if used in educational occupancies and 12 lb 
(5.4 kg) [nominal 5 lb (2 kg) LP-Gas capacity] if used in 
institutional occupancies. 

(2) If more than one such cylinder is located in the same 
room, the cylinders shall be separated by at least 20 ft 
(6.1 m). 

(3) Cylinders not connected for use shall be stored in accor- 
dance with Section 21-5. 

Exception: Cylinders shall not be stored in a laboratory room. 
(58:3-4.6) 

21-3.3.6 Temporary Heating and Food Service Appliances in 
Buildings in Emergencies. 

21-3.3.6.1 Cylinders shall be permitted to be used in buildings 
for temporary emergency heating purposes if necessary to pre- 
vent damage to the buildings or contents, and if the permanent 
heating system is temporarily out of service, provided the cylin- 
ders and heaters comply with and are used and transported in 
accordance with 3-4.2 and 34.3 of NFPA 58, and the temporary 
heating equipment is not left unattended. (58:34.7.1) 

21-3.3.6.2 When a public emergency has been declared and 
gas, fuel, or electrical service has been interrupted, portable 
listed LP-Gas commercial food service appliances meeting the 
requirements of 21-3.3.7.4 shall be permitted to be tempo- 
rarily used inside affected buildings. The portable appliances 
used shall be discontinued and removed from the building at 
the time the permanently installed appliances are placed back 
in operation. (58:3-4.7.2) 

21-3.3.7 Use in Buildings for Demonstrations or Training, or 
Use in Small Containers. 

21-3.3.7.1 Cylinders having a maximum water capacity of 12 lb 
(5.4 kg) [nominal 5 lb (2 kg) LP-Gas capacity] shall be permit- 
ted to be used temporarily inside buildings for public exhibi- 
tions or demonstrations, including use in classroom 
demonstrations. If more than one such cylinder is located in a 
room, the cylinders shall be separated by at least 20 ft (6.1 m). 
(58:3-4.8.1) 

21-3.3.7.2 Cylinders shall be permitted to be used temporarily 
in buildings for training purposes related to the installation 
and use of LP-Gas systems, provided the following conditions 
are met: 

( 1 ) The maximum water capacity of individual cylinders shall 
be 245 lb (111 kg) [nominal 100 lb (45 kg) LP-Gas capac- 
ity], but not more than 20 lb (9.1 kg) of LP-Gas shall be 
placed in a single cylinder. 

(2) If more than one such cylinder is located in the same room, 
the cylinders shall be separated by at least 20 ft (6.1 m). 

(3) The training location shall be acceptable to the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

(4) Cylinders shall be promptly removed from the building 
when the training class has terminated. (58:3-4.8.2) 



21-3.3.7.3* Cylinders complying with UL 147A, Standard for 
Nonrefillable (Disposable) Type Fuel Gas Cylinder Assemblies, and hav- 
ing a maximum water capacity of 2.7 lb (1.2 kg) shall be permit- 
ted to be used in buildings as part of approved self-contained 
torch assemblies or similar appliances. (58:34.8.3) 

21-3.3.7.4 Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food ser- 
vice appliances shall be permitted to be used inside restau- 
rants and in attended commercial food catering operations 
provided that no commercial food service appliances shall 
have more than two 10-oz (296-ml) nonrefillable butane gas 
containers complying with UL 147B, Standard for Nonrefillable 
(Disposal) Type Metal Container Assemblies for Butane, having a 
maximum water capacity of 1.08 lb (0.490 kg) per container 
connected directly to the appliance at any time and the con- 
tainers shall not be manifolded. The appliance fuel con- 
tainer^) shall be an integral part of the listed, approved, 
commercial food service device and shall be connected with- 
out the use of a rubber hose. Butane containers shall be listed. 
Storage of containers shall be in accordance with 5-3.1 of 
NFPA 58. (58:3-4.8.4) 

21-3.3.8 Cylinders on Roofs or Exterior Balconies. 

21-3.3.8.1 Cylinders shall be permitted to be permanently 
installed on roofs of buildings of fire-resistive construction, or 
noncombustible construction having essentially noncombusti- 
ble contents, or of other construction or contents that are pro- 
tected with automatic sprinklers (see NFPA 220, Standard on 
Types of Building Construction) in accordance with 3-4.2 of NFPA 
58 and the following: 

(a) The total water capacity of cylinders connected to any 
one manifold shall be not greater than 980 lb (445 kg) [nom- 
inal 400 lb (181 kg) LP-Gas capacity]. If more than one mani- 
fold is located on the roof, it shall be separated from any other 
by at least 50 ft (15 m). 

(b) Cylinders shall be located in areas where there is free 
air circulation, at least 10 ft (3.0 m) from building openings 
(such as windows and doors), and at least 20 ft (6.1 m) from 
air intakes of air conditioning and ventilating systems. 

(c) Cylinders shall not be located on roofs that are entirely 
enclosed by parapets more than 18 in. (457 mm) high unless 
the parapets are breached with low-level ventilation openings 
no more than 20 ft (6.1 m) apart or all openings communicat- 
ing with the interior of the building are at or above the top of 
the parapets. 

(d) Piping shall be in accordance with 3-4.2.3 of NFPA 58. 
Hose shall not be used for connection to cylinders. 

(e) The fire department shall be advised of each such 
installation. (58:3-4.9.1) 

21-3.4 Fire Protection. 

21-3.4.1 General. 

21-3.4.1.1 The wide range in size, arrangement, and location 
of LP-Gas installations covered by NFPA 58 precludes the 
inclusion of detailed fire protection provisions completely 
applicable to all installations. Provisions in 21-3.4 are subject 
to verification or modification through analysis of local condi- 
tions. (58:3-10.2.1) 

21-3.4.1.2* The planning for effective measures for control of 
inadvertent LP-Gas release or fire shall be coordinated with 
local emergency handling agencies such as fire and police 
departments. Such measures require specialized knowledge 
and training not commonly present in the training programs 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



of emergency handling agencies. Planning shall consider the 
safety of emergency personnel. (58:3-10.2.2) 

21-3.4.1.3* Fire protection shall be provided for installations 
having storage containers with an aggregate water capacity of 
more than 4000 gal (15.1 m 3 ) subject to exposure from a sin- 
gle fire. The mode of such protection shall be determined 
through a competent fire safety analysis. The first consider- 
ation in any such analysis shall be an evaluation of the total 
product control system including emergency shutoff and 
internal valves having remote and thermal shutoff capability 
and pullaway protection, and the optional requirements of 
Section 3-11 of NFPA 58, if used. 

Exception No. 1: If the analysis specified in 21-3.4.1.3 indicates a se- 
rious hazard does not exist, the fire protection provisions of 21-3.4.1.3 
shall not apply. 

Exception No. 2:* If the analysis specified in 21-3.4.1.3 indicates 
that a serious hazard exists and the provisions of 21-3.4.1.3 can- 
not be met, special protection shall be provided in accordance with 
21-3.4.2. (58:3-10.2.3) 

21-3.4.1.4 Suitable roadways or other means of access for 
emergency equipment, such as fire department apparatus, 
shall be provided. (58:3-10.2.4) 

21-3.4.1.5 Each industrial plant, bulk plant, and distributing 
point shall be provided with at least one approved portable 
fire extinguisher having a minimum capacity of 18 lb (8.2 kg) 
of dry chemical with a B:C rating. (See also NFPA 10, Standard 
for Portable Fire Extinguishers.) (58:3-10.2.5) 

21-3.4.1.6 LP-Gas fires shall not normally be extinguished 
until the source of the burning gas has been shut off or can be 
shut off. (58:3-10.2.6) 

2 1-3.4. 1.7 Emergency controls shall be conspicuously 
marked, and the controls shall be located so as to be readily 
accessible in emergencies. (58:3-10.2.7) 

21-3.4.2 Special Protection. 

21-3.4.2.1* If insulation is used, it shall be capable of limiting 
the container temperature to not over 800°F (427°C) for a 
minimum of 50 minutes as determined by test with insulation 
applied to a steel plate and subjected to a test flame substan- 
tially over the area of the test plate. The insulation system shall 
be inherently resistant to weathering and the action of hose 
streams. (See Appendix H of NFPA 58.) (58:3-10.3.1) 

21-3.4.2.2 If mounding is utilized, the provisions of 3-2.4.7 of 
NFPA 58 shall be required. (58:3-10.3.2) 

21-3.4.2.3 If burial is utilized, the provisions of 3-2.4.8 of 
NFPA 58 shall be required. (58:3-10.3.3) 

21-3.4.2.4 If water spray fixed systems are used, they shall 
comply with NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for 
Fire Protection. Such systems shall be automatically actuated by 
fire responsive devices and shall also have a capability for man- 
ual actuation. (58:3-10.3.4) 

21-3.4.2.5 If monitor nozzles are used, they shall be located 
and arranged so that all container surfaces likely to be 
exposed to fire will be wetted. Such systems shall otherwise 
comply with NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for 
Fire Protection, and shall be automatically actuated by fire 
responsive devices and shall also have a capability for manual 
actuation. (58:3-10.3.5) 



21-4 LP-Gas Liquid Transfer. 

21-4.1 Application. This section covers the transfer of liquid 
LP-Gas from one container to another wherever this transfer 
involves connections and disconnections in the transfer system, 
or the venting of LP-Gas to the atmosphere. Included are provi- 
sions covering operational safety and methods for determining 
the quantity of LP-Gas permitted in containers. (58:4-1.1.1) 

21-4.2 Operational Safety. 

21-4.2.1 Transfer Personnel. 

21-4.2.1.1 Transfer operations shall be conducted by quali- 
fied personnel meeting the provisions of Section 1-5 of NFPA 
58. At least one qualified person shall remain in attendance at 
the transfer operation from the time connections are made 
until the transfer is completed, shutoff valves are closed, and 
lines are disconnected. (58:4-2.1.1) 

21-4.2.1.2 Transfer personnel shall exercise precaution to 
ensure that the LP-Gases transferred are those for which the 
transfer system and the containers to be filled are designed. 
(58:4-2.1.2) 

21-4.2.2 Containers to Be Filled or Evacuated. 

21-4.2.2.1 In the interest of safety, transfer of LP-Gas to and 
from a container shall be accomplished only by qualified per- 
sons trained in proper handling and operating procedures 
meeting the requirements of Section 1-5 of NFPA 58 and in 
emergency response procedures. Such persons shall notify the 
container owner and user in writing when noncompliance 
with Sections 2-2 and 2-3 of NFPA 58 is found. (58:4-2.2.1) 

21-4.2.2.2 Injection of compressed air, oxygen, or any oxidiz- 
ing gas into containers to transfer LP-Gas liquid shall not be 
permitted. 

When evacuating a container owned by others, the quali- 
fied person (s) performing the transfer shall not inject any 
material other than LP-Gas into the container. (58:4-2.2.2) 

21-4.2.2.3 Valve outlets on cyclinders of 108 lb (49 kg) water 
capacity [nominal 45 lb (20 kg) propane capacity] or less shall 
be equipped with an effective seal such as a plug, cap, listed 
quick-closing coupling, or a listed quick-connect coupling. 
This seal shall be in place whenever the cylinder is not con- 
nected for use. 

Exception: Nonrefillable (disposable) and new unused cylinders shall 
not be required to comply. (58:4-2.2.3) 

21-4.2.2.4 Containers shall be filled only after determination 
that they comply with the design, fabrication, inspection, mark- 
ing, and requalifkation provisions of NFPA 58. (See 2-2.1.3 
through 2-2.1.6 of NFPA 58.) (58:4-2.2.4) 

21-4.2.2.5 Cylinders authorized as "single trip," "nonrefill- 
able," or "disposable" cylinders shall not be refilled with LP- 
Gas. (58:4-2.2.5) 

21-4.3 Arrangement and Operation of Transfer Systems. 

21-4.3.1 Public access to areas where LP-Gas is stored and 
transferred shall be prohibited except where necessary for the 
conduct of normal business activities. (58:4-2.3.1) 

21-4.3.2 Sources of ignition shall be controlled during trans- 
fer operations, while connections or disconnections are made, 
or while LP-Gas is being vented to the atmosphere. 



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1-99 



(a) Internal combustion engines within 15 ft (4.6 m) of a 
point of transfer shall be shut down while such transfer opera- 
tions are in progress, except as follows: 

(1) Engines of LP-Gas cargo vehicles constructed and oper- 
ated in compliance with Chapter 6 while such engines are 
driving transfer pumps or compressors on these vehicles 
to load containers as provided in 3-2.3.2 of NFPA 58 

(2) Engines installed in buildings as provided in Section 8-3 
of NFPA 58 

(b) Smoking, open flame, metal cutting or welding, porta- 
ble electrical tools, and extension lights capable of igniting 
LP-Gas shall not be permitted within 25 ft (7.6 m) of a point 
of transfer while filling operations are in progress. Care shall 
be taken to ensure that materials that have been heated have 
cooled before that transfer is started. 

(c) Sources of ignition, such as pilot lights, electric ignition 
devices, burners, electrical appliances, and engines located on 
the vehicle being refueled shall be turned off during the filling 
of any LP-Gas container on the vehicle. (58:4-2.3.2) 

21-4.3.3 Cargo vehicles (see Section 6-3 of NFPA 58) unloading 
into storage containers shall be at least 10 ft (3.0 m) from the 
container and so positioned that the shutoff valves on both the 
truck and the container are readily accessible. The cargo vehi- 
cle shall not transfer LP-Gas into dispensing station storage 
while parked on a public way. (58:4-2.3.3) 

21-4.4 Venting LP-Gas to the Atmosphere. LP-Gas, in either 
liquid or vapor form, shall not be vented to the atmosphere. 

Exception No. 1: Venting for the operation of fixed liquid level, rotary 
or slip tube gauges, provided the maximum flow does not exceed that 
from a No. 54 drill orifice. 

Exception No. 2: Venting of LP-Gas between shutoff valves before dis- 
connecting the liquid transfer line from the container. Where neces- 
sary, suitable bleeder valves shall be used. 

Exception No. 3: LP-Gas shall be permitted to be vented for the pur- 
poses described in Exceptions No. 1 and 2 within structures designed 
for container filling as provided in 3-2.3.1 and Chapter 7 of NFPA 
58. 

Exception No. 4: Venting vapor from listed liquid transfer pumps us- 
ing such vapor as a source of energy, provided the rate of discharge does 
not exceed that from a No. 31 drill size orifice. (See 3-2.3.3 of NFPA 
58 for location of such transfer operations.) 

Exception No. 5: Purging as permitted in 4-3.2 of NFPA 58. 

Exception No. 6: Emergency venting as permitted in 4-3.3 of NFPA 
58. (58:4-3.1) 

21-5 Storage of Portable Containers Awaiting Use or Resale. 

21-5.1 Application. 

21-5.1.1 The provisions of this chapter are applicable to the 
storage of cylinders of 1000 lb (454 kg) water capacity, or less, 
whether filled, partially filled, or empty (if they have been in 
LP-Gas service) as follows: 

(1) At consumer sites or dispensing stations, where not con- 
nected for use 

(2) In storage for resale or exchange by dealer or reseller 
(58:5-1.1.1) 

21-5.1.2 The provisions of this section shall not apply to cylin- 
ders stored at bulk plants. (58:5-1.1.2) 



21-5.2 General Location of Cylinders. 

21-5.2.1 Cylinders in storage shall be located to minimize 
exposure to excessive temperature rise, physical damage, or 
tampering. (58:5-2.1.1) 

21-5.2.2 Cylinders in storage having individual water capacity 
greater than 2V 2 lb (1.1 kg) [nominal 1 lb (0.45 kg)] LP-Gas 
capacity shall be positioned such that the pressure relief valve 
is in direct communication with the vapor space of the cylin- 
der. (58:5-2.1.2) 

21-5.2.3 Cylinders stored in buildings in accordance with 21-5.4 
shall not be located near exits, stairways, or in areas normally 
used, or intended to be used, for the safe egress of occupants. 
(58:5-2.1.3) 

21-5.2.4 If empty cylinders that have been in LP-Gas service 
are stored indoors, they shall be considered as full cylinders 
for the purposes of determining the maximum quantities of 
LP-Gas permitted in 21-5.4.1, 21-5.4.2.1, and 21-5.4.3.1. 
(58:5-2.1.4) 

21-5.2.5 Cylinders that are not connected for use shall not be 
stored on roofs. (58:5-2.1.5) 

21-5.3 Protection of Valves on Cylinders in Storage. Cylinder 
valves shall be protected as required by 21-2.1.6. Screw-on type 
caps or collars shall be securely in place on all cylinders stored, 
regardless of whether they are full, partially full, or empty, and 
cylinder oudet valves shall be closed and plugged or capped. 
The provisions of 21-4.2.2.3 for valve outlet plugs and caps 
shall apply. (58:5-2.2.1) 

21-5.4 Storage within Buildings. 

21-5.4.1 Storage within Buildings Frequented by the Pub- 
lic. Cylinders with a maximum water capacity of 2 x / 2 lb 
(1.1 kg) [nominal 1 lb (0.45 kg)] LP-Gas capacity used with 
completely self-contained hand torches and similar applica- 
tions, shall be permitted to be stored or displayed in a 
building frequented by the public. The quantity of LP-Gas 
shall not exceed 200 lb (91 kg). 

Exception No. 1: Storage in restaurants and at food service locations 
oflO-oz (283-g) butane nonrefillable containers shall be limited to no 
more than 24 containers. 

Exception No. 2: An additional twenty-four 10-oz (283-g) butane 
nonrefillable containers shall be permitted to be stored in another loca- 
tion within the building provided that the storage area is constructed 
with at least a 2-hour fire wall protection. (58:5-3.1) 

21-5.4.2 Storage within Buildings Not Frequented by the Pub- 
lic (Such as Industrial Buildings). 

21-5.4.2.1 The maximum quantity allowed in one storage loca- 
tion shall not exceed 735 lb (334 kg) water capacity [nominal 
300 lb (136 kg) LP-Gas]. If additional storage locations are 
required on the same floor within the same building, they shall 
be separated by a minimum of 300 ft (91.4 m). Storage beyond 
these limitations shall comply with 21-5.4.3. (58:5-3.2.1) 

21-5.4.2.2 Cylinders carried as part of the service equipment 
on highway mobile vehicles shall not be considered part of the 
total storage capacity in the requirements of 21-5.4.2.1 pro- 
vided such vehicles are stored in private garages and carry no 
more than three cylinders with a total aggregate capacity per 
vehicle not exceeding 100 lb (45.4 kg) of LP-Gas. Cylinder 
valves shall be closed when not in use. (58:5-3.2.2) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



21-5.4.3 Storage within Special Buildings or Rooms. 

21-5.4.3.1 The maximum quantity of LP-Gas stored in special 
buildings or rooms shall be 10,000 lb (4540 kg). (58:5-3.3.1) 

21-5.4.3.2 Special buildings or rooms for storing LP-Gas cylin- 
ders shall not be located adjoining the line of property occu- 
pied by schools, churches, hospitals, athletic fields, or other 
points of public gathering. (58:5-3.3.2) 

21-5.4.3.3 The construction of all such special buildings, and 
rooms within, or attached to, other buildings, shall comply 
with Chapter 7 of NFPA 58 and the following: 

(1) Adequate vents, to the outside only, shall be provided at 
both top and bottom and shall be located at least 5 ft 
(1.5 m) from any building opening. 

(2) The entire area shall be classified for purposes of ignition 
source control in accordance with Section 3-7 of NFPA 
58. (58:5-3.3.3) 

21-5.4.4 Storage within Residential Buildings. Storage of cyl- 
inders within a residential building, including the basement 
or any storage area in a common basement storage area in 
multiple family buildings and attached garages, shall be lim- 
ited to two cylinders each with a maximum water capacity of 
2.7 lb (1.2 kg) and shall not exceed 5.4 lb (2.4 kg) total water 
capacity for smaller cylinders per each living space unit. Each 
cylinder shall meet DOT specifications. (58:5-3.4) 

21-5.5 Storage Outside of Buildings. 

21-5.5.1* Location of Storage Outside of Buildings. Storage 
outside of buildings for cylinders awaiting use, resale, or part of 
a cylinder exchange point shall be located at least 20 ft (6.1 m) 
from any doorway or opening in a building frequented by the 
public; 20 ft (6.1 m) from any automotive service station fuel dis- 
penser; and in accordance with Table 21-5.5.1 with respect to: 

(1 ) Nearest important building or group of buildings 

(2) Line of adjoining property that can be built upon 

(3) Busy thoroughfares or sidewalks 

(4) Line of adjoining property occupied by schools, 
churches, hospitals, athletic fields, or other points of pub- 
lic gathering 

(5) Dispensing station 

Exception: Cylinders in the filling process shall not be considered to be 
in storage. (58:5-4. I) 

Table 21-5.5.1 

Horizontal Distance in ft (m) to 
Quantity of LP-Gas 

Stored lb (kg) (1) and (2) (3) and (4) (5) 



720 (227) or less 








5 (1.5) 


721 to 2,500 lb 
(227+ to 1134) 





10(3) 


10(3) 


2501 to 6000 
(1134+ to 2721) 


10(3) 


10(3) 


10(3) 


6001 to 10,000 
(2721+ to 4540) 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


Over 10,000 (4540) 


25 (7.6) 


25 (7.6) 


25 (7.6) 


(58:Table 5-4.1) 








2000 Edition 









21-5.5.2 Protection of Cylinders. 

21-5.5.2.1 Cylinders at a location open to the public shall be 
protected by either: 

(1) An enclosure in accordance with 21-3.2.1(1), or 

(2) A lockable ventilated metal locker or rack that prevents 
tampering with valves and pilferage of the cylinder. 
(58:5-4.2.1) 

21-5.5.2.2 Protection against vehicle impact shall be provided 
in accordance with good engineering practice where vehicle 
traffic normally is expected at the location. (58:5-4.2.2) 

21-5.5.3 Alternate Location and Protection of Storage. Where 
the provisions of 21-5.5.1 and 21-5.5.2.1 are impractical at con- 
struction sites, or at buildings or structures undergoing major 
renovation or repairs, the storage of cylinders shall be accept- 
able to the authority having jurisdiction. (58:5-4.3) 

21-5.6 Fire Protection. Storage locations, other than supply 
depots at separate locations apart from those of the dealer, 
reseller, or user's establishments, shall be provided with at 
least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a mini- 
mum capacity of 18 lb (8.2 kg) dry chemical with a B:C rat- 
ing. (Also see NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers.) 
(58:5-5) 

21-6 Vehicular Transportation of LP-Gas. 

21-6.1 Transportation in Portable Containers. 

21-6.1.1 Transportation of Cylinders. 

21-6.1.1.1 Portable containers having an individual water 
capacity not exceeding 1,000 lb (454 kg) [nominal 420 lb 
(191 kg) LP-Gas capacity], when filled with LP-Gas, shall be 
transported in accordance with 21-6.1.1.2 through 21-6.1.1.8. 
(58:6-2.2.1) 

21-6.1.1.2 Cylinders shall be constructed as provided in Sec- 
tion 2-2 of NFPA 58 and equipped in accordance with Section 
2-3 of NFPA 58 for transportation as cylinders. (58:6-2-2.2) 

21-6.1.1.3 The quantity of LP-Gas in containers shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 4 of NFPA 58. (58:6-2.2.3) 

21-6.1.1.4 Valves of cylinders shall be protected in accordance 
with 21-2.1.6. Screw-on type protecting caps or collars shall be 
secured in place. The provisions of 21-4.2.2.3 shall apply. 
(58:6-2.2.4) 

21-6.1.1.5 The cargo space of the vehicle shall be isolated 
from the driver's compartment, the engine, and its exhaust 
system. Open-bodied vehicles shall be considered to be in 
compliance with this provision. Closed-bodied vehicles having 
separate cargo, driver's, and engine compartments shall also 
be considered to be in compliance with this provision. 
Exception: Closed-bodied vehicles such as passenger cars, vans, and 
station wagons shall not be used for transporting more than 215 lb 
(98 kg) water capacity [nominal 90 lb (41 kg) LP-Gas capacity] but 
not more than 108 lb (49 kg) water capacity [nominal 45 lb (20 kg) 
LP-Gas capacity] per cylinder (see 21-6.1.1.6 and 21-6.1.1. 7) un- 
less the driver's and engine compartments are separated from the car- 
go space by a vaportight partition that contains no means of access 
to the cargo space. (58:6-2.2.5) 

21-6.1.1.6 Cylinders and their appurtenances shall be deter- 
mined to be leak-free before being loaded into vehicles. Cylin- 
ders shall be loaded into vehicles with substantially flat floors 
or equipped with suitable racks for holding cylinders. Cylin- 



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1-101 



ders shall be securely fastened in position to minimize the pos- 
sibility of movement, tipping, or physical damage. (58:6-2.2.6) 

21-6.1.1.7 Cylinders having an individual water capacity not 
exceeding 108 lb (49 kg) [nominal 45 lb (20 kg) LP-Gas 
capacity] transported in open vehicles and cylinders having 
an individual water capacity not exceeding 10 lb (4.5 kg) 
[nominal 4.2 lb (2 kg) LP-Gas capacity] transported in 
enclosed spaces of the vehicle shall be permitted to be trans- 
ported in other than the upright position. Cylinders having 
an individual water capacity exceeding 108 lb (49 kg) [nom- 
inal 45 lb (20 kg) LP-Gas capacity] transported in open vehi- 
cles and cylinders having an individual water capacity 
exceeding 10 lb (45 kg) [nominal 4.2 lb (1.9 kg) LP-Gas 
capacity] transported in enclosed spaces shall be transported 
with the relief device in direct communication with the vapor 
space. (58:6-2.2.7) 

21-6.1.1.8 Vehicles transporting more than 1,000 lb (454 kg) 
of LP-Gas, including the weight of the cylinders, shall be plac- 
arded as required by DOT regulations or state law. (58:6-2.2.8) 

21-6.1.2 Fire Extinguishers. Each truck or trailer transport- 
ing portable containers as provided by 21-6.1.1 of this Code or 
6-2.3 of NFPA 58 shall be equipped with at least one approved 
portable fire extinguisher having a minimum capacity of 18 lb 
(8.2 kg) dry chemical with a B:C rating. (Also see NFPA 10, Stan- 
dard for Portable Fire Extinguishers.) (58:6-2.4) 

21-6.2 Parking and Garaging Vehicles Used to Carry LP-Gas 
Cargo. 

21-6.2.1 Application. This section applies to the parking 
(except parking associated with a liquid transfer operation) 
and garaging of vehicles used for the transportation of LP-Gas. 
Such vehicles include those used to carry portable containers 
(see Section 6-2 of NFPA 58) and those used to carry LP-Gas in 
cargo tanks (see Section 6-3 of NFPA 58). (58:6-6.1) 

21-6.2.2 Parking of Vehicles. 

21-6.2.2.1 Vehicles carrying or containing LP-Gas parked out- 
doors shall comply with the following. 

(a) Vehicles shall not be left unattended on any street, 
highway, avenue, or alley, provided that drivers are not pre- 
vented from those necessary absences from the vehicle con- 
nected with their normal duties, nor shall this requirement 
prevent stops for meals or rest stops during the day or night. 

Exception No. 1: This shall not apply in an emergency. 

Exception No. 2: This shall not apply to vehicles parked in accordance 

with 21-6.2.2. 1(b). 

(b) Vehicles shall not be parked in congested areas. Such 
vehicles shall be permitted to be parked off the street in 
uncongested areas if at least 50 ft (15 m) from any building 
used for assembly, institutional, or multiple residential occu- 
pancy. This requirement shall not prohibit the parking of vehi- 
cles carrying portable containers or cargo vehicles of 3500 gal 
(13 m 3 ) water capacity or less on streets adjacent to the driver's 
residence in uncongested residential areas, provided such 
parking locations are at least 50 ft (15 m) from a building used 
for assembly, institutional, or multiple residential occupancy. 
(58:6-6.2.1) 

21-6.2-2.2 Vehicles parked indoors shall comply with the fol- 
lowing. 

(a) Cargo vehicles parked in any public garage or building 
shall have LP-Gas liquid removed from the cargo container, 



piping, pump, meter, hoses, and related equipment, and the 
pressure in the delivery hose and related equipment shall be 
reduced to approximately atmospheric, and all valves shall be 
closed before the vehicle is moved indoors. Delivery hose or 
valve outlets shall be plugged or capped before the vehicle is 
moved indoors. 

(b) Vehicles used to carry portable containers shall not be 
moved into any public garage or building for parking until all 
portable containers have been removed from the vehicle. 

(c) Vehicles carrying or containing LP-Gas shall be permit- 
ted to be parked in buildings complying with Chapter 7 of 
NFPA 58 and located on premises owned or under the control 
of the operator of such vehicles, provided the following 
occurs: 

(1) The public is excluded from such buildings. 

(2) There is floor level ventilation in all parts of the building 
where such vehicles are parked. 

(3) Leaks in the vehicle LP-Gas systems are repaired before 
the vehicle is moved indoors. 

(4) Primary shutoff valves on cargo tanks and other LP-Gas 
containers on the vehicle (except propulsion engine fuel 
containers) are closed and delivery hose outlets are 
plugged or capped to contain system pressure before the 
vehicle is moved indoors. Primary shutoff valves on LP- 
Gas propulsion engine fuel containers shall be closed 
while the vehicle is parked. 

(5) No LP-Gas container is located near a source of heat or 
within the direct path of hot air being blown from a 
blower-type heater. 

(6) LP-Gas containers are gauged or weighed to determine 
that they are not filled beyond the maximum filling limit 
according to Section 4-4 of NFPA 58. (58:6-6.2.2) 

21-6.2.2.3 Vehicles shall be permitted to be serviced or 
repaired indoors as follows. 

(a) When it is necessary to move a vehicle into any build- 
ing located on premises owned or operated by the operator of 
such vehicle for service on engine or chassis, the provisions of 
21-6.2.2.2(1) or (3) shall apply. 

(b) When it is necessary to move a vehicle carrying or con- 
taining LP-Gas into any public garage or repair facility for ser- 
vice on the engine or chassis, the provisions of 21-6.2.2.2(1) or 
(2) shall apply, unless the driver or a qualified representative 
of an LP-Gas operator is in attendance at all times while the 
vehicle is indoors. In this case, the following provisions shall 
apply under the supervision of such qualified persons: 

(1) Leaks in the vehicle LP-Gas systems shall be repaired 
before the vehicle is moved indoors. 

(2) Primary shutoff valves on cargo tanks, portable contain- 
ers, and other LP-Gas containers installed on the vehicle 
(except propulsion engine fuel containers) shall be 
closed. LP-Gas liquid shall be removed from the piping, 
pump, meter, delivery hose, and related equipment and 
the pressure therein reduced to approximately atmo- 
spheric before the vehicle is moved inside. Delivery hose 
or valve outlets shall be plugged or capped before the 
vehicle is moved indoors. 

(3) No container shall be located near a source of heat or 
within the direct path of hot air blown from a blower or 
from a blower-type heater. 

(4) LP-Gas containers shall be gauged or weighed to deter- 
mine that they are not filled beyond the maximum filling 
capacity according to Section 4-4 of NFPA 58. 



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(c) If repair work or servicing is to be performed on a 
cargo tank system, all LP-Gas shall be removed from the cargo 
tank and piping, and the system shall be thoroughly purged 
before the vehicle is moved indoors. (58:6-6.2.3) 

21-7 LP-Gases at Utility Plants. The design, construction, 
location, installation, and operation of refrigerated and nonre- 
frigerated liquefied petroleum gas systems at utility gas plants 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 59, Standard for the Storage and 
Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants. 

21-8 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The design, location, 
construction, and operation of liquified natural gas facilities 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 59A, Standard for the Produc- 
tion, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). 



Chapter 22 Marinas, Boatyards, Marine Terminals, 
Piers, and Wharves 

22-1 Marinas and Boatyards. 

22-1.1* The construction and operation of marinas, boat- 
yards, yacht clubs, boat condominiums, docking facilities asso- 
ciated with residential condominiums, multiple-docking 
facilities at multiple-family residences, and all associated piers, 
docks, and floats shall comply with this section and NFPA 303, 
Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards. 

22-1.2 This section shall apply to support facilities and struc- 
tures used for construction, repair, storage, hauling and 
launching, or fueling of vessels if fire on a dock would pose 
an immediate threat to these facilities, or a fire at a refer- 
enced facility would pose an immediate threat to a dock area. 
(303:1-1.1) 

22-1.3 This section shall apply to marinas and facilities: 

(1) Servicing small recreational and commercial craft, 
yachts, and other craft of not more than 300 gross tons, 
and 

(2) Not covered by NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and 
fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves; or 
NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine Service Station Code. 
(303:1-1.2) 



22-1.4 Single family residences with docking facilities for pri- 
vate, non-commercial use are not intended to be covered by 
this section, but use of the requirements of NFPA 303 by the 
authority having jurisdiction for single-family residences shall 
be permitted. 

22-1.5 No requirement in this section shall be construed as 
reducing applicable building, fire, and electrical codes. 
(303:1-1.3) 

22-2 Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. 

22-2.1 Marine terminals, piers, and wharves shall comply with 
this section and NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire 
Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. 

22-2.2 The general principles of this section for the construc- 
tion and fire protection of piers and wharves shall be applica- 
ble to special use piers and wharf structures that are not 
marine terminals, but which require special consideration. 
These special use structures shall include public assembly, res- 
idential, business, or recreational occupancies that differ in 
design and construction from cargo handling piers. 

22-2.3 This section shall not apply to the following: 

( 1 ) *Marinas and boatyards (307: 1-1 .2) 

(2) *Handling of flammable or combustible liquids in bulk 
(307:1-1.3) 

(3) *Handling of liquefied gases in bulk (307:1-1.4) 

22-3 Construction, Repair, and Lay-Up of Vessels. 

22-3.1* The construction, conversion, repair or lay-up of ves- 
sels shall comply with this section and NFPA 312, Standard for 
Fire Protection of Vessels During Construction, Repair, and Lay-up. 

22-3.2 Emergency Exception. Nothing in this document shall 
be construed as prohibiting the immediate dry-docking of a 
vessel whose safety is imperiled, as by being in a sinking condi- 
tion or by being seriously damaged. In such cases, all necessary 
precautionary measures shall be taken as soon as practicable. 
(312:1-1.1) 

22-3.3 The requirements of this section shall not apply to sit- 
uations where they are in conflict with or are superseded by 
requirements of any government regulatory agency. (312:1-1) 



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Chapter 23 Mechanical Refrigeration 

23-1 General. This chapter shall apply to all refrigerating 
units or systems described herein. 

Exception: Air, water, or brine systems and all units using Group 1 
refrigerants with a refrigerant compressor or horsepower rating of less 
than 100. 

23-2 Classifications. 

23-2.1 Group 1 refrigerants shall include 

Carbon dioxide (R-744) 

Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22) 

Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) (R-500) 

Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) 

Dichlorotetrafluoroethane (R-114) 

Trichlorofluoromethane (R-ll) 

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) (R-30) 

Trifluorotrichloroethane (R-113) 

Chlorotrifluoromethane (R-13) 

Bromotrifluoromethane (R-13B1) 

Carbontetrafluoride (R-14) 

Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22) (R-502) 

Chloropentafluoroethane (R-115) 

Octafluorocyclobutane (R-C318) 
23-2.2 Group 2 refrigerants shall include 

Ammonia (R-717) 

Dichloroethylene (R-ll 30) 

Methyl chloride (R-40) 

Methyl formate (R-611) 

Sulfur dioxide (R-764) 

23-2.3 Group 3 refrigerants shall include 
Butane (R-600) 
Ethane (R-170) 



Propane (R-290) 
Ethylene (R-1150) 
Isobutane (R-600a) 

23-3 Maintenance and Installation. 

23-3.1 All refrigeration systems shall be maintained free from 
accumulations of oil, dirt, waste, and other debris and shall be 
maintained accessible at all times. 

23-3.2 All new mechanical refrigeration systems shall be 
installed and all existing installations shall be maintained in a 
standard safe manner that minimizes life, health, and fire haz- 
ards of the installation. 

23-3.3 The person in charge of a premises where a refrigera- 
tion unit requiring a permit is installed shall place a card in a 
conspicuous location near the condensing unit giving instruc- 
tions for operation of the system, including precautions to be 
observed in case of breakdown or leak. 

23-3.4 All refrigeration systems requiring a permit shall be 
provided with a legible sign (i.e., manufacturer's nameplate) 
that is permanently attached and easily accessible, indicating 
the following: 

(1) Name and address of the manufacturer or installer 

(2) Kind and total number of pounds of refrigerant con- 
tained in the system 

(3) Field test pressure applied 

23-3.5 All systems containing more than 100 lb (45 kg) of 
refrigerant shall be provided with signs having letters not less 
than 1 / 2 in. (12.7 mm) high designating the following: 

( 1 ) Main shutoff valves to each vessel 

(2) Main stream or electrical control 

(3) Remote control switch 

(4) Pressure limiting device 

23-4* Emergency Discharge of Ammonia Refrigerant. Ammo- 
nia refrigeration systems shall be provided with an approved 
system for safely removing the ammonia refrigerant in the 
event of an emergency. 



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Chapter 24 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 

24-1 General. 

24-1.1 This chapter shall apply to the prevention, control, and 
mitigation of dangerous conditions related to the storage of 
solid and liquid oxidizers and organic peroxide formulations. 
(See Appendix Bfor the classification of hazard categories and hazard 
evaluations.) 

24-1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

24-1.3 A plan to close a facility or terminate storage, dispens- 
ing, handling, or use of hazardous materials shall be submit- 
ted for approval at least 30 days prior to the action. The plan 
shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that were stored, 
dispensed, handled, or used in the facility have been trans- 
ported, disposed of, or reused in a manner that eliminates the 
need for further maintenance and any threat to public health 
and safety. 

24-2 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers. 
24-2.1 Application. 

24-2.1.1 The storage of oxidizers that are liquid or solid at 
ambient conditions shall be in accordance with this section 
and NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers. 

24-2.1 .2 This section shall not apply to the storage of solid and 
liquid oxidizers for normal use on the premises of single-fam- 
ily dwellings. (430:1-1.1) 

24-2.1.3 This section shall not apply to explosives or blasting 
agents, which are covered by Section 16-8 and NFPA 495, 
Explosive Materials Code; to ammonium nitrate, which is cov- 
ered in Section 1 6-9 and NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammo- 
nium Nitrate; or to organic peroxides, which are covered in 
Section 24-3 and NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Perox- 
ide Formulations. (430:1-1.2) 

24-2.1.4 The quantity and arrangement limits in this section 
and NFPA 430 shall not apply to the storage of oxidizers at 
plants where oxidizers are manufactured. (430:1-1.3) 

24-2.1.5 Existing buildings that do not comply with the 
requirements of this section or NFPA 430 pertaining to types 
of construction, separation of buildings, and fixed fire protec- 
tion shall be used for storing oxidizers at the discretion of the 
authority having jurisdiction, provided that the buildings do 
not constitute a distinct hazard to life or adjoining property. 
(430:1-1.1.3) 

24-2.2 Classification of Oxidizers. For the purpose of this 
section and NFPA 430, oxidizers shall be classified according 
to the system listed in (a) through (d) of 24-2.2. The classifica- 
tion is based on the NFPA's Technical Committee on Hazard- 
ous Chemicals' evaluation of available scientific and technical 
data, actual experience, and its considered opinion. Gross 
contamination can cause oxidizers of all classes to undergo 
exothermic or explosive reaction, particularly if they also are 
subjected to confinement and heating. (See Chapter 2 for defini- 
tion of Oxidizer. See sections B-2. 1 through B-2. 4 for oxidizer classifi- 
cation.) 

(a) Class 1. An oxidizer that meets the definition of an oxi- 
dizer in Chapter 2 and does not moderately increase the burn- 
ing rate of combustible materials with which it comes into 
contact. 



(b) Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase 
in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it 
comes into contact. 

(c ) * Class 3. An oxidizer that will cause a severe increase in 
the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
into contact or that will undergo vigorous self-sustained 
decomposition due to contamination or exposure to heat. 

(d) * Class 4. An oxidizer than can undergo an explosive 
reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or 
physical shock. In addition, the oxidizer will cause a severe 
increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with 
which it comes into contact. (430:1-6) 

24-2.3 Quantities. 

24-2.3.1 Where the quantities of oxidizers stored are in excess 
of those stated in Table 24-2.3.1, the specific requirements for 
storage of oxidizers by class in 24-2.7 through 24-2.10 and sep- 
arate chapters of NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and 
Solid Oxidizers, shall apply. In addition, all of Chapter 2 of 
NFPA 430 shall apply. 

Table 24-2.3.1 Quantities of Stored Oxidizers that Require 
Special Provisions 







Quantity 


Stored 


Class of Oxidizer 


lb 




kg 


Class 1 


4000 




1814 


Class 2 


1000 




454 


Class 3 


200 




91 


Class 4 


10 




4.5 



24-2.3.2 Where the quantities of a class of oxidizers are equal 
to or less than the minimum specified in Table 24-2.3.1, those 
parts of this section and NFPA 430 pertaining to fire preven- 
tion and sprinkler protection and compatibility for that class 
of oxidizer shall be used as requirements. In addition, all of 
Chapter 2 of NFPA 430 shall apply. 

24-2.4 General Storage Arrangements. 

24-2.4.1 The arrangement and quantity of oxidizers in stor- 
age shall depend upon their classification, type of container, 
type of storage (segregated, cutoff, or detached) , and fire pro- 
tection as specified in the succeeding section and in the man- 
ufacturer's or processor's instructions. The arrangement and 
quantity of oxidizers in storage shall be permitted to deviate 
from the requirements of NFPA 430 where specially engi- 
neered fire prevention or fire protection systems acceptable to 
the authority having jurisdiction are provided. (430: 2-4.1) 

24-2.4.2 Oxidizers shall be stored to avoid contact with incom- 
patible materials such as ordinary combustibles, combustible or 
flammable liquids, greases, and those materials that have the 
potential to react with the oxidizer or promote or initiate its 
decomposition. These incompatible materials shall not include 
approved packaging materials, pallets, or other dunnage. 

Exception: Hydrogen peroxide (Classes 2 through 4) stored in drums 
shall not be stored on wooden pallets. (430:2-4. 2) 



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24-2.4.3 Special care shall be taken to prevent any contamina- 
tion of oxidizers in storage. (430:2-4.2.1) 

24-2.5 Storage and Display of Oxidizing Materials in Retail 
Occupancies. 

24-2.5.1 Oxidizing materials that are displayed in areas 
accessible to the general public shall meet the requirements 
of 24-2.5.1 through 24-2.6. 

24-2.5.1.1* Oxidizing materials shall be separated from ordi- 
nary combustible and incompatible materials by a solid non- 
combustible barrier or by a horizontal distance of not less than 
4 ft (1.2 m). 

Exception No. 1: Ordinary combustibles shall not include approved 
packaging materials, pallets, or other dunnage used for the oxidizers. 
Exception No. 2: Separation from ordinary combustible materials is 
not required for Class I oxidizers. (430:7-2. 1) 

24-2.5.1.2 Solid oxidizing materials shall not be displayed 
directly beneath liquids. (430:7-2.2) 

24-2.5.1.3 Display of oxidizing materials shall extend no 
higher than 7 ft (2.1 m) from the floor to the top of the upper- 
most container. The display shall not exceed 4 ft (1.2 m) in 
depth. Shelves and vertical barriers shall be placed between 
incompatible materials and shall be solid and of noncombus- 
tible construction. 

Exception: Display or storage of Class 2 and 3 oxidizers that meet the 
requirements of Section 7-4 ofNFPA 430. (430:7-2.3) 

24-2.5.1.4 Containers shall be approved for their intended 
use. Individual containers shall not exceed 100 lb (45.4 kg) 
capacity. (430:7-2.4) 

24-2.5.1.5* For the purpose of this chapter, sprinklered retail 
occupancies storing and displaying oxidizers shall be pro- 
tected using criteria from codes and standards applicable to 
the surrounding occupancy determined by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. (430:7-2.5) 

24-2.5.2 Quantity Limitations. 

24-2.5.2.1 The quantity of oxidizing materials permitted in a 
retail occupancy shall not exceed the quantities given in Table 
24-2.5.2.1 for either nonsprinklered or sprinklered areas, 
whichever is applicable. 

Exception: Display or storage of Class 2 and 3 oxidizers that meets the 
requirements of Section 7-4 ofNFPA 430. (430:7-3.1) 

Table 24-2.5.2.1 Maximum Quantity of Oxidizers Allowed 
in Retail Occupancies Without Special Fire Protection, 
in Pounds 



Class of Material Nonsprinklered 



Sprinklered 



1,150 

2,250 

18,000 



2,300 

4,500 

36,000 



[430: Table 7-3.1] 



24-2.5.2.2 An equal quantity as permitted by Table 24-2.5.2.1 
shall be permitted if the additional quantities are located in a 
separate area protected by a fire resistance of not less than 1 
hour. (430:7-3.2) 



24-2.5.2.3 If a storage area in a retail occupancy is separated 
from the rest of the facility by a fire partition having not less 
than a 2-hour fire resistance rating, the maximum quantity of 
oxidizing materials allowed in that area shall be permitted to 
be that allowed in Chapters 3, 4, and 5 of NFPA 430, as appli- 
cable. (430:7-3.3) 

24-2.6 Where two or more different classes of oxidizers are 
stored in the same segregated, cutoff, or detached area, the 
maximum quantity permitted for each class shall be limited to 
the sum of the maximum proportion permitted for that class. 
The total of the proportional amounts shall not exceed 100 
percent. (430:2-5) 

24-2.7 Class 1 Oxidizers. 

24-2.7.1 The storage of Class 1 oxidizers shall be segregated, 
cutoff, or detached. (430:3-2. 1 ) 

24-2.7.2 Storage of Class 1 oxidizers shall be in accordance 
with Tables 24-2.7.2(a) and 24-2.7.2 (b). (430:3-2.2) 



Table 24-2.7.2(a) Storage of Class 1 Oxidizers in a 
Nonsprinklered Building for Nonretail Establishment 



Storage Configurations and 
Allowable Distances 


U.S. 
Units 


Metric 
Units 


Building limit 
Pile limit 


200 tons 
20 tons 


181 met ton 
18 met ton 


Pile height 
Pile width 


8 ft 
16 ft 


2.4 m 
4.9 m 


Maximum distance from any 
container to a working aisle 

Distance to next pile 


8 ft 

* 


2.4 m 

* 


Distance to wall 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


Distance to incompatible 
material 


12 ft 


3.7 m 



*Aisle width equal to pile height. 
[430:Table3-2.2(a)] 



Table 24-2. 7.2(b) Storage of Class 1 Oxidizers in a 
Sprinklered Building for Nonretail Establishment 

Storage Configurations and U.S. Metric 

Allowable Distances Units Units 



Building limit 


2000 tons 


1814 met ton 


Pile limit 


200 tons 


181 met ton 


Pile height 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


Pile width 


24 ft 


7.3 m 


Maximum distance from any 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


container to a working aisle 






Distance to next pile 


* 


* 


Distance to wall 


2 ft 


0.6 m 


Distance to incompatible 
material 


8 ft 


2.4 m 



Note: If the storage is to be considered sprinklered, see Section 3-3 of 

NFPA 430. 

*Aisle width equal to pile height. 

[430:Table 3-2.2 (b)] 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



24-2.7.3* The building limit (tons) shall be permitted to be 
four times the quantities shown in Table 24-2.7.2 (b) if all of 
the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) Storage is cut off or detached. 

(2) Storage is located in nonretail occupancies. 

(3) Noncombustible containers are used or buildings are 
noncombustible. (430:3-2.3) 

24-2.7.4 Bulk Storage. 

24-2.7.4.1 Bulk storage in combustible buildings shall not 
come in contact with combustible building members unless 
the members are protected by a compatible coating to prevent 
their impregnation by the oxidizer. (430:3-2.4.1) 

24-2.7.4.2 Bulk storage, either in permanent bins or in piles, 
shall be separated from all other materials. (430:3-2.4.2) 

24-2.7.4.3 Bins shall be of noncombustible construction. 

Exception: Wooden bins shall be permitted to be protected with a com- 
patible coating to prevent impregnation of the combustible material by 
the oxidizer. (430:3-2.4.3) 

24-2.7 AA Storage shall be managed to prevent excessive dust 
accumulation. (430:3-2.4.4) 



24-2.7.5 Sprinkler Protection. 

24-2.7.5.1 Sprinkler protection for Class 1 oxidizers shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 7 and NFPA 13, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (430:3-3.1) 

24-2.7.5.2 For the purpose of applying the requirements of 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, Class 1 
oxidizers in noncombustible or combustible containers (paper 
bags or noncombustible containers with removable combusti- 
ble liners) shall be designated as a Class 1 commodity. Class 1 
oxidizers contained in fiber packs or noncombustible contain- 
ers in combustible packaging shall be designated as a Class 2 
commodity. Class 1 oxidizers contained in plastic containers 
shall be designated as a Class 3 commodity. (430:3-3.2) 

24-2.8 Class 2 Oxidizers. 

24-2.8.1 The storage of Class 2 oxidizers shall be segregated, 
cutoff, or detached. (430:4-2. 1 ) 

24-2.8.2 Cutoff walls shall have a fire resistance rating of at 
least 1 hour. (430:4-2.2) 

24-2.8.3 Storage of Class 2 oxidizers shall be in accordance 
with Tables 24-2.8.3 (a) and 24-2.8.3(b). (430:4-2.3) 



Table 24-2.8.3(a) Storage of Class 2 Oxidizers in a Nonsprinklered Building 



Storage Configurations 
and Allowable Distances 


Segregated Storage Process 
Plant General Warehouse 


Cutoff Storage Process 
Plant General Warehouse 


Detached Storage 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


Building limit 


50 tons 


45 met ton 


200 tons 


181 met ton 


300 tons 


272 met ton 


Pile limit 


10 tons 


8.8 met ton 


20 tons 


18.1 met ton 


30 tons 


27.2 met ton 


Pile height 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


Pile width 


8ft 


2.4 m 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


16 ft 


4.9 m 


Maximum distance from any con- 


4ft 


1.2 m 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


tainer to a working aisle 














Distance to next pile 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Distance to wall 


4ft 


1.2 m 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


Distance to incompatible material 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


** 


** 


** 


** 



*Aisle width equal to pile height. 
"Not permitted by definition. 
[430:Table4-2.3(a)] 

Table 24-2.8.3(b) Storage of Class 2 Oxidizers in a Sprinklered Building 



Storage Configurations 


Segregated Storage Process 
Plant General Warehouse 


Cutoff Storage Process Plant 
General Warehouse 


Detached 


Storage 


and Allowable Distances 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


Building limit 


100 tons 


91 met ton 


1000 tons 


907 met ton 


2000 tons 


1814 met ton 


Pile limit 


20 tons 


18.1 met ton 


100 tons 


91 met ton 


200 tons 


181 met ton 


Pile height* 


* 


* 


* 


* 






Pile width 


16 ft 


4.9 m 


25 ft 


7.6 m 


25 ft 


7.6 m 


Maximum distance from any 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


container to a working aisle 














Distance to next pile 


** 


** 


** 


** 


** 


** 


Distance to wall 


2 ft 


0.6 m 


2ft 


0.6 m 


2ft 


0.6 m 


Distance to incompatible 
material 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


*** 


*** 


*** 


*** 



Note: If the storage is considered to be sprinklered, see Section 4-4 of NFPA 430. 

*See 4-2.7 and Table 4-4.1 of NFPA 430. 

**Aisle width equal to pile height. 

***Not permitted by definition. 

[430:Table4-2.3(b)] 



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24-2.8.4* The building limit (tons) shall be permitted to be 
four times the quantities shown in Table 24-2. 8. 3(b) if all of 
the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) Storage is cut off or detached. 

(2) Storage is located in nonretail occupancies. 

(3) Noncombustible containers are used or buildings are 
noncombustible. (430:4-2.4) 

24-2.8.5 Storage in glass carboys shall not be more than two 
carboys high. (430:4-2.5) 

24-2.8.6 Storage in basements shall be prohibited. 
Exception: Where the oxidizer is stored in fixed tanks. (430:4-2.6) 

24-2.8.7 Building Construction. 

24-2.8.7.1 Construction materials that are permitted to be in 
contact with oxidizers, all cutoff partitions, and all construc- 
tion in stories or basements below storage of liquid oxidizers 
shall be noncombustible. (430:4-3.1) 

24-2.8.7.2 Storage areas for oxidizing materials in combusti- 
ble containers shall be provided with means to vent fumes in a 
fire emergency. (430:4-3.2) 

24-2.8.8 Sprinkler Protection. 

24-2.8.8.1 Sprinkler protection for Class 2 oxidizers shall be 
designed in accordance with Table 4-4.1 of NFPA 430. 
(430:4-4.1) 

24-2.8.8.2 Sprinkler protection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Chapter 7 and NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems. (430:4-4.2) 

24-2.8.9 Detached Storage. 

24-2.8.9.1 To be considered detached, a sprinklered building 
for storage of Class 2 oxidizers shall be a minimum of 35 ft 



(10.7 m) from other buildings and from a line of property that 
can be built upon. (430:4-5.1) 

24-2.8.9.2 To be considered detached, a nonsprinklered 
building for storage of Class 2 oxidizers shall be located no less 
than 50 ft (15.2 m) from other buildings or a line of property 
that can be built upon. (430:4-5.2) 

24-2.9 Class 3 Oxidizers. 

24-2.9.1 The storage of Class 3 oxidizers shall be segregated, 
cutoff, or detached. 

Exception: Storage for sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, sodium 
bromate, potassium bromate, and ammonium dichromate shall only be 
cutoff or detached, not segregated. (430:5-2. 1) 

24-2.9.2 Class 3 oxidizer storage shall be located on the 
ground floor only. (430:5-2.2) 

24-2.9.3 Cutoff walls shall have a fire resistance rating of at 
least 2 hours. (430:5-2.3) 

24-2.9.4 Storage of Class 3 oxidizers shall be in accordance 
with Tables 24-2.9.4(a) and 24-2.9.4(b). (430:5-2.4) 

24r2.9.5* The building limit (tons) shall be permitted to be 
twice the quantities shown in Table 24-2.9. 4(b) if all of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

( 1 ) Storage is cut off or detached. 

(2) Noncombustible containers are used or buildings are 
noncombustible . 

(3) Storage is located in nonretail occupancies. (430:5-2.5) 

24-2.9.6 Storage in glass carboys shall be one carboy high. 
(430:5-2.6) 

24-2.9.7 Bulk storage in open bins or piles shall not be permit- 
ted. (430:5-2.7) 



Table 24-2.9.4(a) Storage of Class 3 Oxidizers in a Nonsprinklered Building 





Segregated Storage 
Process Plant 


Cutoff Storage 
Process Plant 








General Warehouse 


General Warehouse 


Detached 


1 Storage 


Storage Limit 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


Building limit 


20 tons 


18.1 met ton 


100 tons 


91 met ton 


200 tons 


181 met ton 


Pile limit 


5 tons 


4.5 met ton 


10 tons 


9.1 met ton 


30 tons 


27.2 met ton 


Pile height 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


Pile width 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


Maximum distance from any 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


container to a working aisle 














Distance to next pile 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Distance to wall 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


Distance to incompatible 
material 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


** 


** 


** 


** 



*Aisle width equal to pile height. 
**Not permitted by definition. 
[430:Table5-2.4(a)] 



2000 Edition 



1-108 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table 24-2.9.4(b) Storage of Class 3 Oxidizers 


in a Sprinklered Building 












Segregated Storage 

Process Plant 
General Warehouse 


Cutoff Storage 

Process Plant 

General Warehouse 


Detached 


Storage 


Storage Limit 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


U.S. Units 


Metric Units 


Building limit 




50 tons 


45 met ton 


500 tons 


454 met ton 


1500 tons 


1360 met ton 


Pile limit 




10 tons 


8.8 met ton 


30 tons 


27.2 met ton 


100 tons 


91 met ton 


Pile height* 




* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Pile width 




12 ft 


3.7 m 


16 ft 


4.9 m 


20 ft 


6.1m 


Maximum distance from any 
container to a working aisle 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


10 ft 


3m 


10 ft 


3m 


Distance to next 


pile 


** 


** 


** 


** 


*# 


** 


Distance to wall 




2 ft 


0.6 m 


2 ft 


0.6 m 


2 ft 


0.6 m 


Distance to incompatible 
material 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


*** 


### 


*## 


#*# 



Note: If the storage is considered to be sprinklered, the sprinkler system shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of Section 5-4 of 

NFPA 430. 

*See 5-2.8 and Table 5-4.1 of NFPA 430. 

"Aisle width equal to pile height. 

***Not permitted by definition. 

[430:Table5-2.4(b)] 



24-2.9.8 Building Construction. 

24-2.9.8.1 Buildings used for the storage of liquid Class 3 oxi- 
dizers shall not have basements. (430:5-3.1) 

24-2.9.8.2 Construction materials that can come in contact 
with oxidizers shall be noncombustible. (430:5-3.2) 

24-2.9.8.3 Storage areas for oxidizing materials in combusti- 
ble containers shall be provided with means to vent fumes in a 
fire emergency. (430:5-3.3) 

24-2.9.9 Sprinkler Protection. 

24-2.9.9.1 Sprinkler protection for Class 3 oxidizers shall be 
designed in accordance with Table 5-4.1 of NFPA 430. 
(430:5-4.1) 

24-2.9.9.2 Sprinkler protection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Chapter 7 and NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems. (430:5-4.2) 

24-2.9.10 Detached Storage. To be considered detached, a 
building for storage of Class 3 oxidizers shall be separated from 
flammable or combustible liquid storage, flammable gas stor- 
age, combustible material in the open, and any inhabited build- 
ing, passenger railroad, public highway, or other tanks. The 
minimum separation distance shall be one of the following: 

(1) 50 ft (15 m) for a sprinklered building 

(2) 75 ft (23 m) for an unsprinklered building (430:5-5) 

24-2.10 Class 4 Oxidizers. 

24-2.10.1 The storage of Class 4 oxidizers shall be detached. 
(430:6-2.1) 

24-2.10.2 Storage in glass carboys shall be one carboy high. 
Storage in drums or in containers or in cases shall not exceed 
the limits outlined in Table 24-2.10.2. (430:6-2.2) 



Table 24-2.10.2 Storage of Class 4 Oxidizers in Drums, 
Containers, and Cases 



Storage 
Configurations 
and Quantities 


Nonsprinklered 
Building 


Sprinklered 
Building 


U.S. 

Units 


Metric 

Units 


U.S. Metric 
Units Units 


Piles 








Length 


10 ft 


3.0 m 


10 ft 3.0 m 


Width 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


4 ft 1.2 m 


Height 


4 ft 


1.2 m 


8 ft 2.4 m 


Distance to 


6 ft 


1.8 m 


8 ft 2.4 m 


next pile 








Quantity limit per 
building 


1 ton 


0.9 met 
tons 


No limit 



(430:Table 6-2.2) 



24-2.10.3 Bulk storage in piles or fixed bins shall not be per- 
mitted. (430:6-2.3) 

24-2.10.4 Building Construction and Location. 

24-2.10.4.1 Buildings shall be constructed as one story with- 
out basement. Construction materials that could come in con- 
tact with oxidizers shall be noncombustible. (430:6-3.1) 

24-2.10.4.2 Storage areas shall be provided with means to vent 
fumes in an emergency. (430:6-3.2) 

24-2.10.4.3 A storage building or storage tank shall be located 
not less than the minimum distance shown in Table 
24-2.10.4.3 from flammable liquid storage, combustible mate- 
rial in the open, and any inhabited building, passenger rail- 
road, public highway, property line, or tank other than 
oxidizer storage. (430:6-3.3) 



2000 Edition 



OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES 



1-109 



Table 24-2.10.4.3 Separation of Buildings, Tanks Containing 
Glass 4 Oxidizers 



Weight of Class 4 Oxidizer 




Distance 




lb 


kg 


ft 




m 


over 10-100 


4.5-45.4 


75 




23 


101-500 


4.5-227 


100 




30 


501-1,000 


227-454 


125 




38 


1,001-3,000 


454-1,361 


200 




61 


3,001-5,000 


1,361-2,268 


300 




91 


5,001-10,000 


2,268-4,536 


400 




122 


over 10,000 


over 4,536 


Subject to approval by the 
authority having jurisdiction 



(430:Table 6-3.4) 

24-2.10.4.4 Where tanks are not separated from each other by 
10 percent of the distance specified in Table 24-2.10.4.3 for 
the largest tank, the total contents of all tanks shall be used 
when using Table 24-2.10.4.3. (430:6-3.4) 

24-2.10.4.5 Sprinkler Protection. 

24-2.10.4.5.1 Sprinkler protection for Class 4 oxidizers shall 
be installed on a deluge sprinkler system to provide water den- 
sity of 0.35 gal/min/ft 2 (14.4 L/min/m 2 ) over the entire stor- 
age area. (430:6-4.1) 

24-2.10.4.5.2 Sprinkler protection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Chapter 7 and NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems. (430:6-4.2) 

24-3 Organic Peroxide Formulations. 

24-3.1 Application. 

24-3.1.1 Indoor storage of organic peroxide formulations 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations. 

24-3.1.2 This section shall apply only to commercially avail- 
able organic peroxide formulations in U.S. Department of 
Transportation- or Canadian Ministry of Transport-approved 
packages. (432:1-1.1) 

24-3.1.3 This section shall not apply to the storage of such for- 
mulations in process areas where they are manufactured or 
used. (432:1-1.2) 

24-3.1.4 This section shall not apply to organic peroxide for- 
mulations that are capable of detonation in their normal ship- 
ping containers under conditions of fire exposure. Such 
formulations shall be handled and stored as Explosives 1.1 
(formerly known as Class A) explosives in accordance with 
NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code. (432:1-1.3) 

24-3.2 Classification of Organic Peroxide Formulations. For the 

purpose of this Section, organic peroxide formulations shall be 
classified according to the system described in 24-3. 2 (a) 
through (e) . The system is based on the behavior of certain spe- 
cific formulations in their U.S. Department of Transportation 
or Canadian Ministry of Transport approved shipping contain- 
ers and under conditions of fire exposure. (See Chapter 2 for defi- 
nition of Organic Peroxide Formulations. See Appendix B for 
classification of typical organic peroxide formulations.) (432:1-6) 

(a) Class I. Those formulations that are capable of defla- 
gration but not detonation. (432:1-6.1) 



(b) Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and 
that present a severe reactivity hazard. (432:1-6.2) 

(c) Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that 
present a moderate reactivity hazard. (432:1-6.3) 

(d) Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same 
manner as ordinary combustibles and that present a minimal 
reactivity hazard. (432:1-6.4) 

(e) Class V. Those formulations that burn with less inten- 
sity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that present no reactivity hazard. (432:1-6.5) 

24-3.3 Indoor Storage. 

24-3.3.1 Indoor storage of organic peroxide formulations 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations. 

24-3.3.2 Class I organic peroxide formulations shall not be 
permitted in public assembly, educational, health care, deten- 
tion and correctional occupancies, or in classrooms of business 
occupancies used for adult instruction. 

Exception: Where arrangements for the storage of Class I organic per- 
oxide formulations are approved by the authority having jurisdiction, 
they shall be permitted. 

24-3.3.3 Storage areas shall be maintained within the recom- 
mended storage temperature range for the materials stored. 
(See Appendix B for compounds needing refrigeration systems.) 
(432:2-4.1) 

24-3.4 Identification. All storage areas containing organic 
peroxide formulations shall be conspicuously identified by the 
words "Organic Peroxides" and by the class, as defined in 24-3.2. 
(432:2-1) 

24-3.4.1 When organic peroxide formulations having differ- 
ent classifications as defined in 24-3.2 are stored in the same 
area, the area shall be marked for the most severe class 
present. (432:2-1.1) 

24-3.4.2 Packages containing organic peroxide formulations 
shall be individually marked with the chemical name of the 
organic peroxide or with other pertinent information to allow 
proper area classification as required by 24-3.4. (432:2-1.2) 

24-3.4.3 Packages containing organic peroxide formulations 
that require temperature control shall be marked with the rec- 
ommended storage temperature range. (432:2-1.3) 

24-3.5 General Storage Requirements. 

24-3.5.1 Storage shall be arranged to facilitate manual access 
and handling, to maintain pile stability, to minimize breakage 
and spillage, and to promote good housekeeping. (432:2-11.1) 

24-3.5.2 A clear space of at least 2 ft (0.6 m) shall be main- 
tained between organic peroxide storage and uninsulated 
metal walls. (432:2-11.2) 

24-3.5.3 Separation Distance. 

24-3.5.3.1 Incompatible materials and flammable liquids shall 
not be stored within 25 ft (7.6 m) of organic peroxide formu- 
lations. The effective separation distance shall be maintained 
by floor slope, drains, or dikes to prevent liquid leakage from 
encroaching on the organic peroxide formulation storage 
area. 

Exception: Organic peroxide formulations that can also be classified 
as flammable liquids by their flash point shall be permitted to be stored 
with other organic peroxide formulations, and the more restrictive re- 



2000 Edition 



1-110 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



quirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 
orNFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations, 
shall apply. (432:2-11.3.1) 

24-3.5.3.2 As an alternative to the 25-ft (7.6-m) separation dis- 
tance, a 1-hour, liquidtight fire barrier shall be permitted. 

(432:2-11.3.2) 

24-3.5.4 Only closed containers and packages shall be permit- 
ted in storage areas. (432:2-11.4) 

24-3.5.5 Storage of bags, drums, and other containers and 
packages of organic peroxide formulations shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 24-3.5.5. (432:2-11.5) 

24-3.5.6 55-gal (208-L) drum storage of Class II and Class III 
organic peroxide formulations shall be stored one high only. 
(432:2-11.6) 



24-3.5.7 Storage of Class V organic peroxide formulations 
shall meet the requirements of NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire 
Protection of Storage, as applicable. (432:2-1 1.7) 

24-3.6 Storage Limitations. 

24-3.6.1 Storage of organic peroxide formulations shall be 
limited to those areas within the scope of NFPA 432, Code for 
the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations. The maximum allow- 
able quantities of organic peroxide formulations that can be 
stored in a single area or building shall depend on the classifi- 
cation of the formulations and the classification of the storage 
facility, as set forth in Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) and 24-3.6.1 (b). 
(432:2-10.1) 



Table 24-3.5.5 Provisions for Storage Arrangement by Class of Organic Peroxide Formulation 













Minimum 


Minimum 




Maximum Pile 


Maximum Pile 


Main Aisle 


Additional 




Height 


Width 


Width 


Aisles Width 


Class of Organic 
Peroxide Formulation 
















ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft m 


I 


6 


1.8 


4 


1.2 


8 


2.4 


4 1.2 


II* 


8 


2.4 


8 


2.4 


6 


1.8 


4 1.2 


III* 


8 


2.4 


8 


2.4 


6 


1.8 


4 1.2 


IV 


10 


3 


16 


4.9 


4 


1.2 


3 0.9 


V 


See 2-11.7 of NFPA 432. 











*See 2-11.6 of NFPA 432. 
(432:Table 2-11.5) 



Table 24-3.6.1 (a) Maximum Allowable Quantity of Organic Peroxide Formulations in Nonsprinklered Buildings 





Segregated 
Storage 


Cut-off 
Storage 


50ft( 


Detachet 


Storage Minimum 


Separation* 




Class of Organic 

Peroxide 

Formulation 


15 m) 


100 ft (30.5 m) 


150 ft (46 m) 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


I 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


1000 


454 


4000 


1810 


10,000 


4540 


II 


NA 


NA 


2000 


907 


20,000 


9070 


80,000 


36,300 


500,000 


227,000 


III 


1500 


680 


3000 


1360 


70,000 


31,800 


200,000 


90,700 


750,000 


340,000 


rv 


100,000 


45,400 


200,000 


90,700 


300,000 


136,000 


500,000 


227,000 


1,000,000 


454,000 


V 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 



'Minimum separation means the distance from the line of property that is or can be built 
upon, including the opposite side of a public way, or the distance from the nearest impor- 
tant building on the same property. 
NA — Not allowed 
UNL — Unlimited 
[432:Table2-10(a)] 



2000 Edition 



OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES 



1-111 



Table 24-3.6.1(b) 


Maximum Allowable 


Quantity 


of Organic 


Peroxide Formulations 


in Sprinklered Buildings 






Class of 
Organic 


Segregated 
Storage 


Cut-off 


Storage 


50ft( 


Detached 


Storage Minimum Separation* 




15 m) 


100 ft (30.5 m) 


150 ft (46 m) 


Formulation 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


lb 


kg 


I 


NA 


NA 


2000 


907 


2000 


907 


20,000 


9070 


175,000 


79,400 


II 


4000 


1810 


50,000 


22,700 


100,000 


45,400 


200,000 


90,700 


UNL 


UNL 


III 


50,000 


22,700 


100,000 


45,400 


200,000 


90,700 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


IV 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


V 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 


UNL 



Minimum separation means the distance from the line of property that is or can be built 
upon, including the opposite side of a public way, or the distance from the nearest impor- 
tant building on the same property. 
NA — Not allowed 
UNL — Unlimited 
[432:Table 2-1 0(b)] 



24-3.6.1.1 The quantity of Class III organic peroxide formula- 
tions as it appears in Table 24-3.6.1 (a) in cut-off storage shall 
be permitted to be increased to 20,000 lb (9070 kg) if the walls 
or partitions providing the cut-off have a fire resistance rating 
of at least 4 hours. (432:2-10.1.1) 

24-3.6.1.2 Class I organic peroxide formulation cut-off stor- 
age as it appears in Table 24-3.6.1 (b) shall have interior walls 
with a blast resistance of 432 psf (0.2 bar). (432:2-10.1.2) 

24-3.6.1.3* Class I organic peroxide formulation cut-off stor- 
age as it appears in Table 24-3.6.1 (b) shall have deflagration 
venting provided for exterior walls. (432:2-1 0. 1 .3) 

24-3.6.2 Where two or more different classes of organic per- 
oxide formulations are stored in the same area, the maximum 
quantity permitted shall be limited to the sum of the propor- 
tional amounts that each class bears to the maximum permit- 
ted for that class. The total of the proportional amounts shall 
not exceed 100 percent. (432:2-10.2) 

24-3.6.3 Where the storage area is protected by a specially 
engineered fire protection system acceptable to the authority 
having jurisdiction, the quantity of organic peroxide formula- 
tions shall be permitted to be increased. (432:2-10.3) 

24-3.6.4 Organic peroxide formulations shall not be stored 
where they can be exposed to explosive materials. (432:2-10.4) 

24-3.6.5 Where required by other provisions of NFPA 432, 
automatic sprinklers and water spray systems shall be designed 
and installed according to the requirements of NFPA 13, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and NFPA 15, Stan- 
dard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection, and shall 
provide the following discharge densities: 

Class I — 0.50 gpm/ft 2 (20.4 Lpm/m 2 ) 

Class II — 0.40 gpm/ft 2 (16.3 Lpm/m 2 ) 

Class III — 0.30 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 Lpm/m 2 ) 

Class PV — 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 Lpm/m 2 ) 

For Class I organic peroxide formulations, see 24-3.9.3.2. 
(432:2-3.2) 



24-3.6.5.1 The system shall be designed to provide the 
required density over a 3000 ft 2 (280 m 2 ) area for areas pro- 
tected by a wet pipe sprinkler system or 3900 ft 2 (360 m 2 ) for 
areas protected by a dry pipe sprinkler system. The entire area 
of any building of less than 3000 ft 2 (280 m 2 ) shall be used as 
the area of application. (432:2-8.2.1) 

24-3.6.5.2 Where required, water supplies for automatic 
sprinklers, fire hydrants, and so forth, shall be provided in 
accordance with NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private 
Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances, and shall be capable 
of supplying the anticipated demand for at least 90 minutes. 
(432:2-8.3) 

24-3.7 Segregated Storage. 

24-3.7.1 This section shall apply to the storage of organic per- 
oxide formulations when stored under segregated conditions 
as defined in 2-1.115.3 of this Code and in quantities not 
exceeding those shown in Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) and 24-3.6.1 (b). 
(432:3-1) 

24-3.7.2 If there are any floors or open spaces located below 
the organic peroxide storage area, the floor of the storage area 
shall be made water-tight and shall be provided with drainage 
that leads to a safe location. Every means shall be taken to 
ensure that spilled material cannot run down into areas below 
the organic peroxide storage area. (432:3-3) 

24-3.7.3 Storage Arrangement. 

24-3.7.3.1 A minimum of 8 ft (2.4 m) of clear space shall be 
maintained between organic peroxide storage and any other 
storage. (432:34.1) 

24-3.7.3.2 Segregated storage areas shall meet all applicable 
requirements of NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Stor- 
age, as applicable. (432:3-4.2) 

24-3.7.3.3* A clear space of at least 4 ft (1.2 m) shall be main- 
tained between organic peroxide storage and any walls of com- 
bustible or limited-combustible construction. (432:3-4.3) 



2000 Edition 



1-112 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



24-3.8 Cut-off Storage. This section shall apply to the storage 
of organic peroxide formulations when stored under cut-off 
conditions as defined in 2-1.115.1 and in quantities not 
exceeding those shown in Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) and 24-3.6.1 (b). 
(432:4-1) 

24-3.8.1 Building Construction. 

24-3.8.1.1 Cut-off storage areas for Class I, Class II, or any 
refrigerated organic peroxide formulations shall be single 
story, without basements or crawl spaces. (432:4-3.1) 

24-3.8.1.2 Where any Class I organic peroxide formulations 
are stored in excess of 100 lb (45 kg), internal walls and any 
wall, roof, or ceiling that joins with another occupied building 
shall be capable of withstanding an internal overpressure of 
432 psf (0.2 bar). (432:4-3.2) 

24-3.8.1.3 Where Class II or any refrigerated organic perox- 
ide formulations are stored, any internal walls or any wall, 
roof, or ceiling that joins with another occupied building shall 
be capable of withstanding an internal overpressure of 125 psf 
(0.06 bar). (432:4-3.3) 

24-3.8.1.4* For Class I, Class II, or any refrigerated organic 
peroxide formulation that gives off flammable gases upon 
decomposition, the storage area shall be provided with defla- 
gration venting. (432:4-3.4) 

24-3.8.1.5 Any walls common with another building shall have 
a fire resistance of at least 2 hours, as measured by the proce- 
dure described in NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire 
Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. (432:4-3.5) 

24-3.8.1.6 Any door or window openings in such walls shall be 
protected by approved fire doors and fire windows suitable for 
the opening and shall be installed according to NFPA 80, Stan- 
dard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. (432:4-3.5.1) 

24-3.8.2* Storage Arrangement. A clear space of at least 4 ft 
(1.2 m) shall be maintained between organic peroxide storage 
and any walls of combustible or limited-combustible construc- 
tion. (432:4-4) 

24-3.9 Detached Storage. This section shall apply to the stor- 
age of organic peroxide formulations when stored under 
detached conditions as defined in 2-1.115.2 and in quantities 
and at separation distances as specified in Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) 
and 24-3.6.1 (b). (432:5-1) 

24-3.9.1 Building Location. 

24-3.9. 1 . 1 Detached storage buildings shall be separated from 
the lines of property that are or can be built upon, including 
the opposite side of a public way, or from the nearest impor- 
tant building on the same property. (432:5-3.1) 

24-3.9.1.2 For Classes II, III, and IV organic peroxide formu- 
lations, detached storage buildings separated by less than 50 ft 
(15.3 m) shall be considered to be a single area when applying 
the limits for Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) and 24-3.6.1 (b). (432:5-3.2) 



24-3.9.1.3 For Class I organic peroxide formulations, detached 
storage buildings shall be separated from each other in accor- 
dance with Table 24-3.9.1.3. (432:5-3.3) 



Table 24-3.9.1.3 Separation of Individual Storage Buildings 



Nonsprinklered 



Automatic Sprinklered 



Quantity Distance 



Quantity 



lb 



kg 



ft m 



lb 



kg 



Distance 



ft m 



1000 454 20 6 2000 907 20 6 

4000 1810 75 23 20,000 9070 75 23 
10,000 4540 100 30 175,000 79,400 100 30 



(432:Table 5-3.3) 



24-3.9.2 Building Construction and Utilities. 

24-3.9.2.1 Detached storage buildings shall be single story, 
without basement or crawl space. (432:5-4.1) 

24-3.9.2.2 Nonsprinklered buildings for storing more than 
5000 lb (2270 kg) of Class I, Class II, or any refrigerated 
organic peroxide formulation that gives off flammable gases 
upon decomposition shall be built of noncombustible con- 
struction. (432:5-4.2) 

24-3.9.2.3 Buildings of combustible construction employing 
sun shields such as those illustrated in Figure A-5-4.3 of NFPA 
432 shall be permitted to be used for detached storage build- 
ings storing less than 5000 lb (2270 kg) of organic peroxide 
formulation in those areas where the temperature inside the 
storage building can approach or exceed the maximum rec- 
ommended storage temperature. (432:5-4.3) 

24-3.9.3 Fire Protection. 

24-3.9.3.1 Where required, automatic sprinkler systems and 
their water supplies shall meet the requirements of 24-3.6.5 
and 24-3.6.5.2. (432:5-5.1) 

24-3.9.3.2 Where required for Class I organic peroxide for- 
mulations in quantities exceeding 2000 lb (907 kg), automatic 
sprinkler protection shall be open-head deluge-type, designed 
and installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (432:5-5.2) 

24-3.10 In addition to the provisions of Section 24-3, exte- 
rior storage areas for organic peroxide formulations exceed- 
ing the maximum quantities specified in Tables 24-3.6.1 (a) 
and 24-3.6.1 (b) shall be located a minimum distance of 50 ft 
(15 m) from other hazardous materials storage. 



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MANUFACTURED HOME AND RECREATIONAL VEHICLE SITES 



1-113 



Chapter 25 Parking Garages 

25-1 General. 

25-1.1 The construction and protection of new and existing 
parking garages as well as the control of hazards in open park- 
ing structures, enclosed parking structures, and basement and 
underground parking structures shall comply with this chap- 
ter and NFPA 88A, Standard for Parking Structures. 

25-1.2 This chapter shall not apply to parking garages in one- 
and two-family dwellings. 



Chapter 26 Pesticides and Herbicides 

26-1 General. 

26-1.1* This chapter shall apply to restricted use pesticides, 
which are required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and 
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 40 CFR, Part 152.175, to bear the 
human signal word "Danger" [as defined in 40 CFR, Part 
156.10(i) (A)] or those restricted use pesticides, which when 
evaluated against NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identifica- 
tion of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, (Health 
Hazard Warning Determination), are determined to be rated 
as "3" or "4." (434:1-1.2) 

26-1 .2 The inside and outside storage of pesticides shall comply 
with this chapter and NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides. 

26-2 Application. 

26-2.1 This chapter shall not apply to sanitizers and disinfec- 
tants covered by other codes. (434:1-1.3) 

26-2.2 This chapter shall not apply where storage at a site is 
equal to or less than 1000 gal (3790 L) or 10,000 lb (4540 kg). 
This chapter shall not apply where pesticide storage time in a 
calendar year is 14 days or less. 

Exception No. 1: Hazard identification as specified in Section 2-6 of 
NFPA 434 shall apply to all pesticide storage facilities. 

Exception No. 2: This chapter shall apply to tank trucks, rail cars, or 
any other transportation vehicle involved in the temporary pesticide 
storage. (See 2-2.2.3 of NFPA 434.) (434:1-1.4) 

26-2.3 Existing buildings storing pesticides that do not com- 
ply with the requirements of this chapter that pertaining to 
noncombustible construction and fixed fire protection shall 
be permitted to be used at the discretion of the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction, provided their use does not constitute a dis- 
tinct hazard to life or adjoining property. (434:1-1.5) 

26-3 Applicability of Other Documents. 

26-3.1 The requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combusti- 
ble Liquids Code; NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage 
of Aerosol Products; NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and 
Solid Oxidizers; NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Stor- 
age, and NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate, 



shall apply where applicable and where they are more restric- 
tive than NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides. (434:1-3) 

26-3.2 Pesticides covered in this chapter that are stored in the 
same facility with oxidizers shall be stored in accordance with 
Chapter 24 and NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid 
Oxidizers. (434:1-3.1) 

26-3.3 Pesticides stored in the same facility with ammonium 
nitrate fertilizer shall be stored in accordance with this chap- 
ter and NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. 
(434:1-3.2) 

26-4 Hazard Identification. All pesticide storage facilities 
shall have a hazard identification system. (434:2-6) 

26-4.1 Signs. All pesticide storage areas shall be identified by a 
sign in accordance with NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identi- 
fication of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response. Addition- 
ally, a sign that reads PESTICIDES in black 2-in. (5-cm) letters 
on a white background shall be posted. These signs shall be 
located in accordance with the authority having jurisdiction 
and shall meet EPA requirements. (434:2-6.1) 

26-4.2 Container Labels. Each container shall have a legible 
FIFRA label on the outside of the container that is visible from 
the usual directions of approach. (434:2-6.2) 

26-5 Temporary Storage. Tank trucks, rail cars, or any other 
transportation vehicle involved in temporary storage of pesti- 
cides at any one facility for three days or longer shall be pro- 
vided with secondary containment. (434:2-2.2.3) 



Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and Recreational 
Vehicle Sites 

27-1 Manufactured Home Sites. 

27-1.1 The fire safety requirements for the installation of man- 
ufactured homes and manufactured home sites, including 
accessory buildings, structures, and communities, shall comply 
with this section and NFPA 501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria 
for Manufactured Home Installations, Sites, and Communities. 

27-1.2* This section shall not cover the equipment and instal- 
lations used in the design, construction, transportation, fire 
safety, plumbing, heat-producing, and electrical systems of 
manufactured homes that are designed to be used as dwelling 



27-2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and Campgrounds. 

27-2.1 The construction of recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds that offer temporary living sites for use by recre- 
ational vehicles and camping units shall comply with this sec- 
tion and NFPA 1 194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and 
Campgrounds. 

27-2.2* This section shall not cover the design of recreational 
vehicles or other forms of camping units nor the operational 
and maintenance practices for recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds. 



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Chapter 28 Refueling 

28-1 General. This chapter shall apply to the refueling of 
automotive vehicles, aircraft, and marine vessels. 

28-2 Automotive Fuel Servicing. 

28-2.1 General Requirements. 

28-2.1.1 New and existing automotive service stations, service 
stations located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle service sta- 
tions, as well as the refueling processes at these facilities shall 
comply with this section and NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine 
Service Station Code. 

28-2.1.2 This section shall not apply to those service stations, 
or portions of service stations, where liquefied petroleum 
gases, liquefied natural gases, or compressed natural gases are 
dispensed as automotive fuels. (See Section 28-5.) (30A:1-1.2) 

28-2.1.3 This section shall not apply to fueling facilities at 
remote locations for large, off-the-road earthmoving and con- 
struction vehicles. (30A:1-1.3) 

28-2.1.4 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

28-2.2 Storage Requirements. 

28-2.2.1 General Provisions. 

28-2.2-1.1 Liquids shall be stored in the following: 

( 1 ) Approved closed containers not exceeding 60 gal (227 L) 
capacity 

(2) Tanks in special enclosures inside buildings as described 
in Section 2-2 of NFPA 30A 

(3) Aboveground tanks supplying marine service stations as 
provided in 28-2.2.1.4 

(4) An approved tank that is part of a fuel dispensing system 
as provided for in 28-2.8.3.5 

(5) Tanks located underground as in Section 2-4 of NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(6) Tanks or containers inside service station buildings as 
provided for in 28-2.2.3.4 and 28-2.2.3.5, or 

(7) Aboveground storage tanks located at service stations 
with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction and 
as provided for in 28-2.2.4 (30A:2-1.1) 

28-2.2.1.2 Apparatus dispensing Class I liquids into the fuel 
tanks of motor vehicles of the public shall not be located at a 
bulk plant unless separated by a fence or similar barrier from 
the area in which bulk operations are conducted. Above- 
ground tanks located at a bulk plant shall not be connected by 
piping to service station tanks. (30A:2-1.3) 

28-2.2.1.3 Class I liquids shall not be stored or handled within 
a building having a basement or pit into which flammable 
vapors can travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation 
that will prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors 
therein. (30A:2-1.4) 

28-2.2.1.4 Tanks supplying marine service stations and pumps 
not integral with the dispensing device shall be on shore or on 
a pier of the solid-fill type, except as provided in (1) and (2). 

( 1 ) Where shore location would require excessively long sup- 
ply lines to dispensers, tanks shall be permitted to be 
located on a pier, provided that applicable portions of 
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, Chapter 
2, relative to spacing, diking, and piping, and Chapter 5, 



Table 5-9.5.3, relative to electrical classification, are com- 
plied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 
1100 gal (4164 L) aggregate capacity. 
(2) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations shall be 
permitted to be located above ground where rock ledges 
or high water tables make underground tanks impracti- 
cal. (See also Section 2-4 of NFPA 30A.) (30A:2-1.6) 

28-2.2.1.5* Accurate daily inventory records shall be main- 
tained and reconciled on all Class I liquid and diesel fuel stor- 
age tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks or 
piping. The records shall be kept at the premises or made 
available for inspection by the enforcing authority within 24 
hours of a written or verbal request. The records shall include, 
as a minimum, records showing by product, daily reconcilia- 
tion between sales, use, receipts, and inventory on hand. If 
there is more than one system consisting of a tank(s) serving a 
separate pump(s) or dispenser(s) for any product, the recon- 
ciliation shall be maintained separately for each tank system. 
(30A:2-1.5) 

28-2.2.2 Special Enclosures. 

28-2.2.2.1 Enclosure shall be substantially liquidtight and 
vaportight without backfill. Sides, top, and bottom of the 
enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 in. (15 cm) 
thick, with openings for inspection through the top only. Tank 
connections shall be so piped or closed that neither vapors 
nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space. Means shall be 
provided to use portable equipment to discharge to the out- 
side any liquid or vapors that might accumulate should leak- 
age occur. (30A:2-2.2) 

28-2.2.2.2 At automotive service stations provided in connec- 
tion with tenant or customer parking facilities in large build- 
ings of commercial, mercantile, or residential occupancy, 
tanks containing Class I liquids installed in accordance with 
28-2.2.2.1 shall not exceed 6000 gal (22,710 L) individual or 
18,000 gal (68,130 L) aggregate capacity. (30A:2-2.3) 

28-2.2.3 Inside Buildings. 

28-2-2.3. 1 Except where stored in tanks as provided in Section 
2-2 of NFPA 30A, no Class I liquids shall be stored within any 
service station building except in closed containers of aggre- 
gate capacity not exceeding 120 gal (454.2 L). One container 
not exceeding 60 gal (227 L) capacity equipped with a listed 
pump shall be permitted. (30A:2-3.1) 

28-2.2.3.2 Openings for gaging on tanks storing Class I liquids 
shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover. Such covers 
shall be closed when not gaging. (30:2-3.8.3) 

28-2.2.3.3 Class I liquids shall be permitted to be transferred 
from one container to another in lubrication or service rooms 
of a service station building provided the electrical installation 
complies with Chapter 7 of NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine 
Service Station Code, and provided that any heating equipment 
complies with Chapter 8 of NFPA 30 A. (See also 28-2. 8. 7 for other 
possible sources of ignition.) (30A:2-3.2) 

28-2.2.3.4 Class II and Class IIIA liquids shall be permitted 
to be stored and dispensed inside service station buildings 
from approved tanks of not more than 120 gal (454 L) for 
each class, with an aggregate capacity not exceeding 240 gal 
(908 L). (30A:2-3.3) 

28-2.2.3.5 Class IIIB liquids shall be permitted to be stored in 
and dispensed from tanks and containers meeting the require- 



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merits of Sections 2-2 and 4-2 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids Code, as applicable, inside service station 
buildings. Tanks and containers that contain only crankcase 
drainings shall be considered to be containing Class IIIB liq- 
uids. (30A:2-3.4) 

28-2.2.3.6 Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids inside service sta- 
tion buildings shall be permitted to be located at, below, or 
above grade provided that adequate drainage or containment 
is provided. (30A:2-3.4.1) 

28-2.2.4 Aboveground Storage Tanks at Service Stations. 

28-2.2.4.1* Except as modified by the provisions of this sec- 
tion, aboveground storage tanks shall comply with the applica- 
ble provisions in Chapters 2 and 3 of NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code. (30A:2-4.1) 

28-2.2.4.1.1 Only aboveground storage tanks shall be used. 
Tanks designed and built for underground use shall not be 
installed for aboveground use. (30A:2-4.1.1) 

28-2.2.4.2 Tank Location and Capacity. 

28-2.2.4.2.1 Tanks storing Class I and Class II liquids at an indi- 
vidual site shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 
12,000 gal (45,600 L) and an aggregate capacity of 40,000 gal 
(152,000 L). Tanks storing Class II and Class IIIA liquids at a 
fleet vehicle service station shall be limited to a maximum indi- 
vidual fueling capacity of 20,000 gal (76,000 L) and an aggre- 
gate capacity of 80,000 gal (304,000 L) . (30A:2-4.2.1 ) 

28-2.2.4.2.2 Tanks shall be located at least 

(1) 50 ft (15 m) from the nearest important building on the 
same property; 

(2) 50 ft (15 m) from any fuel dispenser; 

(3) 50 ft (15 m) from the nearest side of a public way; and 

(4) 100 ft (30 m) from any property line that is or might be 
built upon, including the opposite side of a public way. 

Exception No. 1: All distances shall be permitted to be reduced by 50 
percent if the tanks are fire-resistant tanks, as defined in Section 1-2 of 
NFPA 30 A, or are installed in vaults that comply with 28-2.2.4.4. 

Exception No. 2: At commercial, industrial, governmental, or manu- 
facturing establishments, where the tanks are intended for fueling ve- 
hicles used in connection with their business, no minimum distance 
shall be required by 28-2.2.4.2.2(2) if the tanks are fire-resistant 
tanks, as defined in Section 1-2 of NFPA 30A, or are installed in 
vaults that comply with 28-2.2.4.4. (30A:2-4.2.2) 

28-2.2.4.3 Control of Spillage. Spill control shall be provided 
in accordance with 2-3.4 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids Code. 

Exception: Tanks installed in vaults that comply with 28-2.2.4.4 are 
not required to meet this requirement. (30A:2-4.3) 

28-2.2.4.4 Vaults. Vaults shall be permitted to be either above 
or below grade and shall comply with the following: 

(1) The vault shall completely enclose each tank. There 
shall be no openings in the vault enclosure except those 
necessary for access to, inspection of, and filling, empty- 
ing, and venting of the tank. The walls and floor of the 
vault shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least 
6 in. (15 cm) thick. The top of an above-grade vault shall 
be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be 
designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault, to 
ensure that the thrust of any explosion occurring inside 
the vault is directed upward before significantly high 



pressure can develop within the vault. The top of an at- 
grade or below-grade vault shall be designed to safely 
relieve or contain the force of any explosion occurring 
inside the vault. The top and floor of the vault and the 
tank foundation shall be designed to withstand the antic- 
ipated loading, including loading from vehicular traffic, 
where applicable. The walls and floor of any vault 
installed below grade shall be designed to withstand 
anticipated soil and hydrostatic loading. The vault shall 
be substantially liquidtight and there shall be no backfill 
around the tank. There shall be sufficient space between 
the tank and the vault to allow for inspection of the tank 
and its appurtenances. 

(2) Each vault and its tank shall be suitably anchored to with- 
stand uplifting by groundwater or flooding, including 
when the tank is empty. 

(3) A vault shall be designed to be wind- and earthquake- 
resistant, in accordance with good engineering practice. 
The vault shall be resistant to damage from the impact 
of a motor vehicle, or suitable collision barriers shall be 
provided. 

(4) Each tank shall be in its own vault. Adjacent vaults may 
share a common wall. 

(5) Connections shall be provided to permit venting of each 
vault to dilute, disperse, and remove any vapors prior to 
personnel entering the vault. 

(6) Vaults that contain tanks of Class I liquids shall be pro- 
vided with continuous ventilation at a rate of not less than 
1 ft 3 per min per ft 2 of floor area (0.3 m 3 per min perm 2 ), 
but not less than 150 cfm (4 m 3 per min). Failure of the 
exhaust air flow shall automatically shut down the dis- 
pensing system. The exhaust system shall be designed to 
provide air movement across all parts of the vault floor. 
Supply and exhaust ducts shall extend to within 3 in. 
(7.6 cm), but not more than 12 in. (30 cm), of the floor. 
The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance with 
the provisions of NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for 
Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible 
Particulate Solids. Means shall be provided to automati- 
cally detect any flammable vapors and to automatically 
shut down the dispensing system upon detection of such 
flammable vapors in the exhaust duct at a concentration 
of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit. 

(7) Each vault shall be equipped with a detection system 
capable of detecting liquids, including water, and of acti- 
vating an alarm. 

(8) Means shall be provided to recover liquid from the vault. 
If a pump is used to meet this requirement, the pump 
shall not be permanently installed in the vault. Electric- 
powered portable pumps shall be suitable for use in Class 
I, Division 1 locations, as defined in NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code. 

(9) Vent pipes that are provided for normal tank venting 
shall terminate at least 12 ft (3.6 m) above ground level. 

(10) Emergency vents shall be vapor tight and shall be permit- 
ted to discharge inside the vault. Long-bolt manhole cov- 
ers shall not be permitted for this purpose. 

(11) Each vault shall be provided with a means for personnel 
entry. At each entry point, a warning sign indicating the 
need for procedures for safe entry into confined spaces 
shall be posted. Each entry point shall be secured against 
unauthorized entry and vandalism. 

(12) Each vault shall be provided with a suitable means to 
admit a fire suppression agent. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



(13) The interior of any vault containing a tank that stores a 
Class I liquid shall be designated a Class I, Division 1 loca- 
tion, as defined in NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 
(30A:2^.4) 

28-2.2.4.5 Fire-Resistant Tanks. Fire-resistant tanks shall be 
listed for the use intended and shall comply with all of the 
following: 

(1) The construction that provides the required fire-resistive 
protection shall prevent release of liquid, failure of the 
primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and 
impairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 
hours when tested using a fire exposure that simulates a 
high-intensity pool fire, such as that described in UL 
2085, Standard for Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flamma- 
ble and Combustible Liquids, or equivalent test procedure. 

(2) There shall be no openings except those necessary for 
access to, inspection of, filling, emptying, and venting of 
the tank. All openings shall be located in the top of the 
tank. 

(3) Each fire-resistant tank shall be suitably anchored to with- 
stand uplifting by groundwater or flooding, including 
when the tank is empty. 

(4) Each fire-resistant tank shall be resistant to damage from 
impact of a motor vehicle or shall be protected by suit- 
able collision barriers. 

(5) Vent pipes that are provided for normal tank venting 
shall terminate at least 12 ft (3.6 m) above ground level. 

(6) Paragraph 2-3.6.7 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids Code, shall not be used to reduce the size of the 
emergency vent. (30A:2-4.5) 

28-2.2.4.6 Piping and Ancillary Equipment. 

28-2.2.4.6.1 Means shall be provided for determining the liq- 
uid level in each tank and this means shall be accessible to the 
delivery operator. Means shall be provided to sound an audi- 
ble alarm when the liquid level in the tank reaches 90 percent 
of capacity. Means shall also be provided to automatically stop 
the flow of liquid into the tank when the liquid level in the 
tank reaches 95 percent of capacity. These provisions shall not 
restrict or interfere with the proper operation of either the 
normal vent or the emergency vent. (30A:2-4.6.1) 

28-2.2.4.6.2 Fuel shall not be dispensed from the tank by 
either gravity flow or pressurization of the tank. Means shall be 
provided to prevent the release of liquid by siphon flow. 
(30A:2-4.6.2) 

28-2.2.4.6.3 Where a tank is at an elevation that produces a 
gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be 
equipped with a device (such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve) that will prevent gravity flow from the tank to the dis- 
penser. This device shall be located adjacent to and down- 
stream of the oudet valve specified by Chapter 2 of NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The device shall be 
installed and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity 
from the tank to the dispenser in the event of failure of the 
piping or hose when the dispenser is not in use. (30A:2-4.6.3) 

28-2.2.4.6.4 If a submersible pump system is used, a listed 
emergency shutoff valve shall be installed at each dispensing 
device, as required by 28-2.4.3.5. (30A:2-4.6.4) 

28-2.2.4.6.5 If a suction pump-type dispensing device is used, 
a listed, vacuum-actuated shutoff valve, with a shear section, or 
equivalent-type valve shall be installed direcdy under each dis- 
pensing device. 



Exception: Tanks installed in beloxv-grade vaults are not required to 
comply with this requirement. (30A:2-4.6.5) 

28-2.2.4.6.6 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve the pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion back to the tank. (30A:2-4.6.6) 

28-2.2.4.6.7 Piping shall be routed so that exposure to physi- 
cal damage is minimized. (30A:2-4.6.7) 

28-2.2.4.7 Physical Protection. 

28-2.2.4.7.1 Tanks not enclosed in vaults shall be enclosed 
with a chain link fence at least 6 ft (2 m) high. The fence shall 
be separated from the tanks by at least 10 ft (3 m) and shall 
have a gate that is secured against unauthorized entry. Above- 
ground tanks shall be resistant to damage from the impact of 
a motor vehicle or shall be protected by collision barriers. 
Exception: Tanks are not required to be enclosed within a fence if the 
properly on which the tanks are located already has a perimeter security 
fence. (30A.-2-4. 7.1) 

28-2.2.4.7.2 The area within the fence and within any dike 
shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and any other material 
that is not necessary to the proper operation of the tank and 
piping system. (30A:2-4.7.2) 

28-2.2.4.8 Corrosion Protection. Any portion of a tank or its 
piping system that is in contact with the soil shall be protected 
from corrosion in accordance with sound engineering prac- 
tice. (30A:2-4.8) 

28-2.2.4.9 Tank Filling Operations. 

28-2.2.4.9.1 Delivery operations shall comply with applicable 
requirements of NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids, and with the requirements of 
28-2.2.4.9.2 through 28-2.2.4.9.4. (30A:2-4.9.1) 

28-2.2.4.9.2 The delivery vehicle shall be separated from any 
aboveground tank by at least 25 ft (7.6 m). 

Exception No. 1: No minimum separation distance shall be required 
for tanks that are filled by gravity. 

Exception No. 2: The required minimum separation distance shall be 
permitted to be reduced to 15 ft (4.6 m) where the fuel being delivered 
is not a Class I liquid. (30A:2-4. 9.2) 

28-2.2.4.9.3 Tank filling shall not begin until the delivery 
operator has determined tank ullage (available capacity). 
(30A:2-4.9.3) 

28-2.2.4.9.4 All tanks shall be filled through a liquid-tight con- 
nection. Where the tank is filled by means of fixed piping, 
either a check valve and shutoff valve with a quick-connect 
coupling or a check valve with a dry-break coupling shall be 
installed in the piping at a point where connection and dis- 
connection is made between the tank and the delivery vehicle. 
This device shall be protected from tampering and physical 
damage. (30A:2-4.9.4) 

28-2.3 Piping, Valves, and Fittings. 

28-2.3.1 The design, fabrication, assembly, test, and inspec- 
tion of the piping system shall be in accordance with Chapter 
3 of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, except 
that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable 
lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be 
used between the shore piping and the piping on the floating 
structure as made necessary by change in water level or shore- 
line. (30A:3-1) 



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28-2.3.2 Where excessive stray currents are encountered, pip- 
ing handling Class I and Class II liquids at marine service sta- 
tions shall be electrically insulated from the shore piping. 
(30A:3-2) 

28-2.3.3 Piping shall be located so as to be protected from 
physical damage. (30A:3-3) 

28-2.3.4 A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from 
shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the 
approach to the pier and at the shore end of each marine 
pipeline adjacent to the point where a flexible hose is 
attached. (30A:3-4) 

28-2.3.5 Each fill pipe for liquid storage shall be identified by 
color code or other marking to identify the product for which 
the tank is used. The color code or marking shall be main- 
tained in legible condition throughout the life of the tank 
installation. (30A:3-6) 

28-2.3.6 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve any pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion of the contained liquid back to the 
storage tank. (30A:3-7) 

28-2.3.7 Piping components constructed of low melting point 
materials shall be permitted to be used without backfill in 
below-grade underground tank sumps. (30A:3-8) 

28-2.4 Fuel Dispensing System. 

28-2.4.1 Location of Dispensing Devices and Emergency 
Power Cutoff. 

28-2.4.1.1 Dispensing devices at an automotive service station 
shall be so located that all parts of the vehicle being served will 
be on the premises of the service station. Openings beneath 
enclosures shall be sealed to prevent the flow of leaking fuel to 
lower building spaces. 

Dispensing devices at marine service stations shall be permit- 
ted to be located on open piers, wharves, floating docks, or on 
shore, or on piers of the solid-fill type, and shall be located apart 
from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and 
egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing devices shall be in all 
cases at least 20 ft (6 m) from any activity involving fixed sources 
of ignition. Dispensing devices located inside buildings shall 
comply with Chapter 6 of NFPA 30A. (30A:4-1 . 1 ) 

28-2.4.1.2 A clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) 
or circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location remote 
from dispensing devices, including remote pumping systems, to 
shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an 
emergency. (See 28-2.8.4.5 and 28-2.8.5.3 for applicable require- 
ments for proper location of the emergency controls.) (30A4-1.2) 

28-2.4.2 Fuel Dispensing Devices. 

28-2.4.2.1 Class I liquids and Class II liquids shall be trans- 
ferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and 
equipped to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or 
accidental discharge. (30A:4-2.1) 

28-2.4.2.2 Dispensing devices for Class I liquids shall be listed. 
Existing listed or labeled dispensing devices shall be permitted 
to be modified provided that the modifications made are 
"Listed by Report" by an approved testing laboratory or as oth- 
erwise approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Modifi- 
cation proposals shall contain a description of the component 
parts used in the modification and the recommended meth- 
ods of installation on specific dispensing devices, and they 



shall be made available to the authority having jurisdiction 
upon request. (30A:4-2.2) 

28-2.4,2.3 A control shall be provided that will permit the 
pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed 
from its bracket or normal position with respect to the dis- 
pensing device and the switch on this dispensing device is 
manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when 
all nozzles have been returned, either to their brackets or to 
the normal nondispensing position. (30A:4-2.3) 

28-2.4.2.4 Liquids shall not be dispensed by applying pressure 
to drums, barrels, and similar containers. Listed pumps taking 
suction through the top of the container or listed self-closing 
faucets shall be used. (30A:4-2.4) 

28-2.4.2.5 Dispensing devices, except those attached to con- 
tainers, shall either be mounted on a concrete island or other- 
wise protected against collision damage by suitable means and 
shall be securely bolted in place. If located indoors, the dis- 
pensing device shall also be located in a position where it can- 
not be struck by a vehicle that is out of control descending a 
ramp or other slope. The installation shall be in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. (30A:4-2.5) 

28-2.4.2.6 Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense 
fuel. Hose length at automotive service stations shall not 
exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). Where hose length at marine service sta- 
tions exceeds 18 ft (5.5 m), the hose shall be secured so as to 
protect it from damage. (30A:4-2.6) 

28-2.4.2.7 A listed emergency breakaway device designed to 
retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point shall be 
installed on each hose dispensing Class I liquids. Such devices 
shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the man- 
ufacturer's instructions. 

Where hoses are attached to a hose-retrieving mechanism, 
the listed emergency breakaway device shall be installed 
between the point of attachment of the hose-retrieving mech- 
anism to the hose and the hose nozzle valve. 

Exception: Such devices shall not be required at marine service sta- 
tions. (30A:4-2. 7) 

28-2.4.2.8 Dispensing devices used to fill portable containers 
with home heating fuels shall be located at least 20 ft (6 m) 
from any dispensing devices for Class I liquids. Dispensing 
devices for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural 
gas (LNG) , and compressed natural gas (CNG) shall also be 
located at least 20 ft (6 m) from any dispensing device for Class 
I liquids. (30A-.4-2.8) 

28-2.4.2.9 When maintenance to Class I dispensing devices 
becomes necessary and such maintenance might allow the 
accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precau- 
tions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun: 

(1) Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required 
maintenance shall perform the work. 

(2) All electrical power to the dispensing devices, to the 
pump serving the dispensing devices, and to all associ- 
ated control circuits shall be shut off at the main electri- 
cal disconnect panel. 

(3) The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, if installed, 
shall be closed. 

(4) All vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be pre- 
vented from coming within 20 ft (6 m) of the dispensing 
device. (30A:4-2.9) 



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28-2.4.3 Remote Pumping Systems. 

28-2.4.3.1 This section shall apply to systems for dispensing 
Class I liquids and Class II liquids where such liquids are trans- 
ferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing 
devices by pumps located other than at the dispensing devices. 
(30A:4-3.1) 

28-2.4.3.2 Pumps shall be listed and designed or equipped so 
that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above 
its allowable working pressure. (30A:4-3.2) 

28-2.4.3.3 Each pump shall have installed on the discharge 
side a listed leak detection device that will provide an indica- 
tion if the piping and dispensers are not essentially liquidtight. 
Each leak-detecting device shall be checked and tested at least 
annually according to the manufacturer's specifications to 
ensure proper installation and operation. (30A:4-3.3) 

28-2.4.3.4 Pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, 
shall be located not less than 10 ft (3 m) from lines of adjoin- 
ing property that can be built upon and not less than 5 ft 
(1.5 m) from any building opening. Where an outside pump 
location is impractical, pumps shall be permitted to be 
installed inside buildings as provided for dispensers in 28-2.4.1 
or in pits as provided in 4-3.5 of NFPA 30A, Automotive and 
Marine Service Station Code. Pumps shall be substantially 
anchored and protected against physical damage. (30A:4-3.4) 

28-2.4.3.5 A rigidly anchored listed automatic emergency 
shutoff valve shall be installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's instructions in each supply line at the base of each 
individual island-type dispenser or at the inlet of each over- 
head dispensing device. This valve shall incorporate a fusible 
link or other thermally actuated device that will close the valve 
in the event of fire exposure. This valve shall also incorporate 
a mechanism to close the valve in the event of severe impact or 
displacement of the dispenser. If the valve incorporates a 
shear section, the valve shall be rigidly anchored so that the 
shear section functions as intended. An emergency shutoff 
valve incorporating a slipjoint feature shall not be used. The 
automatic closing feature of this valve shall be checked at the 
time of initial installation and at least once a year thereafter by 
manually tripping the hold-open linkage. (30A:4-3.6) 

28-2.4.4 Vapor Recovery Systems. 

28-2.4.4.1 Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for 
vapor recovery shall be listed. (30A:4-4.1) 

28-2.4.4.2 Hose nozzle valves used on vapor recovery systems 
shall be listed. (30A:4-4.2) 

28-2.5 Service Stations Located Inside Buildings. 

28-2.5.1 General. 

28-2.5.1.1 A service station shall be permitted inside a build- 
ing subject to approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 
(30A:6-1.1) 

28-2.5.1.2 The service station shall be separated from other 
portions of the building by wall, partition , floor, or floor-ceiling 
assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hr. 
(30A.-6-1.2) 

28-2.5.1.3 Interior finish of service stations shall be con- 
structed of noncombustible or approved limited-combustible 
materials. (30A:6-1.3) 



28-2.5.1.4 Door and window openings in interior walls shall 
be provided with listed lVg-rir (B) fire doors. Doors shall be 
self-closing or shall be permitted to remain open during nor- 
mal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a 
fire emergency by provision of listed closure devices. Fire 
doors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard 
forFire Doors andFire Windows. (30A:6-1.4) 

28-2.5.1.5 Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed at all times. 
Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. (30A:6-1.5) 

28-2.5.1.6 Openings in interior partitions and walls for ducts 
shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Openings in floor or 
floor-ceiling assemblies for ducts shall be protected with 
enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts shall be with wall or parti- 
tion assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
2 hr. Openings in enclosed shafts, for ducts, shall be protected 
with listed fire dampers. (30A:6-1.6) 

28-2.5.2 Dispensing Area. 

28-2.5.2.1 The dispensing area shall be located at street level, 
with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) from the 
vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the building. 
(30A:6-2.1) 

28-2.5.2.2 Dispensing shall be limited to the area required to 
serve not more than four vehicles at one time. 

Exception: At fleet vehicle service stations, where only Class II and 
Class HI liquids are dispensed, the number of vehicles serviced at any 
one time shall be permitted to be increased to 12. (30A:6-2.2) 

28-2.5.3 Ventilation. 

28-2.5.3.1 Forced air heating, air conditioning, and ventilat- 
ing systems serving the service station area shall not be inter- 
connected with any such systems serving other parts of the 
building. Such systems shall be installed in accordance with 
the provisions of NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation ofAir- 
Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. (30A:6-3.1) 

28-2.5.3.2 A mechanical exhaust system shall be provided to 
serve only the dispensing area. This system shall be inter- 
locked with the dispensing system such that air flow is estab- 
lished before any dispensing device can operate. Failure of air 
flow shall automatically shut down the dispensing system. 
(30A:6-3.2) 

28-2.5.3.3 The exhaust system shall be designed to provide 
air movement across all portions of the dispensing area floor 
and to prevent the flow of flammable vapors beyond the dis- 
pensing area. Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. 
(7.6 cm) nor more than 12 in. (0.30 m) above the floor. 
Exhaust ducts shall not be located in floors, or penetrate the 
floor of the dispensing area, and shall discharge to a safe 
location outside the building. (30A:6-3.3) 

28-2.5.3.4 The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a 
rate of not less than 1 cfm per ft 2 (0.3 m 3 per min per m 2 ) of 
dispensing area. (30A:6-3.4) 

28-2.5.3.5 The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance 
with the provisions of NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for 
Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particu- 
late Solids. (30A:6-3.5) 

28-2.5.3.6 The provisions of 28-2.5.3.2 through 28-2.5.3.5 
shall not apply to a service station located inside a building if 
two or more sides of the dispensing area are open to the build- 



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ing exterior such that natural ventilation can normally be 
expected to dissipate flammable vapors. (30A:6-3.6) 

28-2.5.4 Piping. All fuel and flammable vapor piping inside 
buildings but outside the service station area shall be enclosed 
within a horizontal chase or a vertical shaft used only for this 
piping. Vertical shafts and horizontal chases shall be con- 
structed of materials having a fire resistance rating of not less 
than 2 hr. (30A:6-4.2) 

28-2.5.5 Drainage Systems. 

28-2.5.5.1 Floors shall be liquidtight. Emergency drainage sys- 
tems shall be provided to direct flammable or combustible liq- 
uid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This 
might require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems. 
(30A:6-5.1) 

28-2.5.5.2 Emergency drainage systems, if connected to pub- 
lic sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be 
equipped with traps or separators. (30A:6-5.2) 

28-2-6 Electrical Equipment. Where Class I liquids are 
stored, handled, or dispensed, electrical equipment shall 
meet the requirements of Chapter 7 of NFPA 30A, Automotive 
and Marine Service Station Code. 

28-2.7 Heat-Producing Appliances. 

28-2.7.1 Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to be 
installed in a special room that is separated from an area that 
is classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance with 
Table 7 of NFPA 30 A, by walls that are constructed so as to pre- 
vent the transmission of vapors, that have a fire resistance rat- 
ing of at least 1 hr, and that have no openings in the walls 
within 8 ft (2.4 m) of the floor that lead to a classified area. 
Specific small openings through the wall, such as for piping 
and electrical conduit, shall be permitted, provided the gaps 
and voids are filled with a fire-resistant material to resist trans- 
mission of vapors. This room shall not be Used for storage of 
combustible material. All air for combustion purposes shall be 
taken from outside the building. (30A:8-3) 

28-2.7.2 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel shall 
be permitted to be installed in the lubrication or service room 
where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I liquids, 
including the open draining of automotive gasoline tanks, 
provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 
18 in. (46 cm) above the floor and the heat-producing appli- 
ances are protected from physical damage. (30A:8-4) 

28-2.7.2.1 Solid fuel stoves shall not be permitted in any lubri- 
cation room or service room. (30A:8-4.1) 

28-2.7.3 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel listed 
for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in the 
lubrication or service room where Class I liquids are dispensed 
or transferred, provided the equipment is installed at least 8 ft 
(2.4 m) above the floor. (30A:8-5) 

28-2.7.4 Electrical heat-producing appliances shall conform 
to Chapter 7 of NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine Service Station 
Code. (30A:8-6) 

28-2.8 Operational Requirements. 

28-2.8.1 Fuel Delivery Nozzles. 

28-2.8.1.1 A listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve, 
with or without latch-open device, shall be provided for the 
dispensing of motor fuels. (30A:9-1.1) 



28-2.8.1.2 If a hose nozzle valve is provided with a latch-open 
device other than recommended by the valve manufacturer, 
the latch-open device shall be an integral part of the valve 
assembly, and such valve latch-open device combination shall 
meet the applicable requirements of UL 842, Standard for 
Valves for Flammable Fluids. (See also 28-2.8.4.4.) (30A:9-1.2) 

28-2.8.1.3 At any installation where the normal flow of prod- 
uct may be stopped other than by the hose nozzle valve, such 
as at pre-pay stations, the system shall include listed equip- 
ment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the 
hose nozzle valve before product flow can be resumed or 
before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal 
position in the dispenser; or the hose nozzle valve shall not be 
equipped with a latch-open device. (30A:9-1.2.1) 

28-2.8.1.4 Overhead-type dispensing devices shall be pro- 
vided with a listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve 
without a latch-open device. 

Exception: A listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve with 
latch-open device shall be permitted to be used if the design of the system 
is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event 
the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a drive- 
way. (30A:9-1.3) 

28-2.8.1.5 Dispensing nozzles used at marine service stations 
shall be of the automatic-closing type without a latch-open 
device. (30A:9-1.4) 

28-2.8.1.6 A hose nozzle valve used to dispense a liquid into a 
container shall be manually held open during the dispensing 
operation. (30A:9-1.5) 

28-2.8.2 Dispensing into Portable Containers. No delivery of 
any Class I or Class II liquid shall be made into portable con- 
tainers unless the container is constructed of metal or is 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction, has a tight clo- 
sure, and is fitted with a spout or so designed that the contents 
can be poured without spilling. (See NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code, 4-2.1, for further information.) (30A:9-2) 

28-2.8.2.1 No sale or purchase of any Class I, Class II, or Class 
III liquids shall be made in containers unless such containers 
are clearly marked with the name of the product contained 
therein. (30A:9-2.1) 

28-2.8.2.2* Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or 
less shall not be filled while they are in or on a motor vehicle 
or marine craft. (30A:9-2.2) 

28-2.8.3 Attendance or Supervision of Dispensing. 

28-2.8.3.1 Each service station shall have an attendant or 
supervisor on duty whenever the station is open for business, 
who shall dispense liquids into fuel tanks or into containers, 
except as covered in 28-2.8.4 and 28-2.8.5. (30A:9-3.1) 

28-2.8.3.2 Listed self-service dispensing devices are permitted 
at service stations provided that all dispensing of Class I liquids 
by a person other than the service station attendant is under 
the supervision and control of an attendant. 

Exception: See 28-2.8.5. (30A-.9-3.2) 

28-2.8.3.3 The provisions of 28-2.2.1.1 shall not prohibit the 
temporary use of movable tanks in conjunction with the dis- 
pensing of flammable or combustible liquids into the fuel 
tanks of motor vehicles or other motorized equipment on pre- 
mises not normally accessible to the public. Such installations 
shall only be made with the approval of the authority having 



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jurisdiction. The approval shall include a definite time limit. 
(30A:9-3.3) 

28-2.8.3.4 The provisions of 28-2.2.1.1 shall not prohibit the 
dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids in the open from a 
tank vehicle to a motor vehicle located at commercial, indus- 
trial, governmental, or manufacturing establishments and 
intended for fueling vehicles used in connection with their 
businesses. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided 

(1) An inspection of the premises and operations has been 
made and approval granted by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

(2) The tank vehicle complies with the requirements covered 
in NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids. 

(3) The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 ft (15 m) in 
length. 

(4) The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type 
without a latch-open device. 

(5) Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in adequately 
lighted areas. 

(6) The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while 
dispensing. 

(7) Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to pre- 
vent overflow in the event of temperature increase. 
(30A:9-3.4) 

28-2.8.3.5 The provisions of 28-2.2.1.1 shall not prohibit the 
dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids in the open from a fuel 
dispensing system supplied by an existing aboveground tank, 
not to exceed 6000 gal (22,710 L), located at commercial, 
industrial, governmental, or manufacturing establishments, 
and intended for fueling vehicles used in connecdon with their 
business. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided: 

(1) An inspection of the premises and operations has been 
made and approval granted by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

(2) The tank is safeguarded against collision, spillage, and 
overfill to the satisfaction of the authority having juris- 
diction. 

(3) The tank system is listed or approved for such above- 
ground use. 

(4) The tank complies with requirements for emergency 
relief venting, the tank and dispensing system meet the 
electrical classification requirements of NFPA 30A, Auto- 
motive and Marine Service Station Code, and the tank com- 
plies with the provisions of 2-1.7 of NFPA 30A. 

(5) The tank storage shall comply with Chapter 2 of NFPA 30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. (30A:9-3.5) 

28-2.8.4 Attended Self-Service Stations. 

28-2.8.4.1 Self-service station shall mean that portion of prop- 
erty where liquids used as motor fuels are stored and subse- 
quently dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment 
into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than the 
service station attendant and shall include facilities available 
for sale of other retail products. (30A:9-4.1) 

28-2.8.4.2 Listed dispensing devices such as, but not limited 
to, coin-operated, card-operated, and remote-controlled types 
shall be permitted at self-service stations. (30A:9-4.2) 

28-2.8.4.3 All attended self-service stations shall have at least 
one attendant on duty while the station is open for business. 
The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, 



observe, and control the dispensing of Class I liquids while 
said liquids are actually being dispensed. (30A:9-4.3) 

28-2.8.4.4 The attendant shall be responsible for the following: 

(1) Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable 
containers not in compliance with 28-2.8.2 

(2) Prevent the use of hose nozzle valve latch-open devices 
that do not comply with 28-2.8.1.2 

(3) Control sources of ignition 

(4) Immediately activate emergency controls and handle 
accidental spills and fire extinguishers if needed 

The attendant or supervisor on duty shall be mentally and 
physically capable of performing the functions and assuming 
the responsibility prescribed in 28-2.8.4.1 through 28-2.8.4.7. 
(30A:9-4.4) 

28-2.8.4.5 Emergency controls specified in 28-2.4.1.2 shall be 
installed at a location acceptable to the authority havingjuris- 
diction, but controls shall not be more than 100 ft (30 m) from 
dispensers. (30A:9-4.5) 

28-2.8.4.6 Operating instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispensing area. (30A:9-4.6) 

28-2.8.4.7 The dispensing area shall at all times be in clear 
view of the attendant, and the placing or allowing of any obsta- 
cle to come between the dispensing area and the attendant 
control area shall be prohibited. The attendant shall at all 
times be able to communicate with persons in the dispensing 
area. (30A:9-4.7) 

28-2.8.5 Unattended Self-Service Stations. 

28-2.8.5. 1 Unattended self-service shall be permitted, subject to 
the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. (30A:9-5.] ) 

28-2.8.5.2 Listed dispensing devices shall be used. Coin- and 
currency-type devices shall only be permitted with the 
approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. (30A:9-5.2) 

28-2.8.5.3 Emergency controls specified in 28-2.4.1.2 shall be 
installed at a location acceptable to the authority havingjuris- 
diction, but the controls shall be more than 20 ft (6 m) but less 
than 100 ft (30 m) from the dispensers. Additional emergency 
controls shall be installed on each group of dispensers or the 
outdoor equipment used to control the dispensers. Emer- 
gency controls shall shut off power to all dispensing devices at 
the station. Controls shall be manually reset only in a manner 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. (30A:9-5.3) 

28-2.8.5.4 Operating instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispensing area and shall include location of 
emergency controls and a requirement that the user shall stay 
outside of his/her vehicle, in view of the fueling nozzle during 
dispensing. (30A:9-5.4) 

28-2.8.5.5 In addition to those warning signs specified in 
28-2.8.9, emergency instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispenser area incorporating the following or 
equivalent wording: 

Emergency Instructions 

In case of fire or spill: 

(1) Use emergency stop button. 

(2) Report accident by calling (specify local fire number) on 
the phone. Report location. (30A:9-5.5) 

28-2.8.5.6 A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve 
with latch-open device shall be provided. The system shall 
include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires 



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the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow 
can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be 
replaced in its normal position in the dispenser. (30A:9-5.6) 

28-2.8.5.7 A telephone or other approved, clearly identified 
means to notify the fire department shall be provided on the 
site in a location approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 
(30A:9-5.7) 

28-2.8.5.8 Additional fire protection shall be provided where 
required by the authority havingjurisdiction. Additional fire 
protection considerations include such items as fixed suppres- 
sion systems, automatic fire detection, manual fire alarm sta- 
tions, transmission of alarms to off-site locations, and limiting 
gallonage delivered per transaction. (30A:9-5.8) 

28-2.8.6 Drainage and Waste Disposal. 

28-2.8.6.1 Provision shall be made in the area where Class I 
liquids are dispensed to prevent spilled liquids from flowing 
into the interior of service station buildings. Such provision 
shall be made by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other 
equally effective means. (30A:9-6.1) 

28-2.8.6.2 Crankcase drainings and liquids shall not be 
dumped into sewers, streams, or upon the ground, but shall be 
stored in approved tanks or containers outside any building, or 
in tanks installed in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 
of NFPA 30A, until removed from the premises. (30A:9-6.2) 

28-2.8.7 Sources of Ignition. In addition to the previously 
stated restrictions of this chapter, smoking materials, including 
matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of 
areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal com- 
bustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. 
Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be 
posted within sight of the customer being served. The motors of 
all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling 
operation except for emergency generators, pumps, etc., where 
continuing operation is essential. (30A:9-7) 

28-2.8.8 Fire Control. 

28-2.8.8.1 Each service station shall be provided with one or 
more listed fire extinguishers that have a minimum capability 
of 40-B:C. They shall be located so that an extinguisher will be 
within 100 ft (30 m) of each pump, dispenser, underground 
fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service room. (30A:9-8) 

28-2.8.8.2 Where required, automatic fire suppression sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with appropriate NFPA 
standards, manufacturers' instructions, and the listing 
requirements of the systems. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 30Aforref- 
erenced publications.) (30A:9-8.1) 

28-2.8.9 Signs. Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted 
in the dispensing area incorporating the following or equiva- 
lent wording: 

(1) WARNING — It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense 
gasoline into unapproved containers. 

(2) No Smoking 

(3) Stop Motor (30A:9-9) 

28-3 Aircraft Fuel Servicing. 

28-3.1 General. 

28-3.1.1 Application. 

28-3.1.1.1 Facilities and procedures for aircraft ground fuel 
servicing of all types of aircraft with liquid petroleum fuel shall 



comply with this section and NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft 
Fuel Servicing. 

28-3.1.1.2 This section shall not apply to the following: 

( 1 ) In-flight fueling 

(2) Fuel servicing of flying boats or amphibious aircraft on 
water 

(3) Draining or filling of aircraft fuel tanks incidental to aircraft 
fuel system maintenance operations or manufacturing 

28-3.1.2 Fuel Servicing Personnel. Only authorized person- 
nel trained in the safe operation of the equipment they use, in 
the operation of emergency controls, and in the procedures to 
be followed in an emergency shall fuel or defuel aircraft. 
(407:3-1.1) 

28-3.1.3 Prevention and Control of Spills. 

28-3.1.3.1 Fuel servicing equipment shall comply with the 
requirements of NFPA 407 and shall be maintained in safe 
operating condition. Leaking or malfunctioning equipment 
shall be removed from service. (407:3-2.1) 

28-3.1.3.2 Fuel nozzles shall not be dragged along the 
ground. (407:3-2.2) 

28-3.1.3.3 Pumps, either hand operated or power operated, 
shall be used where aircraft are fueled from drums. Pouring or 
gravity flow shall not be permitted from a container with a 
capacity of more than 5 gal (18.9 L). (407:3-2.3) 

28-3.1.4 Bonding. 

28-3.1.4.1 Prior to making any fueling connection to the air- 
craft, the fueling equipment shall be bonded to the aircraft by 
use of a cable, thus providing a conductive path to equalize the 
potential between the fueling equipment and the aircraft. The 
bond shall be maintained until fueling connections have been 
removed, thus allowing separated charges that could be gen- 
erated during the fueling operation to reunite. (407:3-4.1) 

28-3.1.4.2 In addition to the above, where fueling overwing, the 
nozzle shall be bonded with a nozzle bond cable having a clip 
or plug to a metallic component of the aircraft that is metalli- 
cally connected to the tank filler port. The bond connection 
shall be made before the filler cap is removed. If there is no plug 
receptacle or means for attaching a clip, the operator shall 
touch the filler cap with the nozzle spout before removing the 
cap in order to equalize the potential between the nozzle and 
the filler port. The spout shall be kept in contact with the filler 
neck until the fueling is completed. (407:3-4.2) 

28-3.1.4.3 Where a funnel is used in aircraft fueling, it shall be 
kept in contact with the filler neck as well as the fueling nozzle 
spout or the supply container to avoid the possibility of a spark 
at the fill opening. Only metal funnels shall be used. (407:3-4.3) 

28-3.1.4.4 Where a hydrant servicer or cart is used for fueling, 
the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant system 
prior to bonding the fuel equipment to the aircraft. (407:34.4) 

28-3.1.4.5 Bonding and fueling connections shall be discon- 
nected in the reverse order of connection. (407:3-4.5) 

28-3.1.4.6 Conductive hose shall be used to prevent electro- 
static discharge but shall not be used to accomplish required 
bonding. (407:3-4.6) 



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28-3.1.5 Operation of Aircraft Engines and Heaters. 

28-3.1.5.1 Fuel servicing shall not be performed on a fixed 
wing aircraft while an onboard engine is operating. (See Section 
3-21 ofNFPA 407.) 

Exception: In an emergency resulting from the failure of an onboard 
auxiliary power unit on a jet aircraft and in the absence of suitable 
ground support equipment, a jet engine mounted at the rear of the air- 
craft or on the wing on the side opposite the fueling point shall be per- 
mitted to be operated during fueling to provide power, provided that the 
operation follows written procedures approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. (407:3-5. 1) 

28-3.1.5.2 Combustion heaters on aircraft (e.g., wing and tail 
surface heaters, integral cabin heaters) shall not be operated 
during fueling operations. (407:3-5.2) 

28-3.1.6 Internal Combustion Engine Equipment Around 
Aircraft (Other than Aircraft Fuel Servicing Vehicles). 

28-3.1.6.1 Equipment, other than that performing aircraft 
servicing functions, shall not be permitted within 50 ft (15 m) 
of aircraft during fuel servicing operations. (407:3-6.1) 

28-3.1.6.2 Equipment performing aircraft servicing functions 
shall not be positioned within a 10-ft (3-m) radius of aircraft 
fuel system vent openings. (407:3-6.2) 

28-3.1.6.3 During overwing aircraft fuel servicing where air- 
craft fuel system vents are located on the upper wing surface, 
equipment shall not be positioned under the trailing edge of 
the wing. (407:3-6.3) 

28-3.1.7 Open Flames. 

28-3.1.7.1 Entrances to fueling areas shall be posted with "no 
smoking" signs. (407:3-8.1) 

28-3.1.7.2 Open flames on aircraft fuel servicing ramps or 
aprons within 50 ft (15 m) of any aircraft fuel servicing opera- 
tion or fueling equipment shall be prohibited. (407:3-8.2) 

28-3.1.7.3 The category of open flames and lighted open- 
flame devices shall include, but shall not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Lighted cigarettes, cigars, pipes 

(2) Exposed flame heaters, liquid, solid, or gaseous devices, 
including portable and wheeled gasoline or kerosene 
heaters 

(3) Heat-producing, welding or cutting devices, and blow- 
torches 

(4) Flare pots or other open-flame lights (407:3-8.3) 

28-3.1.7.4 Personnel shall not carry lighters or matches on 
their person while engaged in fuel servicing operations. 
(407:3-8.5) 

28-3.1.7.5 Lighters or matches shall not be permitted on or in 
fueling equipment. (407:3-8.6) 

28-3.1.7.6 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permit- 
ted to establish other locations where open flames and open- 
flame devices shall not be permitted. (407:3-8.4) 

28-3.1.8 Aircraft Fuel Servicing Locations. 

28-3.1.8.1 Aircraft fuel servicing shall be performed outdoors. 
Aircraft fuel servicing incidental to aircraft fuel system mainte- 
nance operations shall comply with the requirements ofNFPA 
410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance. (407:3-10.1) 



28-3.1.8.2 Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned so that air- 
craft fuel system vents or fuel tank openings are not closer 
than 25 ft (8 m) from any terminal building, hangar, service 
building, or enclosed passenger concourse other than a load- 
ing walkway. Aircraft being fueled shall not be positioned so 
that the vent or tank openings are within 50 ft (15 m) of any 
combustion and ventilation air-intake to any boiler, heater, or 
incinerator room. (407:3-10.2) 

28-3.1.8.3 Accessibility to aircraft by emergency fire equip- 
ment shall be established for aircraft fuel servicing positions. 
(407:3-10.3) 

28-3.2 Airport Fueling Systems. 

28-3.2.1 Plans and Specifications. Work shall not be started 
on the construction or alteration of an airport fuel system 
until the design, plans, and specifications have been approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction. (407:2-4.1) 

28-3.2.2 Acceptance Inspection. The authority having juris- 
diction shall inspect and approve the completed system before 
it is put into service. (407:2-4.2) 

28-3.2.3 Fuel Storage Tanks. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall determine the clearances required from runways, 
taxiways, and other aircraft movement and servicing areas to 
any aboveground fuel storage structure or fuel transfer equip- 
ment with due recognition given to national and international 
standards establishing clearances from obstructions. Tanks 
located in designated aircraft movement areas or aircraft ser- 
vicing areas shall be underground or mounded over with 
earth. Vents from such tanks shall be constructed in a manner 
to preclude collision hazards with operating aircraft. Aircraft 
operators shall be consulted regarding the height and loca- 
tion of such vents to avoid venting flammable vapors in the 
vicinity of ignition sources, including operating aircraft and 
automotive equipment permitted in the area. (407:2-4.4.2) 

28-3.3 Aircraft Fueling Ramp Drainage. 

28-3.3.1 Application. Aircraft fueling ramp drainage shall 
comply with this section andNFPA415, Standard on Airport Ter- 
minal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways. 

28-3.3.2 Design. 

28-3.3.2.1 Aircraft fueling ramps shall slope away from termi- 
nal buildings, aircraft hangars, aircraft loading walkways, or 
other structures, with a minimum grade of 1 percent (1:100) 
for the first 50 ft (15 m). Beyond this distance, the ramp slope 
to drainage inlets shall be permitted to be reduced to a mini- 
mum of 0.5 percent (1:200). (415:3-1.1) 

28-3.3.2.2 Aircraft fueling ramp drainage as specified herein 
shall be accomplished by the provisions of 28-3.3.2.1 in con- 
junction with the following: 

( 1 ) The use of drain inlets with connected piping 

(2) The use of open-grate trenches (415:3-1.2) 

28-3.3.2.3 Drainage inlets, where provided, shall be located a 
minimum of 50 ft (15 m) from structures outlined in 28-3.3.2.1. 
(415:3-1.3) 

28-3.3.2.4 The drainage system of any aircraft fueling ramp 
shall be so designed that the fuel or its vapor cannot enter into 
the drainage system of buildings, areas utilized for automobile 
parking, public or private streets, nor the public side of airport 
terminal or aircraft hangar structures. In no case shall the 
design allow fuel to collect on the aircraft fueling ramp or 



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adjacent ground surfaces where it could constitute a fire haz- 
ard. (415:3-1.4) 

28-3.3.2.5 The final separator or interceptor for the entire air- 
port drainage system shall be designed to allow disposal of 
combustible or flammable liquids into a safely located, 
approved containment facility. (415:3-1.5) 

28-3.3.2.6 Grates and drain covers shall be removable to facil- 
itate cleaning and flushing. (415:3-1.6) 

28-3.3.2.7 If open-grate drainage trenches are used as a col- 
lection means, such open trenches, including branches, shall 
not be over 125 ft (38.1 m) in length with a minimum interval 
of 6 ft (1.8 m) between open-trench sections to act as fire 
stops. Each 125 ft (38.1 m) section shall be individually 
drained through underground piping. Open trenches shall 
not be used where they are in the line of pedestrian or passen- 
ger traffic. (415:3-1.7) 

28-3.3.2.8 Underground piping and components used in 
drainage systems shall be noncombustible and inert to fuel. 
(415:3-1.8) 

28-3.4 Fueling at Rooftop Heliports. 

28-3.4.1 Application. Fueling at rooftop heliports shall com- 
ply with 28-3.4 of this document and Section 2-5 of NFPA 407, 
Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing. 

28-3.4.2 Approval Required. Fueling on rooftop heliports 
shall be permitted only where approved by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. (407:2-5) 

28-3.4.3 General. Facilities for dispensing fuel with a flash 
point below 100° F (37.8°C) shall not be permitted at any roof- 
top heliport. (407:2-5.1.2) 

28-3.4.4 Fueling Facilities. 

28-3.4.4.1 The fuel storage system shall be located at or below 
ground level. (407:2-5.2.3) 

28-3.4.4.2 Pumps shall be located at or below ground level. 
Relay pumping shall not be permitted. (407:2-5.3.1) 

28-3.4.4.3 Pumps installed outside of buildings shall be 
located not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any building opening. 
They shall be substantially anchored and protected against 
physical damage from collision. (407:2-5.3.2) 

28-3.4.5 Emergency Fuel Shutoff Stations. 

28-3.4.5.1 A system shall be provided to completely shut off 
the flow of fuel in an emergency. The system shall shut off the 
fuel at the ground level. The emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be in addition to the normal operating controls for the 
pumps and deadman control. (407:2-5.9.1) 

28-3.4.5.2 At least two emergency fuel shutoff stations located 
on opposite sides of the heliport at exitways or at similar loca- 
tions shall be provided. An additional emergency fuel shutoff 
station shall be located at ground level and shall be near, but 
at least 10 ft (3 m) from, the pumps. (407:2-5.9.2) 

28-3.4.5.3 Each emergency fuel shutoff station shall be 
placarded with words stating EMERGENCY FUEL SHUT- 
OFF in letters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. The method of 
operation shall be indicated by an arrow or by the word 
PUSH or PULL, as appropriate. Any action necessary to gain 
access to the shutoff device (e.g., BREAK GLASS) shall be 
shown clearly. Lettering shall be of a color contrasting 



sharply with the placard background for visibility. Placards 
shall be weather resistant, shall be conspicuously located, 
and shall be positioned so that they can be seen readily from 
a distance of at least 25 ft (7.6 m) . (407:2-5.9.3) 

28-3.4.6 Personnel Training. All heliport personnel shall be 
trained in the operation of emergency fuel shutoff controls 
and in the use of the available fire extinguishers. (407:2-5.11) 

28-4 Marine Service Stations. 

28-4.1 Application. 

28-4.1.1 Facilities and procedures for the storage, handling, 
and dispensing of liquid fuels from equipment located on 
shore, or from equipment located on piers, wharves, or float- 
ing docks, into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall comply with 
this section and NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine Service Sta- 
tion Code, except as covered in other NFPA standards. 

28-4.1.2 This section shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Bulk plant or terminal, loading and unloading facilities 

(2) Transferring flammable or combustible liquids utilizing a 
flange-to-flange closed transfer piping system 

(3) Marine service stations where liquids used as fuels are 
stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of marine craft 
of 300 gross tons (849 m 3 ) or more (30A:10-1.2) 

28-4.1.3 For the purpose of this section, the word "pier" shall 
also mean "dock," "floating dock," and "wharf." (30A:10-1.3) 

284.2 Storage. 

28-4.2.1 Liquids shall be stored in one of the following: 

(1) Tanks located under ground as governed by Section 2-4 
of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(2) Tanks located above ground at marine service stations 
with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction and 
as provided for in Section 2-4 of NFPA 30A (30A:10-2.1.1) 

28-4.2.2 Tanks supplying marine service stations and pumps 
not integral with the dispensing device shall be on shore or on 
a pier of the solid-fill type. 

Exception: Where shore location would require excessively long supply 
lines to dispensers, tanks shall be permitted to be located on a pier, pro- 
vided that applicable requirements of NFPA 30, Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids Code, Chapters 2 and 3, relative to spacing, diking, 
and piping, and Chapter 5, Table 5-9.5.3, relative to electrical classi- 
fication, are met and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1100 gal 
(4164 L) aggregate capacity. (30A-.10-2.1.2) 

28-4.2.3 At marine service stations where a tank is at an eleva- 
tion that produces a gravity head on the dispensing device, the 
tank oudet shall be equipped with a device (such as a normally 
closed solenoid valve) that will prevent gravity flow from the 
tank to the dispenser. This device shall be located adjacent to 
and downstream of the oudet valve specified by 2-3.8.1 of NFPA 
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The device shall be 
installed and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from 
the tank to the dispenser in the event of failure of the piping or 
hose when the dispenser is not in use. (30A:10-2.1.3) 

284.3 Piping Systems. 

28-4.3.1 Piping shall be located so as to be protected from 
physical damage. (30A:10-3.1) 

28-4.3.1.1 All piping systems shall be substantially supported 
and protected against physical damage and stresses arising 



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from impact, settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, or 
tidal action. (30A:10-3.1.1) 

28-4.3.1.2 A means shall be provided to ensure flexibility of 
the piping in event of motion of the pier. Flexible piping shall 
be of a type designed to withstand the forces and pressures 
exerted upon piping. (30A:10-3.1.2) 

28-4.3.2 Suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose shall be 
permitted to be employed between the shore piping and the 
piping on a floating structure to accommodate changes in 
water level or shoreline. (30A:10-3.2) 

28-4.3.3 A readily accessible valve to shut off the liquid supply 
from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the 
approach to the pier and at the shore end of each marine 
pipeline adjacent to the point where each flexible hose is 
attached. (30A:10-3.3) 

28-4.3.4 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve any pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion of the contained liquid back to the 
storage tank. (30A.-10-3.4) 

28-4.4 Fuel Dispensing Devices. 

28-4.4.1 All hoses shall be listed. Where hose length at marine 
service stations exceeds 18 ft (5.5 m), the hose shall be secured 
so as to protect it from damage. (30A:10-4.1 ) 

28-4.4.2 Dispensing nozzles used at marine service stations 
shall be of the automatic-closing type without a latch-open 
device. (30A:10-4.2) 

28-4.4.3 Dispensing devices at marine service stations shall be 
permitted to be located on open piers, or on shore or on piers 
of the solid-fill type, and shall be located apart from other 
structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of 
craft to be fueled. (30A:10-4.3) 

28-4.4.4 Dispensing devices at marine service stations shall be 
located so as to minimize exposure to all other operational 
marina or pleasure boat berthing area facilities. Where tide 
and weather conditions permit, all liquid fuel handling shall 
be outside the main berthing areas. Inside marina or pleasure 
boat berthing areas, fueling facilities shall be so located that, 
in case of fire aboard a boat alongside, the danger to other 
boats near the facility will be minimal. No vessel or marine 
craft shall be made fast to or berthed at any fuel dispensing 
location except during fueling operations. (30A:10-4.4) 

28-4.4.5 No vessel or marine craft shall be made fast to any 
other vessel or marine craft occupying a berth at a fuel dis- 
pensing location during fueling operations. (30A:10-4.5) 

28-4.4.6 Apparatus dispensing Class I liquids into the fuel 
tanks of marine craft of the public shall not be located at a 
bulk plant unless separated by a fence or similar barrier from 
the area in which bulk operations are conducted. Above- 
ground tanks located at a bulk plant shall not be connected by 
piping to marine service station tanks. (30A:1 0-4.6) 

28-4.4.7 Each marine service station shall have an attendant 
or supervisor on duty whenever the station is open for busi- 
ness. The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, 
observe, and control the dispensing of liquids. (30A:10-4.7) 

28-4.5 Sources of Ignition. All electrical components for dis- 
pensing liquids shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 
7ofNFPA30A. 



(1) All electrical equipment shall be installed and used in 
accordance with the requirements of NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code, as it applies to wet, damp, and hazardous 
locations. 

(2) Clearly identified emergency switches readily accessible 
in case of fire or physical damage at any dispensing unit 
shall be provided on each marine wharf so interlocked as 
to shut off power to all pump motors from any individual 
location and to reset only from the master switch. Each 
such switch is to be identified by an approved sign stating 
EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF in 2-in. (5-cm) red block 
capital letters. 

(3) All electrical wiring for power and lighting shall be 
installed on the side of the marine wharf opposite from 
the liquid piping system. 

(4) Smoking materials, including matches and lighters, shall 
not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of areas used for fueling, 
servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, or 
receiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. Conspicuous 
and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted 
within sight of the customer being served. The motors of 
all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the 
fueling operation, except for emergency generators, 
pumps, etc., where continuing operation is essential. 
(30A:10-6.1) 

28-4.6 Grounding/Bonding. 

28-4.6.1 Where excessive stray currents are encountered, pip- 
ing handling Class I and Class II liquids at marine service sta- 
tions shall be electrically isolated from the shore piping. 
(30A:10-7.1) 

284.6.2* Pipelines on piers shall be adequately bonded and 
grounded. Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines 
shall be located on the pier side of hose riser insulating flanges, 
if used, and shall be accessible for inspection. (30A:10-7.2) 

284.6.3 The fuel delivery nozzle shall be put into contact with 
the vessel fill pipe before the flow of fuel shall commence and 
this bonding contact shall be continuously maintained until 
fuel flow has stopped to avoid possibility of electrostatic dis- 
charge. (30A:10-7.3) 

2*4.7 Fire Control. 

28-4.7.1 Each marine service station shall be provided with 
one or more listed fire extinguishers having a minimum clas- 
sification of 40-B:C located so that an extinguisher will be 
within 100 ft (30 m) of each pump, dispenser, and pier- 
mounted liquid storage tank. (30A:10^8.1) 

28-4.7.2 Piers that extend more than 500 ft (152 m) in travel 
distance from shore shall have a Class III standpipe installed 
in accordance with NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of 
Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. (30A:10-8.2) 

28-4.7.3 Materials shall not be placed on a pier in such a man- 
ner as to obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or impor- 
tant piping system control valves. Where the pier is accessible 
to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end 
of the wharf shall be maintained for access by fire-fighting 
apparatus. (30A:1 0-8.3) 

284.8 Portable Tanks and Containers. 

28-4.8.1 The provisions of 28-2.2.1.1 shall not prohibit the 
temporary use of movable tanks in conjunction with the dis- 
pensing of flammable or combustible liquids into the fuel 



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tanks of marine craft on premises not normally accessible to 
the public. Such installations shall only be made with the 
approval of the authority having jurisdiction. (30A:10-9.1) 

28-4.8.2 No delivery of any Class I or Class II liquid shall be 
made into portable containers unless the container is con- 
structed of metal or is approved by the authority having juris- 
diction, has a tight closure, and is fitted with a spout or is so 
designed that the contents can be dispensed without spilling. 
(See NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 4-2. 1, for 
further information.) (30A:10-9.2) 

28-4.8.3 Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or less 
shall not be filled while they are in or on a marine craft. 
(30A.-10-9.3) 

28-4.9 Cargo Tank Fueling Facilities. The provisions of 
28-4.2.1 shall not prohibit the dispensing of Class II liquids 
in the open from a tank vehicle to a marine craft located at 
commercial, industrial, governmental, or manufacturing 
establishments when the liquid is intended for fueling 
marine craft used in connection with their businesses. Such 
dispensing shall be permitted, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) An inspection of the premises and operations has been 
made and approval granted by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

(2) The tank vehicle complies with the requirements of 
NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids. 

(3) The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 ft (15 m) in 
length. 

(4) The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type 
without a latch open device. 

(5) Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in adequately 
lighted areas. 

(6) The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while 
dispensing. 

(7) Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to pre- 
vent overflow in the event of temperature increase in 
accordance with 28^.10.5. (30A:10-10.1) 

2&4.10 General. 

28-4.10.1 The following shall be the responsibility of the 

attendant: 

(1) Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable 
containers not in compliance with 28-2.8.2; 

(2) Be familiar with the dispensing mechanism and emer- 
gency shutoff controls; 

(3) Ensure that the vessel is properly moored and that all 
connections are made; 

(4) Be within 15 ft (4.6 m) of such dispensing controls dur- 
ing the fueling operation and maintain a direct clear 
unobstructed view of both the vessel fuel filler neck and 
the fueling facility emergency fuel shutoff mechanism. 
(30A:10-11.1) 

28-4.10.2 Fueling shall not be undertaken at night except 
under well-lighted conditions. (30A:10-11.2) 

28-4.10.3 During fueling operations smoking shall be forbid- 
den on board the boat or vessel and on the dispensing site. 
(30A10-11.3) 

28-4.10.4 Before opening the tanks of the vessel to be fueled, 
the following precautions shall be taken: 



(1) All engines, motors, fans, and bilge blowers shall be shut 
down. 

(2) All open flames and smoking material shall be extin- 
guished and all exposed heating elements shall be turned 
off. 

(3) Galley stoves shall be extinguished. 

(4) All ports, windows, doors, and hatches shall be closed. 
(30A:10-11.4) 

28-4.10.5 The following shall occur after the flow of fuel has 
stopped: 

(1) The fill cap shall be tighdy secured. 

(2) Any spillage shall be wiped up immediately. 

(3) If Class I liquid has been delivered, the entire vessel shall 
remain opened and bilge blowers turned on and allowed 
to run for at least 5 minutes before starting any engines 
or lighting galley fires. If bilge blowers are not available, 
an additional 5 minutes of ventilation shall be required. 
(30A:10-11.5) 

28-4.10.6 No Class I liquids shall be delivered to any vessel 
having its tanks located below deck unless each tank is 
equipped with a separate fill pipe, the receiving end of which 
shall be securely connected to a deck plate and fitted with a 
screw cap. Such pipe shall extend to and into the tank. Vessels 
receiving Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquids shall have 
the receiving end of the fill pipe securely connected to a deck 
plate and fitted with a screw cap. Such pipe shall be permitted 
to connect to a manifold fuel fill system that shall extend to 
and into each separate tank. Each tank shall be provided with 
a suitable vent pipe that shall extend from the tank to the out- 
side of the coaming or enclosed rails so that the vapors will dis- 
sipate outboard. (30A:10-11.6) 

28-4.10.7 Vessel owners or operators shall not offer their craft 
for fueling unless the following criteria are met: 

(1) The tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate 
vapors to the outside atmosphere and the fuel systems are 
liquidtight and vaportight with respect to all interiors. 

(2) All fuel systems are designed, installed, and maintained 
in compliance with the specifications of the manufac- 
turer of the vessel. 

(3) Communication has been established between the fuel- 
ing attendant and the person in control of the vessel 
receiving the fuel so as to determine the vessel's fuel 
capacity, the amount of fuel on board, and the amount of 
fuel to be taken on board. 

(4) The electrical bonding and grounding systems of the ves- 
sel have been maintained in accordance with the specifi- 
cations of its manufacturer. (30A:10-11.7) 

28-4.10.8 A suitable sign with the following legends printed in 
2-in. (5-cm) red block capital letters on a white background 
shall be conspicuously posted at the dispensing area of all 
marine service stations: 

BEFORE FUELING 

( 1 ) Stop all engines and auxiliaries. 

(2) Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat sources. 

(3) Check all bilges for fuel vapors. 

(4) Extinguish all smoking materials. 

(5) Close access fittings and openings that could allow fuel 
vapors to enter enclosed spaces of the vessel. 



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DURING FUELING 

(1) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe. 

(2) Wipe up spills immediately. 

(3) Avoid overfilling. 

(4) Fuel filling nozzle must be attended at all times. 

AFTER FUELING 

(1 ) Inspect bilges for leakage and fuel odors. 

(2) Ventilate until odors are removed. (30A:10-11.8) 



28-5 Alternate Fuels. 

28-5.1 Fuel dispensing facilities for vehicles of all types using 
compressed natural gas shall comply with NFPA 52, Compressed 
Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems Code. 

28-5.2* Fuel dispensing facilities for marine, highway, rail, 
off-road, and industrial vehicles using liquefied natural gas 
and LNG storage in ASME containers of 70,000 gal (265 m 3 ) 
or less shall comply with NFPA 57, Standard for Liquefied Natural 
Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems. 

28-5.3 Fuel dispensing facilities for vehicles using liquefied 
petroleum gas (LPG) shall comply with NFPA 58, Liquefied 
Petroleum Gas Code. 



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Chapter 29 Safeguards During Building Construction, 
Alteration, and Demolition Operations 

29-1 General Requirements. 

29-1.1 Buildings undergoing construction, alteration, or 
demolition operations shall comply with this chapter and 
NFPA241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and 
Demolition Operations. 

29-1.2 A fire protection plan shall be established where 
required by the authority having jurisdiction. 

29-1.3* In buildings under construction, adequate escape 
facilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of con- 
struction workers. Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walk- 
ways, stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved 
means or devices arranged in accordance with the general 
principles of NFPA 101, LifeSafety Code, insofar as they can rea- 
sonably be applied to buildings under construction. 
(/W.-4.6.10.2) 

29-1.4 Where required by the authority having jurisdiction, a 
telephone shall be provided at the construction site for the 
purpose of emergency notification. The street address of the 
construction site and the emergency telephone number shall 
be posted adjacent to the telephone. 

29-1.5 Temporary wiring shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 6-1 of this Code. 

29-1.6 Cutting and welding shall comply with Chapter 18 of 
this Code. 

29-2 Fire Safety During Construction. 

29-2.1 Fire lanes provided in accordance with Section 3-5 of 
this Code shall be provided at the start of a project and shall 
be maintained throughout construction. 

Exception: Permanent fire lane markings shall not be required until 
the building is complete or occupied for use. 

29-2.2 In all buildings over one story in height, at least one 
stairway shall be provided that is in usable condition at all 
times and that meets the requirements of 7-2.2 of NFPA 101, 
Life Safety Code. This stairway shall be extended upward as each 
floor is installed in new construction and maintained for each 
floor still remaining during demolition. The stairway shall be 
lighted. During construction, the stairway shall be enclosed 
where the building exterior walls are in place. (241:5-4.8) 

29-2.3 Water Supply. 

29-2.3.1 A water supply for fire protection, either temporary 
or permanent, shall be made available as soon as combustible 
material accumulates. There shall be no delay in the installa- 
tion of fire protection equipment. (See A-6-2.2 of NFPA 241.) 
(241:6-7.2.1) 

29-2.3.2 Where underground water mains and hydrants are to 
be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and in service 
prior to construction work. (241:6-7.2.2) 

29-2.4 In buildings required to be provided with a standpipe 
system in accordance with this Code, not less than one stand- 
pipe shall be provided and kept in service during construc- 
tion. Such standpipes shall be installed when the progress of 
construction is not more than 50 ft (15 m) in height above 
grade. Standpipes shall be provided with approved fire depart- 
ment hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to 



usable stairs and shall be designed to furnish 500 gal (1900 L) 
of water per minute at the top-most outlet at 65 psi (450 kPa). 
This standpipe shall be extended as construction progresses to 
within one floor of the highest point of construction having 
secured decking or flooring. If the standpipe is temporary, it 
shall be designed to furnish 100 gal (380 L) of water per 
minute at 65 psi (450 kPa) with a standpipe size of not less 
than 4 in. (10 cm) and shall remain in service until the perma- 
nent standpipe installation is complete. 

29-2.5 The standpipes shall be provided with conspicuously 
marked and readily accessible fire department connections on 
the outside of the building at the street level and shall have at 
least one standard hose outlet at each floor level. (241:6-7.4.2.1) 

29-2.6 A hose valve (s) shall have NH standard external 
threads for the valve size specified in accordance with NFPA 
1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections. 

Exception: Where local fire department connections do not conform to 
NFPA 1963, the authority having jurisdiction shall designate the con- 
nection to be used. (241:6-7.4.2.5) 

29-2.7 The suitability, distribution, and maintenance of extin- 
guishers shall be in accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for Por- 
table Fire Extinguishers. (241:5-6.1) 

29-2.8 At least one approved fire extinguisher also shall be 
provided in plain sight on each floor at each usable stairway as 
soon as combustible material accumulates. (241:5-6.3) 

29-2.9 Suitable fire extinguishers shall be provided on self- 
propelled equipment. (241:5-6.4) 

29-2.10 Smoking shall not be permitted, except in those areas 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

29-2.11 Accumulations of combustible waste material, dust, 
and debris shall be removed from the structure and its imme- 
diate vicinity at the end of each work shift or more frequently 
as necessary for safe operations. (241:3-4.1) 

29-2.12 Rubbish shall not be burned on the premises without 
first obtaining a permit from the authority having jurisdiction. 
(241:3-4.2) 

29-2.13 Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as 
oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. (241:34.3) 

29-2.14 Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forms. 

29-2.14.1 Accumulations of unnecessary combustible forms 
or form lumber shall be prohibited. Combustible forms or 
form lumber shall be brought into the structure only when 
needed. Combustible forms or form lumber shall be removed 
from the structure as soon as stripping is complete. Those por- 
tions of the structure where combustible forms are present 
shall not be used for the storage of other combustible building 
materials. (241:6-2.1) 

29-2.14.2 During forming and stripping operations, portable 
fire extinguishers or charged hose lines shall be provided to 
protect the additional combustible loading adequately. 
(241:6-2.2) 

29-2.15 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. 

29-2.15.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liq- 
uids Code, except that storage of Class I and II liquids shall not 
exceed 60 gal (227 L) within 50 ft (15 m) of the structure. 
(241:3-5.1.1; 241:3-5.1.2) 



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29-2.15.2 Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, 
and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. 
(241:3-5.1.3) 

29-2.15.3 Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted in 
flammable and combustible liquids storage areas. Such stor- 
age areas shall be appropriately posted as "no smoking" areas. 

(241:3-5.1.4) 

29-2.15.4 Class I and Class II liquids shall be kept in approved 
safety containers. (241:3-5.2.1) 

29-2.15.5 Class I liquids shall be dispensed only where there 
are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the pos- 
sible path of vapor travel. (241:3-5.2.3) 

29-2.16 Temporary Heating Equipment. 

29-2.16.1 Temporary heating equipment shall be listed and 
shall be installed, used, and maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. (241:3-2.1) 

29-2.16.2 Chimney or vent connectors, where required from 
direct-fired heaters, shall be maintained at least 18 in. (457 mm) 
from combustibles and shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel- 
Burning Appliances. (241:3-2.2) 

29-2.16.3 Oil-fired heaters shall comply in design and installa- 
tion features with NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil- 
Burning Equipment. (241:3-2.3) 

29-2.16.4 Fuel supplies for liquefied petroleum gas-fired heat- 
ers shall comply with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, and 
NFPA 58, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petro- 
leum Gases. (241:3-2.4) 

29-2.16.5 Refueling operations shall be conducted in an 
approved manner. (241:3-2.5) 

29-2.16.6 Heating devices shall be situated so that they are 
secured and shall otherwise be installed in accordance with 
their listing, including clearance to combustible material, 
equipment, or construction. (241:3-2.6) 

29-2.16.7 Temporary heating equipment, where utilized, 
shall be monitored for safe operation and maintained by prop- 
erly trained personnel. (241:3-2.7) 

29-2.16.8 Alteration of Buildings. 

29-2.16.8.1 Where the building is protected by fire protection 
systems, such systems shall be maintained operational at all 
times during alteration. 

Exception: Where alteration requires modification of a portion of the 
fire protection system, the remainder of the system shall be kept in ser- 
vice and the fire department shall be notified. When it is necessary to 
shut down the system, the authority having jurisdiction shall have the 
authority to require alternate measures of protection until the system is 
returned to service. The fire department shall be notified when the sys- 
tem is shut down and when the system is returned to service. 

29-2.16.8.2 All required exit components shall be maintained 
in accordance with this Code as deemed necessary by the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

29-2.16.8.3 Fire-resistive assemblies and construction shall be 
maintained. 



29-3 Fire Safety During Demolition. 

29-3.1 If a building intended to be demolished contains a 
sprinkler system, such system shall not be rendered inopera- 
tive without approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

29-3.2 Demolition operations involving the use of cutting and 
welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 18 of this 
Code. 

29-3.3 Combustible waste material shall not be burned at the 
demolition site unless approved by the authority havingjuris- 
diction. Combustible materials shall be removed from the site 
as often as necessary to minimize the hazards therefrom. 

29-3.4 Where in the opinion of the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion the demolition site is of a hazardous nature, qualified per- 
sonnel shall serve as an on-site fire watch. 

29-3.5 Demolition Using Explosives. If explosives are used in 
demolition work (implosion), hose lines [at least two \ l / T m. 
(38-mm) or one 2 l /rm. (65-mm)] shall be provided in the 
immediate vicinity of the demolition site during actual detona- 
tion. These lines shall be of sufficient length to be capable of 
extinguishing any small fire anywhere on the demolition site 
after detonation. (241:8-5) 

29-4 Torch-Applied Roofing Systems. 

29-4.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

29-4.2 Torch-applied roofing systems shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 241, Standard for Safe- 
guarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations. 

29-5 Tar Kettles. 

29-5.1 General. 

29-5.1.1 The provisions of this section shall apply to any type 
of equipment including, but not limited to, chassis-mounted 
equipment used for preheating or heating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for roofs, floors, pipes, or similar objects. 

29-5.1.2 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1-16. 

29-5.1.3 Operating kettles shall not be located inside of or on 
the roof of any building. 

29-5.1.4 The kettle shall be operated in a controlled area. The 
area shall be identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers, and 
other suitable means as approved by the authority havingjuris- 
diction. 

29-5.1.5 An operating kettle shall be attended by a minimum 
of one employee who is knowledgeable of the operations and 
hazards. The employee shall be within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the ket- 
tle and shall have the kettle within sight. 

29-5.1.6 Two approved, 20-B:C fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided and maintained within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the operating 
kettle. Fire extinguishers shall be mounted in an accessible 
and visible or identified location. 

29-5.1.7 Roofing kettles shall not block exits, means of egress, 
gates, roadways, or entrances. Kettles shall not be closer than 
10 ft (3 m) from exits or means of egress. 



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29-5.2 Fuel System. 

29-5.2.1 Fuel containers shall be constructed and approved 
for the use for which they were designed. 

29-5.2.2 LP-Gas containers, hose, regulators, and burners 
shall conform to the specifications in NFPA 58, Liquefied Petro- 
leum Gas Code. 

29-5.2.3 LP-Gas cylinders shall be secured to prevent acciden- 
tal tipover. 

29-5.2.4 LP-Gas cylinders, hose, regulators, and burners shall 
conform to the requirements of Chapter 21. 

29-5.2.5 Regulators shall be required on any cylinders. 

29-5.2.6 Where, in the opinion of the authority having juris- 
diction, there is danger of physical damage to the container, 
protection shall be provided to prevent such physical damage. 

29-5.2.7 LP-Gas containers for roofing kettles shall not be 
used in any building. 

29-5.3 Maintenance. 

29-5.3.1 Roofing kettles and all integral working parts shall be 
in good working condition and shall be maintained free of 
excessive residue. 

29-5.3.2 All piping used for pumping heated material to the 
roof shall be installed in a manner to prevent loss of heated 
material. 

29-5.3.3 Flexible steel piping shall not be used on the vertical 
extension of piping systems. 

29-5.3.4 Flexible steel piping shall be limited to those connec- 
tions that are immediately adjacent to the pump kettle or dis- 
charge oudet. No single length of flexible piping shall exceed 
6 ft (1.8 m) in length, and all piping shall be able to withstand 
a pressure of at least four times the working pressure of the 
pump. 

29-5.3.5 All roofing ketdes shall have doors permanently 
attached. Doors shall be installed in a workmanlike manner 
and shall be provided with handles to provide opening with- 
out the operator having to stand in front of same. 

29-5.3.6 All ketdes shall have an approved, working visible 
temperature gauge that indicates tbe temperature of the 
material being heated. 



29-5.3.7 All kettle doors shall be tightly closed and latched 
when in transit. 

29-5.4 Construction. The materials and methods of construc- 
tion of roofing kettles shall be acceptable to the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. The following are minimum requirements: 

( 1 ) This section shall apply to all roofing kettles or tar pots in 
excess of 1 gal (3.8 L) capacity. 

(2) No roofing ketde shall have a capacity in excess of five 
barrels. 

(3) Roofing kettles of two-barrel capacity or less shall be con- 
structed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 
0.105 in. (No. 12 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge). Ket- 
des of more than two-barrel capacity shall be constructed 
of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 0.135 in. 
(No. 10 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge). All supports, 
corners, and the top and bottom of the fire box shall be 
bound with angle iron or other reinforcements approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction. All doors shall be 
hinged, closely fitted, and adequately latched. Fire boxes 
shall be of sufficient height from the ground or shall be 
provided with a system of shields or insulation to prevent 
heat damage to the street surface. 

(4) Lids that can be gravity operated shall be provided on all 
roofing kettles. The tops and covers of all kettles shall be 
constructed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less 
than 0.075 in. (No. 14 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge) 
that is close fitting and attached to the ketde with hinges 
that allow gravity to close the lid. 

(5) The chassis shall be substantially constructed and capable 
of carrying the load imposed upon it whether standing 
still or being transported. 

(6) Fuel containers, burners, and related appurtenances of 
roofing ketdes in which liquefied petroleum gas is used 
for heating shall comply with all the requirements of 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

(7) Fuel containers that operate under air pressure shall not 
exceed 20 gal (76 L) in capacity and shall be subject to 
the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(8) All fuel containers shall be maintained in accordance 
with applicable NFPA codes and standards or shall be at 
least 10 ft (3 m) from the burner flame or at least 2 ft 
(0.6 m) therefrom when properly insulated from heat or 
flame. 



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Chapter 30 Service Stations and Repair Garages 

30-1 Service Stations. 

30-1.1 Application. 

30-1.1.1 Automotive service stations, marine service stations, 
service stations located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle ser- 
vice stations shall comply with this section and NFPA 30A, 
Automotive and Marine Service Station Code. 

30-1.1.2 This chapter shall not apply to refueling operations. 
(For refueling operations, see Chapter 28. ) 

30-1.2 Service Stations, Pits, and Below-Grade and Sub-Floor 
Work Areas. 

30-1.2.1 Walls, floors, and structural supports shall be con- 
structed of masonry, concrete, or other suitable noncombusti- 
ble materials. (30A:5-1.1) 

30-1.2.2 In pits, below-grade work areas, and sub-floor work 
areas, the required number, location, and construction of 
means of egress shall comply with the provisions for special 
purpose industrial occupancies in Chapter 40 of NFPA 101, 
Life Safety Code. Stairs shall be noncombustible, slip-proof, and 
constructed with no accessible space underneath. (30A:5-1.2) 

30-1.2.3 Pits, below-grade work areas, and sub-floor work 
areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation at a rate of not 
less than 1 cfm/ft 2 (0.3 m 3 /min/m 2 ) of floor area at all times 
that the building is occupied or when vehicles are parked in or 
over these areas. Exhaust air shall be taken from a point within 
12 in. (0.3 m) of the floor of the pit, below-grade work area, or 
sub-floor work area. (30A:5-1.3) 

30-2 Repair Garages. 

30-2.1 Application. The construction and protection of, as 
well as the control of hazards in, garages used for major repair 
and maintenance of motorized vehicles and any sales and ser- 
vicing facilities associated therewith shall comply with this sec- 
tion and NFPA 88B, Standard for Repair Garages. 

30-2.2 Construction. 

30-2.2.1 General Requirements. A repair garage shall not be 
located within or attached to a building or structure used for 
any purpose other than a repair garage unless separated by 
walls or partitions and floor or floor-ceiling assemblies having 
a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. (88B:2-1.3) 

30-2.2.2 Internal Subdivisions. 

30-2.2.2.1 Any single area occupied for salesrooms, show- 
rooms, offices, or similar spaces of 1500 ft 2 (139.4 m 2 ) or more 
in area shall be separated from vehicle repair or parking areas 
by walls or partitions and floor or floor-ceiling assemblies hav- 
ing a fire resistance rating of not less than 2hours. (88B:2-2.1) 

30-2.2.2.2 Any single area occupied for salesrooms, show- 
rooms, offices, or similar spaces of 1500 ft 2 (139.4 m 2 ) or less 
in area shall be separated from vehicle repair or parking areas 
by walls or partitions and floor or floor-ceiling assemblies con- 
structed in such a manner as to restrict the passage of smoke, 
vehicle exhaust gases, and odors from the repair or parking 
area to these spaces. (88B:2-2.2) 

30-2.2.2.3 Parts storage areas exceeding 1500 ft 2 (139.4 m 2 ) 
shall be separated from all other portions of the building by 



walls or partitions and floor or floor-ceiling assemblies having 
a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. (88B:2-2.3) 

30-2.2.2.4 Garage occupancies shall be separated from other 
portions of a multitenanted building as required in 30-2.2.1. 
Heating equipment shall be separated or enclosed in accor- 
dance with 30-2.3.1.3. (88B:2-2.4) 

30-2.2.3 Floors. 

30-2.2.3.1 In areas of repair garages used for repair or servicing 
of vehicles, floor assemblies shall be constructed of noncombus- 
tible materials or, if combustible materials are used in the 
assembly, shall be surfaced with approved noncombustible 
material. Floors shall be liquidtight to prevent the leakage or 
seepage of liquids and shall be sloped to facilitate the move- 
ment of water, fuel, or other liquids to floor drains. (888:2-3.1) 

30-2.2.3.2 In areas of repair garages where motor fuels are dis- 
pensed or where vehicles are serviced, if floor drains are pro- 
vided, they shall be properly trapped and shall discharge 
through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented 
sump. (88B:2-3.2) 

30-2.2.3.3 The contents of oil separators and traps of floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent 
intervals to prevent oil from being carried into the sewers. 
(88B:2-3.3) 

30-2.2.4 Pits and Sub-Floor Work Areas. Pits and sub-floor 
work areas shall comply with the following: 

(1) Walls, floors, and piers shall be constructed of masonry, 
concrete, or other suitable noncombustible material. 

(2) Pits shall have a minimum of two unobstructed means of 
egress to prevent trapping of personnel in the event of 
fire. Steps shall be noncombustible, slip resistant, and 
constructed with no accessible storage space beneath. 

(3) Ventilation and drainage of pits and sub-floor work areas 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of 3-4.5 of 
NFPA 88B. (88B:2-7) 

30-2.3 Hazards. 

30-2.3.1 Heating. 

30-2.3.1.1 Heating equipment shall be of an approved type. 
Improvised furnaces, salamanders, or space heaters shall not 
be permitted. (88B:3-2.1.1) 

30-2.3.1.2 Heating equipment shall be installed to conform 
with NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning 
and Ventilating Systems; NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of 
Oil-Burning Equipment; NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code; NFPA 
211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burn- 
ing Appliances; and NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste 
and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, as applicable, 
except as otherwise specifically provided in NFPA 88B, Stan- 
dard for Repair Garages. (888:3-2.1.4) 

30-2.3.1.3 Heating equipment shall be installed in a detached 
building or room. It shall be separated from repair areas by 
walls or partitions and floor or floor-ceiling assemblies that are 
constructed so as to prohibit the transmission of vapors and 
having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, with no 
openings in the wall separating the repair area within 8 ft 
(2.4 m) of the floor. Wall penetrations shall be fire-stopped. 
Air for combustion purposes shall be obtained from outside 
the building. The heating room shall not be used for storage 



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of combustible materials, except for fuel storage as permitted 
by the standards referenced in 30-2.3.1.2. 

Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, where installed in accordance with 
3-2.3 ofNFPA 88B. Ventilation requirements of 3-2.3 ofNFPA 88B 
do not apply. 

Exception No. 2: Heating equipment for vehicle repair areas where 
there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or II flammable or com- 
bustible liquids, or liquefied petroleum gas, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine Service Station Code. 
(88B:3-2.2) 

30-2.3.1.4 Approved suspended unit heaters shall be located 
not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor and installed in accor- 
dance with the conditions of their approval. (88B:3-2.3.1) 

30-2.3.1.5 Return air openings in motor vehicle repair or 
parking areas shall be not less than 18 in. (0.5 m) above floor 
level measured to the bottom of the openings. (88B.-3-2.4.1) 

30-2.3.1.6 Recirculated air shall not be taken from any floors 
below grade level. (88B:3-2.4.2) 

30-2.3.2 Ventilation. 

30-2.3.2.1 Combined ventilation and heating systems shall 
not recirculate air from areas below grade level. (88B:3-3.2) 

30-2.3.2.2 Below-grade areas occupied for repairing, or com- 
municating areas located below a repair garage, shall be con- 
tinuously ventilated by a mechanical ventilating system having 
positive means for exhausting indoor air at a rate of not less 
than 1 ft 3 /min/ft 2 (0.3 m 3 /min/m 2 ) of floor area. An 
approved means shall be provided for introducing an equal 
amount of outdoor air. (88B:3-3.3) 

30-2.3.2.3 Exhaust duct openings for required ventilation 
shall be so located as to effectively remove vapor accumula- 
tions at floor level from all parts of the repair area. (88B:3-3.4) 

30-2.3.3 Repair Areas. 

30-2.3.3.1 Pits so arranged that natural ventilation cannot be 
used shall be provided with an individual ventilating system 
capable of providing a complete air change every 5 minutes 
with the intake located near floor level. (888:3-4.5.1) 

30-2.3.3.2 Cleaning of parts shall be performed with a non- 
flammable solvent. 

Exception: A combustible liquid with a flash point above 100° F 
(37.8° C) (closed cup) shall be permitted to be used for this purpose pro- 
vided adequate ventilation is supplied and no sources of ignition are 
present in the cleaning area. (88B:3-4.7.1) 

30-2.3.3.3 A device for heating solvents that give off flamma- 
ble or toxic vapors when heated shall be provided with a limit 
control to prevent the solvent from exceeding a temperature 



50°F (10°C) below the point at which flammable or toxic 
vapors are released. (88B:3-4.7.3) 

30-2.3.3.4 Direct-fired parts cleaners shall not be installed or 
used below grade. (88B:3-4.7.4) 

30-2.3.4 Housekeeping. 

30-2.3.4.1 An authorized employee, an officer of the firm, or 
the owner shall make daily inspections of the garage and shall 
be responsible for the prompt removal or repair of any hazard- 
ous condition, including proper maintenance of equipment 
and safety devices and the immediate removal of accumula- 
tions of combustible materials. (88B:3-6.1) 

30-2.3.4.2 Clear aisle space shall be maintained to permit ready 
access to and the use of fire-fighting equipment. (88B:3-6.2) 

30-2.3.4.3 Floors shall be kept clean and free of oil and 
grease. Only approved water solutions or detergents, floor- 
sweeping compounds, and grease absorbents shall be used for 
cleaning floors. (88B:3-6.3) 

30-2.3.4.4 Metal lockers shall be provided for employees' 
clothes. (88B:3-6.4) 

30-2.3.4.5 Approved metal receptacles with self-closing covers 
shall be provided for the storage or disposal of oil-soaked 
waste or cloths. (888:3-6.5) 

30-2.3.4.6 Combustible rubbish shall be placed in covered 
metal receptacles until removed to a safe place for disposal. 
Contents of such containers shall be removed daily. (888:3-6.6) 

30-2.3.4.7 Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated 
areas subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdic- 
tion. (88B.-3-6. 7) 

30-2.4 Protection. 

30-2.4.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers. Approved extinguish- 
ers, installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 10, 
Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, shall be provided in all 
repair garages. (88B.-4-3) 

30-2.4.2 Standpipes. All repair garages that exceed a height 
of 50 ft (15 m), have parking levels below grade, or are 
unsprinklered and more than one story in height shall be pro- 
vided with one or more standpipes conforming to the provi- 
sions of NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, 
Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. (88B:4-4) 

30-2.4.3 Employee Instruction. Employees of all repair garages 
shall be instructed with respect to the importance of transmit- 
ting fire alarms promptly and shall be trained in the use of avail- 
able private fire-fighting facilities. (88B:4-5) 



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Chapter 31 Grandstands and Bleachers, Folding and 
Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Structures 

31-1 General. 

31-1.1 The construction, location, protection and mainte- 
nance of grandstands and bleachers, folding and telescopic 
seating, tents and membrane structures shall meet the 
requirements of this chapter. Seating facilities located in the 
open air or within enclosed or semi-enclosed structures such 
as tents membrane structures and stadium complexes shall 
also meet the requirements of this chapter. 

31-1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1-16. 

31-2 Permanent Membrane Structures. 
31-2.1 General. 

31-2.1.1 The provisions of Section 11.1 of NFPA 101 shall 
apply. (101:11.9.1.1) 

31-2.1.2 Membrane materials shall not be used where fire 
resistance ratings are required for walls or roofs. 

Exception No. 1: Where every part oj the roof, including the roof 'mem- 
brane, is not less than 20 ft (6.1 m) above any floor, balcony, or gal- 
lery, a noncombustible or limited-combustible membrane shall be 
permitted to be used as the roof in any type of construction. 
Exception No. 2: With approval of the authority having jurisdiction, 
membrane materials shall be permitted to be used where every part of 
the roof membrane is sufficiently above every significant fire potential 
that the imposed temperature cannot exceed the capability of the mem- 
brane, including seams, to maintain its structural integrity. 
(101:11.9.1.2) 

31-2.1.3 Testing of membrane materials for compliance with 
Section 11.9 of NFPA 101 use of the categories of noncombus- 
tible and limited-combustible materials shall be performed on 
weathered-membrane material as defined in 3.3.211 of NFPA 
101. (101:11.9.1.3) 

31-2.1.4 Flame spread of all membrane materials exposed 
within the structure shall be Class A in accordance with Sec- 
tion 10.2 of NFPA 101. (101:11.9.1.4) 

31-2.1.5 Roof membranes shall have a roof covering classifica- 
tion, as required by the applicable building codes, when tested 
in accordance with NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Roof Coverings. (101:11 .9.1.5) 

31-2.1.6 Flame Resistance. 

31-2.1.6.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. (102:11.9.1.6.1) 

31-2.1.6.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority having jurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(2) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:11.9.1.6.2) 

31-2.1.6.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test 
specimens from the original material, which shall have been 



affixed at the time of manufacture to the exterior of the struc- 
ture. (201:11.9.1.6.3) 

31-2.2 Tensioned-Membrane Structures. 

31-2.2.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. (101:11.9.2.1) 

31-2.2.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an 
approved testing laboratory. (101:11.9.2.2) 

31-2.2.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates subject 
to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be composed 
of two layers with an air space between them through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As 
an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods that 
protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 
(101:11.9.2.3) 

31-2.2.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical elements 
to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the drains from 
functioning. Such heating elements shall be served by on-site 
standby electrical power in addition to the normal public ser- 
vice. As an alternative to such electrical elements, other 
approved methods that protect against ice accumulation shall 
be permitted. (101:11.9.2.4) 

31-2.3 Air-Supported, Air-Inflated Structures. 

31-2.3.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
Section 31-2, the requirements of 31-2.3 shall apply to air-sup- 
ported structures.(101:11.9.3.1) 

31-2.3.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressuriza- 
tion system shall consist of one or more operating blower 
units. The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary 
blower units to maintain the required operating pressure. 
This equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with back-draft check 
dampers. 

(5) There shall be not less than two blower units, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically 
if there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. (101:11.9.3.2) 

31-2.3.3 Standby Power System. 

31-2.3.3.1 A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal 
operating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. (201:11.9.3.3.1) 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-133 



31-2.3.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. This system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. (101:1 1.9.3.3.2) 

31-2.3.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power system 
shall be certified by a professional engineer. (101:1 1.9.3.3.3) 

31-2.4 Maintenance and Operation. 

31-2.4.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
(202:11.9.4.1) 

31-2.4.2 An annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. (101 :1 1.9.4.2) 

31-2.5 Services. 

31-2.5.1 Fired Heaters. 

31-2.5.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 
(202:11.9.5.1.1) 

31-2.5.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. (202:11.9.5.1.2) 

31-2.5.1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any temporary mem- 
brane structure and shall be in accordance with the provisions 
of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. (101:1 1 .9.5. 1 .3) 

31-2.5.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position and 
protected from vehicular traffic. (202:11.9.5.1.4) 

31-2.5.2 Electric Heaters. 



31-2.5.2.1 Only 
(202:11.9.5.2.1) 



labeled heaters shall be permitted. 



31-2.5.2.2 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by electric 
cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size to 
handle the electrical load. (202:11.9.5.2.2) 

31-3 Temporary Membrane Structures. 

31-3.1 General. 

31-3.1.1 The provisions of Section 11.1 of NFPA 101 shall 
apply. (202:11.10.1.1) 

31-3.1.2 Membrane structures designed to meet all the 
requirements of Section 31-3 shall be permitted to be used as 
temporary buildings subject to the approval of the authority 
havingjurisdiction. (202:11.10.1.2) 

31-3.1.3 Temporary tensioned-membrane structures shall be 
permitted to comply with Section 31-4 instead of Section 31-3. 
(202:11.10.1.3) 

31-3.1.4 Roof membranes shall have a roof covering classifica- 
tion, as required by the applicable building codes, when tested 
in accordance with NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Roof Coverings. (202:11.10.1.4) 

31-3.1.5 Flame Resistance. 

31-3.1.5.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. (202:11.10.1.5.1) 



31-3.1.5.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(2) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(202:11.10.1.5.2) 

31-3.1.5.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test 
specimens from the original material, which shall have been 
affixed at the time of manufacture to the exterior of the struc- 
ture. (202:11.10.1.5.3) 

31-3.2 Fire Hazards. 

31-3.2.1 The ground enclosed by any temporary membrane 
structure, and the ground for a reasonable distance but for 
not less than 10ft (3 m) outside of such a structure (s), shall be 
cleared of all flammable or combustible material or vegeta- 
tion. This work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of the 
authority having jurisdiction prior to the erection of such a 
structure (s). The premises shall be kept free from such flam- 
mable or combustible materials during the period for which 
the premises are used by the public. 

Exception: Removal of flammable or combustible material shall not 
apply to areas used for necessary support equipment. (101:1 1 .10.2.1) 

31-3.2.2 Where prohibited by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, smoking shall not be permitted in any temporary mem- 
brane structure. (202:11.10.2.2) 

31-3.3 Fire Extinguishing Equipment. Portable fire-extin- 
guishing equipment of approved types shall be furnished 
and maintained in temporary membrane structures in such 
quantity and in such locations as directed by the authority 
havingjurisdiction. (202:11.10.3) 

31-3.4 Tensioned Membrane Structures. 

31-3.4.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tension- 
membrane construction. (202:11.10.4.1) 

31-3.4.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an 
approved testing laboratory. (202:11.10.4.2) 

31-3.4.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates subject 
to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be composed 
of two layers with an air space between them through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As 
an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods that 
protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 
(202:11.10.4.3) 

31-3.4.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical elements 
to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the drains from 
functioning. Such heating elements shall be served by on-site 
standby electrical power in addition to the normal public ser- 
vice. As an alternative to such electrical elements, other 
approved methods that protect against ice accumulation shall 
be permitted. (202:11.10.4.4) 



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31-3.5 Air-Supported, Air-Inflated Structures. 

31-3.5.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
31-3.1, the requirements of 31-3.5 shall apply to air-supported 
structures. (202:11.10.5.1) 

31-3.5.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressuriza- 
tion system shall consist of one or more operating blower 
units. The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary 
blower units to maintain the required operating pressure. 
This equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with back-draft check 
dampers. 

(5) There shall be not less than two blower units, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically 
if there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. (202:11.10.5.2) 

31-3.5.3 Standby Power System. 

31-3.5.3.1 A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal 
operating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. (202:11.10.5.3.1) 

31-3.5.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. This system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. (202:11.10.5.3.2) 

31-3.5.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power system 
shall be certified by a professional engineer. (202:11.10.5.3.3) 

31-3.6 Maintenance and Operation. 

31-3.6.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
(202:11.10.6.1) 

31-3.6.2 An annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. (202:11.10.6.2) 

31-3.7 Services. 

31-3.7.1 Fired Heaters. 

31-3.7.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 
(202:11.10.7.1.1) 

31-3.7.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. (202:11.10.7.1.2) 



31-3.7.1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any temporary mem- 
brane structure and shall be in accordance with the provisions 
of NFPA58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. (202:11.10.7.1.3) 

31-3.7.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position and 
protected from vehicular traffic. (202:11.10.7.1.4) 

31-3.7.2 Electric Heaters. 

31-3.7.2.1 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 
(202:11.10.7.2.1) 

31-3.7.2.2 Heaters used inside a temporary membrane struc- 
ture shall be approved. (202:11.10.7.2.2) 

31-3.7.2.3 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by electric 
cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size to 
handle the electrical load. (202:11.10.7.2.3) 

31-4 Tents. 

31-4.1 General. 

31-4.1.1 The provisions of Section 11.1 of NFPA 101 shall 
apply. (202:11.11.1.1) 

31-4.1.2 Tents shall be permitted only on a temporary basis. 
(202:11.11.1.2) 

31-4.1.3 Tents shall be erected to cover not more than 75 per- 
cent of the premises, unless otherwise approved by the author- 
ity havingjurisdiction. (202:11.11.1.3) 

31-4.2 Flame Resistance. 

31-4.2.1 All tent fabric shall be flame resistant in accordance 
with 10.3.1 of NFPA 101. (202:11.11.2.1) 

31-4.2.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that the 
tent fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(2) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 
(202:11.11.2.2) 

31-4.2.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdiction, 
confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test speci- 
mens from the original material, which shall have been affixed 
at the time of manufacture to the exterior of the tent. 
(202:11.11.2.3) 

31-4.3 Location and Spacing. 

31-4.3.1 There shall be a minimum of 10 ft (3 m) between 
stake lines. (202:11.11.3.1) 

31-4.3.2 Adjacent tents shall be spaced to provide an area to be 
used as a means of emergency egress. Where 10 ft (3 m) between 
stake lines does not meet the requirements for means of egress, 
the distance necessary for means of egress shall govern. 

Exception No. 1: Tents not occupied by the public and not used for the 
storage of combustible material shall be permitted to be erected less than 
10 ft (3 m)from other structures where the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion deems such close spacing safe from hazard to the public. 

Exception No. 2: Tents, each not exceeding 1200 ft 2 (111.5 m 2 ) in 
ground area and located in fairgrounds or similar open spaces, shall 
not be required to be separated from each other, provided that safety pre- 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-135 



cautions meet the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 
(107:11.11.3.2) 

31-4.3.3 The placement of tents relative to other structures 
shall be at the discretion of the authority having jurisdiction, 
with consideration given to occupancy, use, opening, expo- 
sure, and other similar factors. (101:1 1.11.3.3) 

314.4 Fire Hazard. 

31-4.4.1 The ground enclosed by any tent, and the ground for 
a reasonable distance but for not less than 10 ft (3 m) outside 
of such a tent(s), shall be cleared of all flammable or combus- 
tible material or vegetation. This work shall be accomplished 
to the satisfaction of the authority having jurisdiction prior to 
the erection of such a tent(s). The premises shall be kept free 
from such flammable or combustible materials during the 
period for which the premises are used by the public. 

Exception: Removal of flammable or combustible material shall not 
apply to areas used for necessary support equipment. (107:11.11.4.1) 

31-4.4.2 Where prohibited by the authority having jurisdiction, 
smoking shall not be permitted in any tent. (701:11. 11.4.2) 

31-4.5 Fire Extinguishing Equipment. Portable fire-extin- 
guishing equipment of approved types shall be furnished 
and maintained in tents in such quantity and in such loca- 
tions as directed by the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:11.11.5) 

31-4.6 Services. 

31-4.6.1 Fired Heaters. 

31-4.6.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 
(101:11.11.6.1.1) 

31-4.6.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:11.11.6.1.2) 

31-4.6.1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any tent and shall be in 
accordance with the provisions of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum 
Gas Code. (101:11.11.6.1.3) 

31-4.6.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position and 
protected from vehicular traffic. (707:11.11.6.1.4) 

31-4.6.2 Electric Heaters. 

31-4.6.2.1 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 
(701:11.11.6.2.1) 

31-4.6.2.2 Heaters used inside a tent shall be approved. 
(101:11.11.6.2.2) 

31-4.6.2.3 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by electric 
cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size to 
handle the electrical load. (707:11.11.6.2.3) 

31-5 New Grandstands. 

31-5.1 General. Grandstands shall comply with the provisions 
of Chapter 12 of NFPA lOlas modified by Section 31-5 of this 
Code. (707:12.4.8.1) 

31-5.2 Seating. 

31-5.2.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used 
indoors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 22 in. 
(55.9 cm) back-to-back. (101:12.4.8.2.1) 



31-5.2.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 9 in. (22.9 cm). Where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. (107:12.4.8.2.2) 

31-5.2.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be supported 
securely and fastened in such a manner that they cannot be 
displaced inadvertently. (101:12.4.8.2.3) 

31-5.2.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do not 
exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. (101:12.4.8.2.4) 

31-5.3 Special Requirements, Wood Grandstands. 

31-5.3.1 An outdoor wood grandstand shall be erected within 
not less than two-thirds of its height and, in no case, within not 
less than 10 ft (3 m) of a building. 

Exception No. 1: The distance requirement shall not apply for build- 
ings of not less than 1 -hour fire resistance-rated construction with 
openings protected against the fire exposure hazard created by the 
grandstand. 

Exception No. 2: The distance requirement shall not apply where a 
wall of not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction separates 
such a grandstand from the building. (101:12.4.8.3.1 ) 

31-5.3.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not exceed 
10,000 ft 2 (929 m 2 ) in ground area or 200 ft (61 m) in length. 
Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not less 
than 20 ft (6.1m) apart or shall be separated by walls of 1-hour 
fire resistance rating. The number of such units erected in any 
one group shall not exceed three. Each group shall be sepa- 
rated from any other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance- 
rated construction extending 2 ft (0.6 m) above the seat plat- 
forms or by an open space of not less than 50 ft (15.2 m) . 
Exception: Where entirely constructed of labeled fire-retardant-treated 
wood that has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test 
Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood 
for Fire Testing, or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type IV (2HH)), the ground area 
or length shall be permitted to be doubled. (101:12.4.8.3.2) 

31-5.3.3 The highest level of seat platforms above the ground 
or the surface at the front of the grandstand for any wood 
grandstand shall not exceed 20 ft (6. 1 m) . For portable grand- 
stands within tents or membrane structures, the highest level 
shall not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m). 

Exception: Where entirely constructed of labeled fire-retardant-treated 
wood that has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test 
Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood 
for Fire Testing, or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type TV (2HH)), the height shall 
be permitted to be doubled. (101:12.4.8.3.3) 

31-5.4 Special Requirements, Portable Grandstands. 

31-5.4.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 31-5 for grandstands and the requirements of 
31-5.4.2 and 31-5.4.3. (101:12.4.8.4.1) 

31-5.4.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and shall 
have within them all necessary parts to withstand and restrain all 
forces that might be developed during human occupancy. They 
shall be designed and manufactured so that if any structural 
members essential to the strength and stability of the structure 
have been omitted during erection, the presence of unused 
connection fittings shall make the omissions self-evident. The 



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construction shall be skillfully accomplished to produce the 
strength required by the design. (101:12.4.8.4.2) 

31-5.4.3 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the per- 
mitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. Where portable grandstands rest direcdy on a base 
of such character that it is incapable of supporting the load 
without appreciable settlement, mud sills of suitable material, 
having sufficient area to prevent undue or dangerous settle- 
ment, shall be installed under base plates, runners, or sleep- 
ers. All bearing surfaces shall be in contact with each other. 
(201:12.4.8.4.3) 

31-5.5 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces underneath 
a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combustible 
materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of 
NFPA 101. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 
300 ft 2 (28 m 2 ) or less in area where ofnoncombustible or fire-resistive 
construction, such as ticket booths, toilet facilities, or concession 
booths, in otherwise nonsprinklered facilities. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to rooms enclosed 
in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction that are less 
than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in area in otherwise nonsprinklered facilities. 
(101:12.4.8.5) 

31-5.6 Guards and Railings. 

31-5.6.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (107 cm) above 
the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. (91 cm) ver- 
tically above the center of the seat or seat board surface, 
whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those portions 
of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the seats are 
more than 4 ft (1.2 m) above the floor or ground. 
Exception: This requirement shall not apply where an adjacent wall 
or fence affords equivalent safeguard. (101:12.4.8.6. 1) 

31-5.6.2 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the floor, railings or guards not less 
than 33 in. (84 cm) above such footrests shall be provided. 
Exception: In grandstands, or where the front row of seats includes 
backrests, the rails shall be not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high. 
(701:12.4.8.6.2) 

31-5.6.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high along the 
front edge of the cross aisle. 

Exception: Where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle project 
24 in. (61 cm) or more above the surface of the cross aisle, the rail shall 
not be required. (101:12.4.8.6.3) 

31-5.6.4 Vertical openings between guardrails and footboards 
or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate construc- 
tion so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. (101:12.4.8.6.4) 

31-5.6.5 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (76 cm) above grade shall be provided 
with intermediate construction so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diame- 
ter sphere cannot pass through the opening. (101:12.4.8.6.5) 

31-6 Existing Grandstands. 

31-6.1 General. Grandstands shall comply with the provisions 
of Chapter 13 of NFPA 101 as modified by Section 31-6 of this 
Code. 



Exception: Existing grandstands shall be permitted to be continued to 
be used subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 
(101:13.4.8.1) 

31-6.2 Seating. 

31-6.2.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used 
indoors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 22 in. 
(55.9 cm) back-to-back. (101:13.4.8.2.1) 

31-6.2.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 9 in. (22.9 cm). Where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. (101:13.4.8.2.2) 

31-6.2.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be supported 
securely and fastened in such a manner that they cannot be 
displaced inadvertently. (101:13.4.8.2.3) 

31-6.2.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured firmly in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do 
not exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. (101:13.4.8.2.4) 

31-6.3 Special Requirements, Wood Grandstands. 

31-6.3.1 An outdoor wood grandstand shall be erected within 
not less than two-thirds of its height and, in no case, within not 
less than 10 ft (3 m) of a building. 

Exception No. 1: The distance requirement shall not apply for build- 
ings of not less than 1-hour fire resistance-crated construction with 
openings protected against the fire exposure hazard created by the 
grandstand. 

Exception No. 2: The distance requirement shall not apply where a 
wall of not less than 1-hour fire resistance-crated construction separates 
such a grandstand from the building. (101:13.4.8.3.1) 

31-6.3.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not exceed 
10,000 ft 2 (929 m 2 ) in ground area or 200 ft (61 m) in length. 
Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not less 
than 20 ft (6.1 m) apart or shall be separated by walls of 1-hour 
fire resistance rating. The number of such units erected in any 
one group shall not exceed three. Each group shall be sepa- 
rated from any other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance- 
rated construction extending 2 ft (0.6 m) above the seat plat- 
forms or by an open space of not less than 50 ft (15.2 m). 

Exception: Where entirely constructed of labeled fire-retardant-treated 
wood that has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test 
Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood 
for Fire Testing, or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type TV (2HH)), the ground area 
or length shall be permitted to be doubled. (101:13.4.8.3.2) 

31-6.3.3 The highest level of seat platforms above the ground 
or the surface at the front of the grandstand for any wood 
grandstand shall not exceed 20 ft (6. 1 m) . For portable grand- 
stands within tents or membrane structures, the highest level 
shall not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m). 

Exception: Where entirely constructed of labeled fire-retardant-treated 
wood that has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test 
Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood 
for Fire Testing or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type TV (2HH)), the height shall 
be permitted to be doubled. (101:13.4.8.3.3) 



2000 Edition 



GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-1 37 



31-6.4 Special Requirements, Portable Grandstands. 

31-6.4.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 31-6 for grandstands and the requirements of 
31-6.4.2 and 31-6.4.3. (202:13.4.8.4.1) 

31-6.4.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and 
shall have within them all necessary parts to withstand and 
restrain all forces that might be developed during human 
occupancy. They shall be designed and manufactured so that 
if any structural members essential to the strength and stability 
of the structure have been omitted during erection, the pres- 
ence of unused connection fittings shall make the omissions 
self-evident. The construction shall be skillfully accomplished 
to produce the strength required by the design. 
(702:13.4.8.4.2) 

31-6.4.3 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the per- 
mitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. Where portable grandstands rest direcdy on a base 
of such character that it is incapable of supporting the load 
without appreciable setdement, mud sills of suitable material, 
having sufficient area to prevent undue or dangerous settle- 
ment, shall be installed under base plates, runners, or sleep- 
ers. All bearing surfaces shall be in contact with each other. 
(707:13.4.8.4.3) 

31-6.5 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces underneath 
a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combustible 
materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 
101. 

Exception No. 1: This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 
300ft 2 (28 m 2 ) or less in area where ofnoncombustible or fire-resistive 
construction, such as ticket booths, toilet facilities, or concession- 
booths, in otherwise nonsprinklered facilities. 

Exception No. 2: This requirement shall not apply to rooms enclosed 
in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction that are less 
than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in area in otherwise nonsprinklered facilities. 
(207:13.4.8.5) 

31-6.6 Guards and Railings. 

31-6.6.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (107 cm) above 
the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. (91 cm) ver- 
tically above the center of the seat or seat board surface, 
whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those portions 
of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the seats are in 
excess of 4 ft (1.2 m) above the floor or ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply where an adjacent wall 
or fence affords equivalent safeguard. (101:13.4.8.6.1) 

31-6.6.2 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the floor, railings or guards not less 
than 33 in. (84 cm) above such footrests shall be provided. 

Exception: In grandstands, or where the front row of seats includes 
backrests, the rails shall be not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high. 
(702:13.4.8.6.2) 

31-6.6.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high along the 
front edge of the cross aisle. 

Exception: Where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle project 
24 in. (61 cm) or more above the surface of the cross aisle, the rail shall 
not be required. (707:13.4.8.6.3) 



31-6.6.4 Vertical openings between guardrails and footboards 
or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate construc- 
tion so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. (707:13.4.8.6.4) 

31-6.6.5 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (76 cm) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 
(707:13.4.8.6.5) 

31-7 New Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

31-7.1 General. Folding and telescopic seating shall comply 
with the provisions of Chapter 12 of NFPA 101 as modified by 
Section 31-7 of this Code. (707:12.4.9.1) 

31-7.2 Seating. 

31-7.2.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back- 
to-back, shall be not less than 22 in. (55.9 cm) for seats with- 
out backs. There shall be a space of not less than 12 in. 
(30.5 cm) between the back of each seat and the front of 
each seat immediately behind it. If seats are of the chair 
type, the 12-in. (30.5-cm) dimension shall be measured to 
the front edge of the rear seat in its normal unoccupied 
position. All measurements shall be taken between plumb 
lines. (707:12.4.9.2.1) 

31-7.2.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat boards 
in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 9 in. 
(22.9 cm) . Where the same level is not used for both seat foun- 
dations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall be 
provided. (707:12.4.9.2.2) 

31-7.2.3 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in fold- 
ing and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups of 
not less than three. (702:12.4.9.2.3) 

31-7.3 Guards and Railings. 

31-7.3.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (107 cm) above 
the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. (91 cm) ver- 
tically above the center of the seat or seat board surface, 
whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those portions 
of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic seating 
where the seats are more than 4 ft (1.2 m) above the floor or 
ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply where an adjacent wall 
or fence affords equivalent safeguard. (101:12.4.9.3.1) 

31-7.3.2 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic seat- 
ing is more than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the floor, railings or guards 
not less than 33 in. (84 cm) above such footrests shall be pro- 
vided. 

Exception: Where the front row of seats includes backrests, the rails 
shall be not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high. (202:12.4.9.3.2) 

31-7.3.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high along the 
front edge of the cross aisle. 

Exception: Where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle project 
24 in. (61 cm) or more above the surface of the cross aisle, the rail shall 
not be required. (202:12.4.9.3.3) 

31-7.3.4 Vertical openings between guardrails and footboards 
or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate construc- 
tion so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. (202:12.4.9.3.4) 



2000 Edition 



1-138 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



31-7.3.5 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (76 cm) above grade shall be provided 
with intermediate construction so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diame- 
ter sphere cannot pass through the opening. (102:12.4.9.3.5) 

31-8 Existing Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

31-8.1 General. Folding and telescopic seating shall comply 
with the provisions of Chapter 13 of NFPA 101 as modified by 
Section 31-8 of this Code. 

Exception: Existing folding and telescopic seating shall be permitted to 
be continued to be used subject to the approval of the authority having 
jurisdiction. (202:13.4.9.1) 

31-8.2 Seating. 

31-8.2.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back- 
to-back, shall be not less than 22 in. (55.9 cm) for seats with- 
out backs. There shall be a space of not less than 12 in. 
(30.5 cm) between the back of each seat and the front of 
each seat immediately behind it. If seats are of the chair 
type, the 12-in. (30.5-cm) dimension shall be measured to 
the front edge of the rear seat in its normal unoccupied 
position. All measurements shall be taken between plumb 
lines. (202:13.4.9.2.1) 

31-8.2.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat boards 
in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 9 in. 
(22.9 cm) . Where the same level is not used for both seat foun- 
dations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall be 
provided. {101:1 3.4.9.2.2) 

31-8.2.3 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in fold- 
ing and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups of 
not less than three. (207:13.4.9.2.3) 

31-8.3 Guards and Railings. 

31-8.3.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (107 cm) above 
the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. (91 cm) ver- 
tically above the center of the seat or seat board surface, 
whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those portions 
of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic seating 
where the seats are more than 4 ft (1.2 m) above the floor or 
ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply where an adjacent wall 
or fence affords equivalent safeguard. (702:13.4.9.3.1) 

31-8.3.2 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic 
seating is more than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the floor, railings or 
guards not less than 33 in. (84 cm) above such footrests shall 
be provided. 



Exception: Where the front row of seats includes backrests, the rails 
shall be not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high. (202:13.4.9.3.2) 

31-8.3.3 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (66 cm) high along the 
front edge of the cross aisle. 

Exception: Where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle project 
24 in. (61 cm) or more above the surface of the cross aisle, the rail shall 
not be required. (707:13.4.9.3.3) 

31-8.3.4 Vertical openings between guardrails and footboards 
or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate construc- 
tion so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. (707:13.4.9.3.4) 

31-8.3.5 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 30 in. (76 cm) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 4-in. (10.2-cm) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 
(202:13.4.9.3.5) 

31-9 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands. The owner shall 
provide for not less than annual inspection and required main- 
tenance of each outdoor grandstand to ensure safe conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a profes- 
sional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified by 
the manufacturer. Where required by the authority havingjuris- 
diction, the owner shall provide certification that such inspec- 
tion has been performed. (707:12.7.9; 707:13.7.9) 

31-10 Maintenance and Operation of Folding and Telescopic 
Seating. 

31-10.1 Instructions in both maintenance and operation shall 
be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the seating 
or his or her representative. (202:12.7.10.1; 202:13.7.10.1) 

31-10.2 Maintenance and operation of folding and telescopic 
seating shall be the responsibility of the owner or his or her duly 
authorized representative and shall include the following: 

(1) During operation of the folding and telescopic seats, the 
opening and closing shall be supervised by responsible 
personnel who shall ensure that the operation is in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

(2) Only attachments specifically approved by the manufac- 
turer for the specific installation shall be attached to the 
seating. 

(3) An annual inspection and required maintenance of each 
grandstand shall be performed to ensure safe conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by 
a professional engineer, registered architect, or individ- 
ual certified by the manufacturer. (202:12.7.10.2; 
202:13.7.10.2) 



2000 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-139 



Chapter 32 Referenced Publications 

32-1 The following documents or portions thereof are refer- 
enced within this code as mandatory requirements and shall 
be considered part of the requirements of this code. The edi- 
tion indicated for each referenced mandatory document is the 
current edition as of the date of the NFPA issuance of this 
code. Some of these mandatory documents might also be ref- 
erenced in this code for specific informational purposes and, 
therefore, are also listed in Appendix D. 

32-1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269- 
9101. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 11, Standard for Lota-Expansion Foam, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 11 A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam 
Systems, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Sys- 
tems, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private 
Hydrant, and Hose Systems, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protec- 
tion, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler 
and Foam-Water Spray Systems, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 17 A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for 
Fire Protection, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service 
Mains and Their Appurtenances, 1995 edition. 

NFPA25, Standardfor the Inspection, Testing and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 30A, Automotive and Marine Service Station Code, 1996 
edition. 

NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 31, Standardfor the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip- 
ment, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 32, Standard for Drycleaning Plants, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using 
Flammable or Combustible Liquids, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 36, Standardfor Solvent Extraction Plants, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose 
Nitrate Motion Picture Film, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 50B, Standard for Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at Con- 
sumer Sites, 1999 edition. 



NFPA 51, Standardfor the Design and Installation of Oxygen- 
Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, 1997 
edition. 

NFPA 51A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, 
1996 edition. 

NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- 
ting and Other Hot Work, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 59, Standardfor the Storage and Handling of Liquefied 
Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 59A, Standardfor the Production, Storage, and Handling 
of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 1996 edition. 

NFPA 61, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Products Facilities, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code®, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han- 
dlingSystems and Equipment, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86, Standardfor Ovens and Furnaces, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special 
Processing Atmosphere, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as 
an Atmosphere, 1999 edition. 

NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 88B, Standard for Repair Garages, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning 
and Ventilating Systems, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 90B, Standardfor the Installation of Warm Air Heating 
and Air-Conditioning Systems, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of 
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 96, Standardfor Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of 
Commercial Cooking Operations, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 120, Standardfor Coal Preparation Plants, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Produc- 
tion Studio Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before an Audience, 1998 
edition 

NFPA 211, Standardfor Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
Fuel-Burning Appliances, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 221, Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, 1997 
edition. 

NFPA 230, Standardfor the Five Protection of Storage, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 231D, Standard for Storage of Rubber Tim, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 232, Standardfor the Protection of Records, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, 
and Demolition Operations, 1996 edition. 



2000 Edition 



1-140 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, 

1999 edition. 

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block 
Assemblies, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 260, Standard Methods of Tests and Classification System 
for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furni- 
ture, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, 
1995 edition. 

NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of 
Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of Vessels During Con- 
struction, Repair, and Lay-Up, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 318, Standardfor the Protection of Cleanrooms, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 385, Standardfor Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 407, Standardfor Aircraft Fuel Servicing, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling 
Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 

2000 edition. 

NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formula- 
tions, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 480, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, and Processing 
of Magnesium Solids and Powders, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 481, Standardfor the Production, Processing, Handling, 
and Storage of Titanium, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 482, Standardfor the Production, Processing, Handling, 
and Storage of Zirconium, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 485, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, Processing, and 
Use of Lithium Metal, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate, 1998 
edition. 

NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 498, Standardfor Safe Havens and Interchange Lots for 
Vehicles Transporting Explosives, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 501 , Standard on Manufactured Housing, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured 
Home Installations, Sites, and Communities, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standardfor Powered Industrial Trucks 
Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Mainte- 
nance, and Operation, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 650, Standard for Pneumatic Conveying Systems for Han- 
dling Combustible Particulate Solids, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 65 1 , Standardfor the Machining and Finishing of Alumi- 
num and the Production and Handling of Aluminum Powders, 1998 
edition. 

NFPA 654, Standardfor the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing Processing, and Handling of Combus- 
tible Particulate Solids, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explo- 
sions, 1993 edition. 

NFPA 664, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in 
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities, 1998 edition. 



NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation 
of Textiles and Films, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards 
of Materials for Emergency Response, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 909, Standard for the Protection of Cultural Resources, 
Including Museums, Libraries, Places of Worship, and Historic Prop- 
erties, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 1122, Code for Model Rocketry, 1997 edition. 

NFPA 1123, Code for Fireworks Display, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and 
Storage of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 1 1 25, Code for the Manufacture of Model Rocket and High 
Power Rocket Motors, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 1 126, Standardfor the Use of Pyrotechnics before a Proxi- 
mate Audience, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 1127, Code for High Power Rocketry, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and 
Rural Fire Fighting, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Camp- 
grounds, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 1561, Standard on Emergency Service Incident Manage- 
ment System, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Sys- 
tems, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 8503, Standard for Pulverized Fuel Systems, 1997 edition. 

32-1.2 Other Publications. 

32-1.2.1 API Publication. American Petroleum Institute, 1220 
L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. 

API-ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liq- 
uids and Gases, Pre-July 1, 1961. 

32-1.2.2 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017. 

ASME/ANSI A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 
1996. 

ASME/ANSI Al 7.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators andEsca- 
lators, 1996. 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Rules for 
the Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels," 1998. 

32-1.2.3 ASTM Publications. American Society for Testing 
and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, 
PA 19428-2959. 

ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire- 
Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing, 1994. 

ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in 
a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, 1998. 

32-1.2.4 CGA Publication. Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 
1725 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1004, Arlington, VA 
22202-4100. 

CGA C-4, Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Contain- 
ers to Identify the Material Contained, 1990. 

32-1.2.5 UL Publications. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 
333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062. 

UL 8, Standard for Foam Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 147A, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposable) Type Fuel Gas 
Cylinder Assemblies, 1996. 

UL 147B, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposal) Type Metal Con- 
tainer Assemblies for Butane, 1996. 

UL 154, Standard for Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 



2000 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-141 



UL 197, Standard for Commercial Electric Cooking Appliances, 
1993. 

UL 299, Standard for Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 300, Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems 
for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, 1996. 

UL 567, Standard Pipe Connectors for Flammable and Combusti- 
ble Liquids and LP-Gas, 1996. 

UL 626, Standard for 2V 2 Gallon Stored Pressure Water Type Fire 
Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 711, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing oj Fire Extinguish- 
ers, 1995. 

UL 842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids, 6th Edition, 
1997. 

UL 900, Standard for Test Performance of Air Filter Units, 1994. 

UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, 
1995. 

UL 1093, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, 
1995. 

UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics UsedforDec- 
orative Purposes, 1996. 

UL 2085, Standard for Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids, 1997. 



32-1.2.6 ULC Publications. Underwriters Laboratories of 
Canada, 7 Crouse Road, Scarborough, Ontario, MIR 3A9. 

ULC-S503, Standard for Carbon Dioxide Hand and Wheeled Fire 
Extinguishers, 1990. 

ULC-S504, Standard for Dry Chemical and Dry Powder Hand 
and Wheeled Fire Extinguishers, 1986. 

ULC-S507, Standard for 9 Litre Stored Pressure Water Type Fire 
Extinguishers, 1983. 

ULG-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extin- 
guishers, 1990. 

ULC-S512, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, 
1987. 

32-1.2.7 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC, 20402. 

FAA A/C 150/5390-2, Heliport Design Advisory Circular, Jan- 
uary 4, 1988. 

ICC Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, April 1, 
1967. 

Tide 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 and 1507, 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 

Tide 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1632, Standard for 
the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads, January 1, 1990. 

Tide 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 152.175 and 
156.10(i)(A). 

Tide 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Transportation. 

32-1.2.8 Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the 
English Language, Unabridged. 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Appendix A Explanatory Material 

Appendix A is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA docu- 
ment but is included for informational purposes only. This appendix 
contains explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the appli- 
cable text paragraphs. 

A-l-7 The Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety provides 
information that can assist in the preparation and analysis of 
performance-based design submittals. 

A-l-7. 1 Comparison of the equivalent method or design with 
the prescriptive code compliant method or design, using the 
same engineering methodologies, should provide one 
option for evaluation and acceptance by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

A-l-9.3 The authority having jurisdiction should take into 
account the maintenance of required means of egress and fire 
protection systems during the construction, repair, alteration, 
or addition to the building. If necessary, alternative protection 
features can be required to ensure that no imminent hazards 
exist as the result of modifications. 

A-l-9.4 Examples of changes from one occupancy subclassi- 
fication to another subclassification of the same occupancy 
could include a change from a Class B to a Class A mercantile 
occupancy. Hospitals and nursing homes are both health 
care occupancies and are defined separately, but they are not 
established as separate suboccupancies; thus, a change from 
one to the other does not constitute a change of occupancy 
subclassification . 

For example, a building was used as a hospital but has been 
closed for four years. It is again to be used as a hospital. As long 
as the building was not used as another occupancy during the 
time it was closed, it would be considered an existing hospital. 

Hotels and apartments, although both residential occupan- 
cies, are treated separately, and a change from one to the 
other constitutes a change of occupancy. (20i:A.4.6.11) 

A-l-10.2 Any "nonrequired" system that, if not maintained 
properly, could create a false sense of security can be consid- 
ered as creating an unsafe condition and therefore should be 
removed or properly maintained. 

A-l-10.3 Examples of such features include automatic sprin- 
klers, fire alarm systems, standpipes, and portable fire extin- 
guishers. The presence of a life safety feature, such as 
sprinklers or fire alarm devices, creates a reasonable expecta- 
tion by the public that these safety features are functional. 
When systems are inoperable or taken out of service but the 
devices remain, they present a false sense of safety. Also, 
before taking any life safety features out of service, extreme 
care needs to be exercised to ensure that the feature is not 
required, was not originally provided as an alternative or 
equivalency, or is no longer required due to other new 
requirements in this current Code or NFPA 101, Life Safety 
Code. It is not intended that the entire system or protection fea- 
ture be removed. Instead, components such as sprinklers, ini- 



tiating devices, notification appliances, standpipe hose, and 
exit systems should be removed to reduce the likelihood of 
relying on inoperable systems or features. (101:A. 4.6.12.2) 

A-l-14.1.1 This requirement should not be construed to for- 
bid the owner, manager, or other person in control of the 
aforementioned building or premises from using all diligence 
necessary to extinguish such fire prior to the arrival of the fire 
department. 

A-l-16.14 Figure A-l-16. 14 shows a sample permit application. 
(See pg. 1-142.) 

A-l-18.6 A third-party reviewer is a person or group of persons 
chosen by the authority having jurisdiction to review a pro- 
posed design, operation, process, or new technology when the 
complexity of the design exceeds the capabilities of the 
authority having jurisdiction to determine whether the pro- 
posed design, operation, process, or new technology has met 
the code requirements. 

A-2-1.5 Airport Terminal Building. The term "Terminal" is 
sometimes applied to airport facilities other than those serving 
passengers, such as cargo and freight facilities and fueling- 
handling facilities. These facilities are covered by other NFPA 
standards such as NFPA 51 3, Standard for Motor Freight Termi- 
nals, and NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 
(415:A-l-4) 

A-2-1.9 Apartment Building. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, spec- 
ifies, that wherever there are three or more living units in a 
building, the building is considered an apartment building 
and is required to comply with either Chapter 30 or 31 of 
NFPA 101, as appropriate. Townhouse units are considered to 
be apartment buildings if there are three or more units in the 
building. The type of wall required between units in order to 
consider them to be separate buildings is normally established 
by the authority having jurisdiction. If the units are separated 
by a wall of sufficient fire resistance and structural integrity to 
be considered as separate buildings, then the provisions of 
Chapter 24 of NFPA 101 apply to each townhouse. Condomin- 
ium status is a form of ownership, not occupancy; for example, 
there are condominium warehouses, condominium apart- 
ments, and condominium offices. (207.A.3. 3.25.1) 

A-2-1.10 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association 
does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, proce- 
dures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evalu- 
ate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of 
installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the author- 
ity having jurisdiction may base acceptance on compliance 
with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of 
such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper 
installation, procedure, or use. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an 
organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is 
thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate 
standards for the current production of listed items. 



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APPENDIX A 



1-143 



FIGURE A-l-1 6. 14 Example of a permit application. 



(Front) 

PERMIT 

FOR CUTTING AND WELDING 
WITH PORTABLE GAS OR ARC EQUIPMENT 



Date. 



Building . 
Dept 



Floor . 



Work to be done . 



Special precautions . 



Is fire watch required?. 



The location where this work is to be done has been examined, 
necessary precautions taken, and permission is granted for this 
work. (See other side.) 

Permit expires 



Signed . 



(Individual responsible for authorizing 
cutting and welding) 



Time started . 



Completed . 



FINAL CHECK-UP 

Work area and all adjacent areas to which sparks and heat might 
have spread (including floors above and below and on opposite 
sides of walls) were inspected 30 minutes after the work was 
completed and were found firesafe. 



Signed . 



(Supervisor or Fire Watcher) 



(Rear) 

ATTENTION 

Before approving any cutting and welding permit, the fire safety 
supervisor or his appointee shall inspect the work area and confirm 
that precautions have been taken to prevent fire in accordance with 
NFPA51B. 

PRECAUTIONS 

□ Sprinklers in service 

□ Cutting and welding equipment in good repair 

WITHIN 35 FT (10.7 M) OF WORK 

□ Floors swept clean of combustibles 

□ Combustible floors wet down, covered with damp sand, metal, 
or other shields 

□ No combustible material or flammable liquids 

□ Combustibles and flammable liquids protected with covers, 
guards, or metal shields 

□ All wall and floor openings covered 

□ Covers suspended beneath work to collect sparks 

WORK ON WALLS OR CEILINGS 

□ Construction noncombustible and without combustible covering 

□ Combustibles moved away from opposite side of wall 

WORK ON ENCLOSED EQUIPMENT 

(Tanks, containers, ducts, dust collectors, etc.) 
Q Equipment cleaned of all combustibles 

□ Containers purged of flammable vapors 

FIRE WATCH 

□ To be provided during and 30 minutes after operation 

□ Supplied with extinguisher and small hose 

□ Trained in use of equipment and in sounding fire alarm 

FINAL CHECK-UP 

□ To be made 30 minutes after completion of any operation unless 
fire watch is provided 



Signed . 



(Supervisor) 



A-2-1.13 Assembly Occupancy. Assembly occupancies might 
include the following: 

(1) Armories 

(2) Assembly halls 

(3) Auditoriums 

(4) Bowling lanes 

(5) Club rooms 

(6) College and university classrooms, 50 persons and over 

(7) Conference rooms 

(8) Courtrooms 

(9) Dance halls 

(10) Drinking establishments 

(11) Exhibition halls 

(12) Gymnasiums 

(13) Libraries 

(14) Mortuary chapels 

(15) Motion picture theaters 

(16) Museums 

(17) Passenger stations and terminals of air, surface, under- 
ground, and marine public transportation facilities 

(18) Places of religious worship 

(19) Poolrooms 



(20) Recreation piers 

(21) Restaurants 

(22) Skating rinks 

(23) Special amusement buildings regardless of occupant 
load 

(24) Theaters 

Assembly occupancies are characterized by the presence or 
potential presence of crowds with attendant panic hazard in case 
of fire or other emergency. They are generally open or occasion- 
ally open to the public, and the occupants, who are present vol- 
untarily, are not ordinarily subject to discipline or control. Such 
buildings are ordinarily occupied by able-bodied persons and 
are not used for sleeping purposes. Special conference rooms, 
snack areas, and other areas incidental to, and under the control 
of, the management of other occupancies, such as offices, fall 
under the 50-person limitation. 

Restaurants and drinking establishments with an occupant 
load of fewer than 50 persons should be classified as mercan- 
tile occupancies. 

For special amusement buildings, see 12.4.7 and 13.4.7 of 
NFPA 101. (i01.A.3.3.134.2) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-2-1.14 Authority Having Jurisdiction. The phrase "author- 
ity having jurisdiction" is used in NFPA documents in a broad 
manner, since jurisdictions and approval agencies vary, as do 
their responsibilities. Where public safety is primary, the 
authority having jurisdiction may be a federal, state, local, or 
other regional department or individual such as a fire chief; 
fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor depart- 
ment, or health department; building official; electrical 
inspector; or others having statutory authority. For insurance 
purposes, an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, 
or other insurance company representative may be the author- 
ity having jurisdiction. In many circumstances, the property 
owner or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the 
authority having jurisdiction; at government installations, the 
commanding officer or departmental official may be the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

A-2-1. 18 Building. The term building is to be understood as 
if followed by the words or portions thereof. (See also Structure, 
A-2-1.159). (20J.-A.3.3.25) 

A-2-1.18.1 Building, Existing. With respect to judging 
whether a building should be considered existing, the deciding 
factor is not when the building was designed or when construc- 
tion started but, rather, the date plans were approved for con- 
struction by the appropriate authority having jurisdiction. 
(707:A.3.3.25.4) 

A-2-1. 20 Business Occupancy. Business occupancies include 
the following: 

(1) Air traffic control towers (ATCTs) 

(2) City halls 

(3) College and university instructional buildings, class- 
rooms under 50 persons, and instructional laboratories 

(4) Courthouses 

(5) Dentists' offices 

(6) Doctors' offices 

(7) General offices 

(8) Outpatient clinics, ambulatory 

(9) Town halls 

Doctors' and dentists' offices are included, unless of such 
character as to be classified as ambulatory health care occu- 
pancies. (See 2-1.7.) 

Birth centers occupied by fewer than four patients, not 
including infants, at any one time; not providing sleeping 
facilities for four or more occupants; and not providing treat- 
ment procedures that render four or more patients, not 
including infants, incapable of self-preservation at any one 
time should be classified as business occupancies. For birth 
centers occupied by patients not meeting these parameters, 
see Chapter 18 or Chapter 19 of NFPA 101, as appropriate. 

Service facilities common to city office buildings such as 
newsstands, lunch counters serving fewer than 50 persons, bar- 
ber shops, and beauty parlors are included in the business 
occupancy group. 

City halls, town halls, and court houses are included in this 
occupancy group insofar as their principal function is the 
transaction of public business and the keeping of books and 
records. Insofar as they are used for assembly purposes, they 
are classified as assembly occupancies. (101:A.S. 3.134.3) 

A-2-1.32 Code. The decision to designate a standard as a 
"code" is based on such factors as the size and scope of the 
document, its intended use and form of adoption, and 
whether it contains substantial enforcement and administra- 
tive provisions. 



A-2-1. 34 Combustible Dust. Any time a combustible dust is 
processed or handled, a potential for deflagration exists. The 
degree of deflagration hazard will vary depending on the type 
of combustible dust and processing methods used. 

A dust explosion has the following four requirements: 

(1) A combustible dust 

(2) A dust dispersion in air or oxygen at or exceeding the 
minimum combustible concentration 

(3) An ignition source such as an electrostatic discharge, an 
electric current arc, a glowing ember, a hot surface, weld- 
ing slag, frictional heat, or a flame 

(4) Confinement 

Evaluation of the hazard of a combustible dust should be 
determined by the means of actual test data. The following list 
represents factors that can be considered when determining 
the deflagration hazard of a dust: 

(1) Minimum dust concentration to ignite 

(2) Minimum energy required for ignition (joules) 

(3) Particle size distribution 

(4) Moisture content as received and dried 

(5) Deflagration index (K St ) 

(6) Layer ignition temperature 

(7) Maximum explosion pressure, at optimum concentration 

(8) Electrical volume resistivity measurement 

(9) Dust cloud ignition temperature 

(10) Maximum permissible oxygen concentration (MOC) to 
prevent deflagration 

(650:A-l-5) 

A-2-1. 36 Combustible Particulate Solid. A definition of this 
breadth is necessary because it is crucial to address the fact 
that there is attrition of the material as it is conveyed. Pieces 
and particles rub against each other and collide with the walls 
of the duct as they travel through the system. This breaks the 
material down and produces a mixture of pieces and much 
finer particles, called "dusts." Consequently, we should expect 
every conveying system to produce dusts as an inherent by- 
product of the conveying process, regardless of the starting 
size of the material. (650:A-l-5) 

A-2-1. 40 Common Path of Travel. Common path of travel is 
measured in the same manner as travel distance but termi- 
nates at that point where two separate and distinct routes 
become available. Paths that merge are common paths of 
travel. (/0i:A.3.3.32) 

A-2-1. 42 Consumer Fireworks. Consumer fireworks contain 
limited quantities of pyrotechnic composition per unit and do 
not pose a mass explosion hazard where stored. Therefore, 
they are not required to be stored in a magazine. 

Consumer fireworks are normally classed as Explosives, 
1.4G and described as Fireworks, UN 0336 by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Transportation (U.S. DOT). (1124:A-l-4) 

A-2-1 .45 Day-Care Home. A day-care home is generally 
located within a dwelling unit. (i0/:A.3.3.39) 

A-2-1 .46 Day-Care Occupancy. Day-care occupancies include 
the following: 

( 1 ) Adult day-care occupancies, except where part of a health 
care occupancy 

(2) Child day-care occupancies 

(3) Day-care homes 

(4) Kindergarten classes that are incidental to a child day- 
care occupancy 

(5) Nursery schools 



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1-145 



In areas where public schools offer only half-day kindergar- 
ten programs, many child day-care occupancies offer state- 
approved kindergarten classes for children who need full-day 
care. As these classes are normally incidental to the day-care 
occupancy, the requirements of the day-care occupancy 
should be followed. (201.-A.3.3.134.4) 

A-2-1.51 Detention and Correctional Occupancy. Detention 
and correctional occupancies include the following: 

(1) Adult and juvenile substance abuse centers 

(2) Adult and juvenile work camps 

(3) Adult community residential centers 

(4) Adult correctional institutions 

(5) Adult local detention facilities 

(6) Juvenile community residential centers 

(7) Juvenile detention facilities 

(8) Juvenile training schools (/02.A..3.3.134.5) 

A-2-1.53 Dormitory. Rooms within dormitories intended for 
the use of individuals for combined living and sleeping pur- 
poses are guest rooms or guest suites. Examples of dormitories 
are college dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, and 
military barracks. (207.-A.3.3.46) 

A-2-1.55 Educational Occupancy. Educational occupancies 
include the following: 

(1) Academies 

(2) Kindergartens 

(3) Schools 

An educational occupancy is distinguished from an assem- 
bly occupancy in that the same occupants are regularly 
present. (207.-A.3.3. 134.6) 

A-2-1.57 Existing. See Building Existing, A-2-l. 18.1. (201.-A.3.3.59) 

A-2-1.59 Exit. Exits include exterior exit doors, exit passage- 
ways, horizontal exits, exit stairs, and exit ramps. In the case of 
a stairway, the exit incudes the stair enclosure, the door to the 
stair enclosure, stairs and landings inside the enclosure, the 
door from the stair enclosure to the outside or to the level of 
exit discharge, and any exit passageway and its associated 
doors if such are provided so as to discharge the stair direcdy 
to the outside. In the case of a door leading directly from the 
street floor to the street or open air, the exit comprises only 
the door. 

Doors of small individual rooms, as in hotels, while consti- 
tuting exit access from the room, are not referred to as exits 
except where they lead directly to the outside of the building 
from the street floor. (207.-A.3.3.61) 

A-2-1.63 Fire Compartment. Additional fire compartment 
information is contained in 8.2.2 of NFPA 101. 

In the provisions for fire compartments utilizing the out- 
side walls of a building, it is not intended that the outside wall 
be specifically fire resistance-rated unless required by other 
standards. Likewise, it is not intended for outside windows or 
doors to be protected, unless specifically required for expo- 
sure protection by another section of this Code, NFPA 101, or 
by other standards. (/0/.-A.3.3.71) 

A-2-1.66 Fire Hydrant. Figures A-2-1.66(a) and A-2-1 .66(b) 
show two hydrant arrangements. (25:1-5) 

A-2-1. 73 Floor Area, Gross. Where the term floor area is used, 
it should be understood to be gross floor area unless otherwise 
specified. (101.-A.3.3.81) 



FIGURE A-2-1 .66 (a) Typical Fire hydrant connection. 

[25:Figurel-5(a)(l)] 



Thrust block 
against 
undisturbed 
soil 




Thrust 
block 



concrete slab 



FIGURE A-2-1. 66(b) 

[25:Figurel-5(a)(2)] 



Grade. 



Flush-type hydrant. 



27 % in. (695 mm) x 
24% in. (619 mm) 



13 Vie in 
(332 mm) 



24-in. 
(607-mm) 

trench 
(minimum) 




A-2-1. 77.1 High Hazard Contents. High hazard contents 
include occupancies where flammable liquids are handled or 
used or are stored under conditions involving possible release of 
flammable vapors; where grain dust, wood flour or plastic dust, 
aluminum or magnesium dust, or other explosive dusts are pro- 
duced; where hazardous chemicals or explosives are manufac- 
tured, stored, or handled; where cotton or other combustible 
fibers are processed or handled under conditions producing 
flammable flyings; and other situations of similar hazard. 

Chapter 40 and Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 include detailed 
provisions on high hazard contents. (/0/.-A.6.2.2.4) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-2-1.77.2 Low Hazard. Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 recognizes 
storage of noncombustible materials as low hazard. In other 
occupancies it is assumed that, even where the actual contents 
hazard is normally low, there is sufficient likelihood that some 
combustible materials or hazardous operations will be intro- 
duced in connection with building repair or maintenance, or 
some psychological factor might create conditions conducive 
to panic, so that the egress facilities cannot safely be reduced 
below those specified for ordinary hazard contents. 
(I0i.A.6.2.2.2) 

A-2-1.77.3 Ordinary Hazard. Ordinary hazard classification 
represents the conditions found in most buildings and is the 
basis for the general requirements of NFPA 101. 

The fear of poisonous fumes or explosions is necessarily a 
relative matter to be determined on a judgment basis. All 
smoke contains some toxic Fire gases but, under conditions of 
ordinary hazard, there should be no unduly dangerous expo- 
sure during the period necessary to escape from the fire area, 
assuming there are proper exits. (20i.A.6.2.2.3) 

A-2-1.78 Health Care Occupancy. Health care occupancies 
include the following: 

(1) Ambulatory health care facilities 

(2) Hospitals 

(3) Limited care facilities 

(4) Nursing homes 

Occupants of health care occupancies typically have physical 
or mental illness, disease, or infirmity. They also include infants, 
convalescents, or infirm aged persons. (/0/:A.3.3.134.7) 

A-2-1.80 High-Rise Building. It is the intent of this definition 
that, in determining the level from which the highest occupi- 
able floor is to be measured, the enforcing agency should 
exercise reasonable judgment, including consideration of 
overall accessibility to the building by fire department person- 
nel and vehicular equipment. Where a building is situated on 
a sloping terrain and there is building access on more than 
one level, the enforcing agency might select the level that pro- 
vides the most logical and adequate fire department access. 
(iW:A.3.3.25.6) 

A-2-1.81 Horizontal Exit. Horizontal exits should not be con- 
fused with egress through doors in smoke barriers. Doors in 
smoke barriers are designed only for temporary protection 
against smoke, whereas horizontal exits provide protection 
against serious fire for a relatively long period of time in addi- 
tion to providing immediate protection from smoke. (See 7.2.4 
of NFPA 101.) (i02:A.3.3.61.1) 

A-2-1.83 Hotel. So-called apartment hotels should be classi- 
fied as hotels because they are potentially subject to the same 
transient occupancy as hotels. Transients are those who 
occupy accommodations for less than 30 days. (202.A.3.3.1O5) 

A-2-1.87 Industrial Occupancy. Industrial occupancies include 
the following: 



(1) 


Dry cleaning plants 


(2) 


Factories of all kinds 


(3) 


Food processing plants 


(4) 


Gas plants 


(5) 


Hangars (for servicing/maintenance) 


(6) 


Laundries 


(7) 


Power plants 


(8) 


Pumping stations 


0) 


Refineries 


2000 Edition 



(10) Sawmills 

(11) Telephone exchanges 

In evaluating the appropriate classification of laboratories, 
the authority having jurisdiction should treat each case indi- 
vidually based on the extent and nature of the associated haz- 
ards. Some laboratories are classified as occupancies other 
than industrial; for example, a physical therapy laboratory or 
a computer laboratory. (/0i:A.3.3.134.8) 

A-2-1.92 limited Care Facility. Limited care facilities and res- 
idential board and care occupancies both provide care to peo- 
ple with physical and mental limitations. However, the goals 
and programs of the two types of occupancies differ gready. 
The requirements in NFPA 101 for limited care facilities are 
based on the assumption that these are medical facilities, that 
they provide medical care and treatment, and that the patients 
are not trained to respond to the fire alarm; that is, the 
patients do not participate in fire drills but, rather, they await 
rescue. (See Section 18. 7 of NFPA 101.) 

The requirements for residential board and care occupan- 
cies are based on the assumption that the residents are pro- 
vided with personal care and activities that foster continued 
independence, that the residents are encouraged and taught 
to overcome their limitations, and that most residents, includ- 
ing all residents in prompt and slow homes, are trained to 
respond to fire drills, to the extent they are able. Residents are 
required to participate in fire drills. (See Section 32.7 of NFPA 
101.) (101:A.3.S.U7) 

A-2-1.93 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). At sufficiently low 
temperatures, natural gas liquefies. At atmospheric pressure, 
natural gas can be liquefied by reducing its temperature to 
approximately -260°F (-162°C). Upon release from contain- 
ment to the atmosphere, LNG vaporizes and releases gas that, 
at ambient temperature, has about 600 times the volume of the 
liquid vaporized. Generally, at temperatures below approxi- 
mately -170 C F (-112°C), this gas is heavier than ambient air at 
60°F (15°C). However, as its temperature rises, it becomes 
lighter than air. 

The American Gas Association's LNG Information Book con- 
tains additional detailed information on the properties of meth- 
ane and other hydrocarbons that constitute LNG. (57-.A-1-6) 

A-2-1.95 Listed. The means for identifying listed equipment 
may vary for each organization concerned with product evalu- 
ation; some organizations do not recognize equipment as 
listed unless it is also labeled. The authority havingjurisdiction 
should utilize the system employed by the listing organization 
to identify a listed product. 

A-2-1.101 Means of Egress. A means of egress comprises the 
vertical and horizontal travel and incudes interventing room 
spaces, doorways, hallways, corridors, passageways, balconies, 
ramps, stairs, elevators, enclosures, lobbies, escalators, hori- 
zontal exits, courts, and yards. (i01:A.3.3.121) 

A-2-1.103 Mercantile Occupancy. Mercantile occupancies 
include the following: 

(1) Auction rooms 

(2) Department stores 

(3) Drugstores 

(4) Restaurants with fewer than 50 persons 

(5) Shopping centers 

(6) Supermarkets 

Office, storage, and service facilities incidental to the sale 
of merchandise and located in the same building should be 



APPENDIX A 



1-147 



considered part of the mercantile occupancy classification. 
(J0/.-A.3.3.134.9) 

A-2-1.111 Occupiable Story. Stories used exclusively for 
mechanical equipment rooms, elevator penthouses, and simi- 
lar spaces are not occupiable stories. (i0/:A.3.3.194.1) 

A-2-1.114 Organic Peroxide Formulation. Terms such as 
accelerator, catalyst, initiator, and so forth, are sometimes used to 
describe organic peroxide formulations. These terms are mis- 
leading because they can also refer to materials that are not or 
do not contain organic peroxides, some of which might 
present increased hazard when mixed with organic peroxides. 
(432:A-l-5) 

A-2-1.117 Oxidizer. Any material that readily yields oxygen 
or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or ini- 
tiate combustion of combustible materials. (430:A-1-5.13) 

A-2-1.122 Personal Care. Personal care involves responsibil- 
ity for the safety of the resident while inside the building. Per- 
sonal care might include daily awareness by the management 
of the resident's functioning and whereabouts, making and 
reminding a resident of appointments, the ability and readi- 
ness for intervention in the event of a resident experiencing a 
crisis, supervision in the areas of nutrition and medication, 
and actual provision of transient medical care. (107.-A.3.3.145) 

A-2-1. 134.2 Taxicab and Bus Repair Garages. Motor freight 
terminals are covered in NFPA 513, Standard for Motor Freight 
7>mmfflk(88B:A-l-3) 

A-2-1. 135 Residential Board and Care Occupancy. The fol- 
lowing are examples of facilities that are classified as resi- 
dential board and care occupancies: 

(1) A group housing arrangement for physically or mentally 
handicapped persons who normally attend school in the 
community, attend worship in the community, or other- 
wise use community facilities 

(2) A group housing arrangement for physically or mentally 
handicapped persons who are undergoing training in 
preparation for independent living, for paid employ- 
ment, or for other normal community activities 

(3) A group housing arrangement for the elderly that pro- 
vides personal care services but that does not provide 
nursing care 

(4) Facilities for social rehabilitation, alcoholism, drug 
abuse, or mental health problems that contain a group 
housing arrangement and that provide personal care ser- 
vices but do not provide acute care 

(5) Assisted living facilities 

(6) Other group housing arrangements that provide personal 
care services but not nursing care (/0/:A.3.3.134.13) 

A-2-1. 143 Smoke Barrier. A smoke barrier might be vertically- 
or horizontally-aligned, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assem- 
bly. A smoke barrier might or might not have a fire resistance 
rating. (/0/.-A.3.3.2O) 

A-2-1. 144 Smoke Compartment. In the provision of smoke 
compartments using the outside walls or the roof of a building, 
it is not intended that outside walls or roofs or any openings 
therein be capable of resisting the passage of smoke. 
(/0/:A.3.3.183) 

A-2-1. 149 Spray Area. For the purpose of NFPA 33, Standard 
for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials, the 
authority having jurisdiction can define the limits of the spray 
area in any specific case. The spray area in the vicinity of spray 



application operations will necessarily vary with the design and 
arrangement of the equipment and with the method of oper- 
ation. When spray application operations are stricdy confined 
to predetermined spaces that are provided with adequate and 
reliable ventilation (such as a properly designed and con- 
structed spray booth) , the spray area will ordinarily not extend 
beyond this space. When spray application operations are not 
confined to an adequately ventilated space, then the spray 
area might extend throughout the room or building area 
where the spraying is conducted. (33:A-l-6) 

A-2-1. 154 Storage Occupancy. Storage occupancies include 
the following: 

(1) Barns 

(2) Bulk oil storage 

(3) Cold storage 

(4) Freight terminals 

(5) Grain elevators 

(6) Hangars (for storage only) 

(7) Parking structures 

(8) Stables 

(9) Truck and marine terminals 

(10) Warehouses 

Storage occupancies are characterized by the presence of 
relatively small numbers of persons in proportion to the area. 
(70i:A.3.3.134.14) 

A-2-1. 158 Street Floor. Where, due to differences in street 
levels, there are two or more stories accessible from the street, 
each is a street floor. Where there is no floor level within the 
specified limits for a street floor above or below ground level, 
the building has no street floor. (101A.3.3.196) 

A-2-1. 159 Structure. The term structure is to be understood 
as if followed by the words or portion thereof. (See also Building 
A-2-1. 18.) (/02A.3.3.197) 

A-3-1.4.2 Premises are deemed to be overcrowded when the 
occupant load exceeds the exit capacity or the posted occu- 
pant load. 

A-3-2 The purpose of emergency egress and relocation drills 
is to educate the participants in the fire safety features of the 
building, the egress facilities available, and the procedures to 
be followed. Speed in emptying buildings or relocating occu- 
pants, while desirable, is not the only objective. Prior to an 
evaluation of the performance of an emergency egress and 
relocation drill, an opportunity for instruction and practice 
should be provided. This educational opportunity should be 
presented in a nonthreatening manner, with consideration to 
the prior knowledge, age, and ability of audience. 

The usefulness of an emergency egress and relocation drill 
and the extent to which it can be performed depends on the 
character of the occupancy. 

In buildings where the occupant load is of a changing char- 
acter, such as hotels or department stores, no regularly orga- 
nized emergency egress and relocation drill is possible. In 
such cases, the emergency egress and relocation drills are to 
be limited to the regular employees, who can, however, be 
thoroughly schooled in the proper procedure and can be 
trained to properly direct other occupants of the building in 
case of emergency evacuation or relocation. In occupancies 
such as hospitals, regular employees can be rehearsed in the 
proper procedure in case of fire; such training always is advis- 
able in all occupancies whether or not regular emergency 
egress and relocation drills can be held. (i0i:A.4.7) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-3-2.2 If an emergency egress and relocation drill is consid- 
ered merely as a routine exercise from which some persons 
are allowed to be excused, there is a grave danger that, in an 
actual emergency, the evacuation and relocation will not be 
successful. However, there might be circumstances under 
which all occupants do not participate in an emergency egress 
and relocation drill; for example, infirm or bedridden 
patients in a health care occupancy. (10i.A.4.7.2) 

A-3-2.5 Fire is always unexpected. If the drill is always held in 
the same way at the same time, it loses much of its value. 
When, for some reason during an actual fire, it is not possible 
to follow the usual routine of the emergency egress and relo- 
cation drill to which occupants have become accustomed, con- 
fusion and panic might ensue. Drills should be carefully 
planned to simulate actual fire conditions. Not only should 
drills be held at varying times, but different means of exit or 
relocation areas should be used, based on an assumption that 
fire or smoke might prevent the use of normal egress and relo- 
cation avenues. (/07.A.4.7.5) 

A-3-5.5 Fire lanes should be kept clear of obstructions such as 
parked vehicles, fences and other barriers, dumpsters, excess 
vegetation, and so forth. However, it should be understood that 
a severe snowstorm can make these lanes temporarily inaccessi- 
ble. In many parts of the country the annual snowfall is of such 
magnitude that alternative arrangements such as temporary 
roads over the snow accumulation can be necessary. 

A-3-7.3 Figure A-3-7.3 shows an example of a stairway marking 
sign. 

FIGURE A-3-7.3 Example of a stairway marking sign. 

NORTH STAIR 

FL©©^ 




SUB-BASEMENT TO 24TH FLOOR 

NO ROOF ACCESS 

DOWN TO FIRST FLOOR 

FOR EXIT DISCHARGE 



I 



A-4-1 .2 This provision prohibits the use of exit enclosures for 
storage or for installation of equipment not necessary for 
safety. Occupancy is prohibited other than for egress, refuge, 
and access. The intent is that the exit enclosure essentially be 
"sterile" with respect to fire safety hazards. (/02.A.7. 1.3.2.3) 

A-4-1. 3 An example of a use with the potential to interfere 
with egress is storage. (202:A.7.2.2.5.3) 



A-4-1.6 Table A-4-1. 6 gives a compilation of the interior finish 
requirements of the occupancy chapters of NFPA 101. (See 
pg. 1-149.) 

A-4-1. 8.1 Where doors are subject to two-way traffic, or where 
their opening can interfere with pedestrian traffic, an appropri- 
ately located vision panel can reduce the chance of accidents. 

Swinging doors in horizontal or vertical rolling partitions 
complying with the following should be permitted in a means 
of egress where the following criteria are met: 



(1) 
(2) 



(3) 



The door or doors comply with 4-1.8. 
The partition in which the doors are mounted complies 
with the applicable fire protection rating and closes upon 
smoke detection or power failure at a speed not exceed- 
ing 9 in. /s (23cm/s) and not less than 6 in. /s (15 cm/s). 
The doors mounted in the partition are self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing in accordance with 4-1 . 1 1 . (1 0/.A.7.2. 1 .4. 1 ) 



A-4-1.8.4 The requirement of 4-1 .8.4 is not intended to apply 
to the swing of cross-corridor doors such as smoke barrier 
doors and horizontal exits. (i0/;A.7.2.1.4.4) 

A-4-1.9.2 It is intended that the re-entry provisions apply only 
to enclosed exit stairs, not to outside stairs. This arrangement 
makes it possible to leave the stairway at such floor if the fire 
renders the lower part of the stair unusable during egress or if 
the occupants seek refuge on another floor. (/0/A.7.2.1.5.2) 

A-4-1 .9.4 Examples of devices that might be arranged to 
release latches include knobs, levers, and panic bars. This 
requirement is permitted to be satisfied by the use of conven- 
tional types of hardware, whereby the door is released by turn- 
ing a lever, knob, or handle or by pushing against a panic bar, 
but not by unfamiliar methods of operation such as a blow to 
break glass. The operating devices should be capable of being 
operated with one hand and should not require tight grasp- 
ing, tight pinching, or twisting of the wrist to operate. 
(202.A.7.2.1.5.4) 

A-4-1 .9.6 Examples of devices prohibited by this requirement 
include locks, padlocks, hasps, bars, chains, or combinations 
thereof. (i0/:A.7.2. 1.5.6) 

A-4-1. 10.1(d) In the event that the authority having jurisdic- 
tion has permitted increased operation time, the sign should 
reflect the appropriate time. [J0I.A.7. 2.1.6.1(d)] 

A-4-2.1 Exception No. 1. This exception provides for mini- 
mum widths for small spaces such as individual offices. The 
intent is that this exception applies to spaces formed by furni- 
ture and movable walls so that accommodations can easily be 
made for mobility-impaired individuals. One side of a path 
could be a fixed wall, provided that the other side is movable. 
This does not exempt the door widths or widths of fixed-wall 
corridors, regardless of the number of people or length. 

Figure A-4-2.1 presents selected anthropometric data for 
adults. The male and female figures depicted in the figure are 
average, 50th percentile, in size. Some dimensions apply to 
very large, 97.5 percentile, adults (noted as 97.5 P). 
(101A.7.3A.1 Exception No. 1) (See pg. 1-150.) 

A4-4.2 Table A-4-4.2 is a compilation of the requirements of 
the individual occupancy chapters of NFPA 101 (Chapters 12 
through 42) for permissible length of common path of travel, 
dead-end corridors, and travel distance to at least one of the 
required exits. 



2000 Edition 





APPENDIX A 






1-149 


Table A-4-1.G Interior Finish Limitations 


Occupancy 


Exits 


Access to Exits 


Other Spaces 





Assembly — New 
Class A or B 
Class C 

Assembly — Existing 
Class A or B 
Class C 
Educational — New 

Educational — Existing 
Day-care centers — New 

Day-care centers — Existing 

Group day-care homes — New 

Group day-care homes — Existing 

Family day-care homes 

Health care — New automatic sprinklers mandatory 



Health care — Existing 
Detention and correctional — New 

Detention and correctional — Existing 

Residential, hotels, and dormitories — New 

Residential, hotels, and dormitories — Existing 

Residential, apartment buildings — New 

Residential, apartment buildings — Existing 

Residential, 1-and 2-family, lodging or rooming houses 

Residential, board and care — 

See Chapters 22 and 23 of NFPA 101 

Mercantile — New 

Mercantile — Existing Class A or B 

Mercantile — Existing Class C 
Office — New 

Office — Existing 
Industrial 
Storage 



A 


AorB 


AorB 


A 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A 


AorB 


AorB 


A 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A 


AorB 


AorB 
C on low partitionst 


A 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A 


A 


AorB 


I or II 


I or II 


N.R. 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


A, B or C 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 




C on lower portion 
of corridor wallt 


C in small individual roomst 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


At 


At 


A, B, or C 


I 


I 




AorB 


AorBt 


A, B, or C 


I or II 


I or II 




A 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


I or 11+ 


I or lit 




AorB 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


I or lit 


I or lit 




A 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


I or lit 


I or lit 




AorB 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


I or II 


1 or II 




A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


AorB 


Ceilings — A or B 
Existing on walls — A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


I or II 


I or II 




AorB 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 


AorB 


A, B, or C 


A, B, or C 



tSee Chapters in NFPA 101 for details. 
Notes: 

1. Class A interior wall and ceiling finish — flame spread 0-25, (new) smoke developed 0—450. 

2. Class B interior wall and ceiling finish — flame spread 26-75, (new) smoke developed 0-450. 

3. Class C interior wall and ceiling finish — flame spread 76-200, (new) smoke developed 0-450. 

4. Class I interior floor finish — critical radiant flux, minimum 0.45 watts per cm 2 . 

5. Class II interior floor Finish — critical radiant flux, minimum 0.22 watts per cm 2 . 

6. Automatic sprinklers — Where a complete standard system of automatic sprinklers is installed, interior wall and ceiling finish with flame spread 
rating not over Class C can be used in any location where Class Bis required and with rating of Class B in any location where Class A is required; 
similarly, Class II interior floor finish can be used in any location where Class I is required and no critical radiant flux rating is required where- 
Class II is required. This does not apply to new health care facilities. 

7. Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements for heavy timber construction are permitted. 



2000 Edition 



1-150 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE A-4-2.1 Anthropometric data for adults; male and female figures of average, 50th percentile, size, some dimensions 
apply to very large, 97.5 percentile (97.5 P), adults. (70/ .-Figure A.7.3.4.1) 



70 - 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



Chair back 
heights 



] 



Table 
heights 



Seatlng 22 in. (97.5 P) 



height with sway 




20 in. (97.5 P) 



static 



20in.-30in 
with sway 



14 in. 
pregnant 

12 
pregnant 

18 in. (97.5 P) female 



static 
15 in. (97.5 P) male 



static 




- 70 



17 in. 
rotund 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



For SI units, 1 in. = 2.54 cm. 



A dead end exists where an occupant enters a corridor 
thinking there is an exit at the end and, finding none, is forced 
to retrace the path traveled to reach a choice of egress travel 
paths. Although relatively short dead ends are permitted by 
NFPA 101, it is better practice to eliminate them wherever pos- 
sible, as they increase the danger of persons being trapped in 
case of fire. Compliance with the dead-end limits does not nec- 
essarily mean that the requirements for remoteness of exits 
have been met. Such lack of compliance is particularly true in 
small buildings or buildings with short public hallways. Ade- 
quate remoteness can be obtained in such cases by further 



reducing the 
(20/.A.7.6.1) 



length of dead ends. (See also A-4-4.4.) 



A-4-4.4 The terms dead end and common path of travel are com- 
monly used interchangeably. While the concepts of each are 
similar in practice, they are two different concepts. 

A common path of travel exists where a space is arranged 
so that occupants within that space are able to travel in only 
one direction to reach any of the exits or to reach the point at 
which the occupants have the choice of two paths of travel to 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-151 



remote exits. Part (a) of Figure A-4-4.4 is an example of a com- 
mon path of travel. 

While a dead end is similar to a common path of travel, a 
dead end can exist where there is no path of travel from an 
occupied space but can also exist where an occupant enters a 
corridor thinking there is an exit at the end and, finding none, 
is forced to retrace his or her path to reach a choice of exits. 
Part (b) of Figure A-4r4A is an example of such a dead-end 
arrangement. 

Combining the two concepts, part (c) of Figure A-4-4.4 is 
an example of a combined dead-end/common path of travel 
problem. 

Common paths of travel and dead-end travel are measured 
using the same principles used to measure travel distance as 



described in Section 7.6 of NFPA 101. Starting in the room 
shown in part (d) of Figure A-4-4.4, measurement is made 
from the most remote point in the room, A, along the natural 
path of travel, and through the doorway along the centerline 
of the corridor to point C, located at the centerline of the cor- 
ridor, which then provides the choice of two different paths to 
remote exits; this is common path of travel. The space 
between point B and point C is a dead end. (See 2-1.40 for the 
definition of common path of travel.) (101:A.7.5.1.6) 

A-4-6.1 Illumination provided outside the building should be 
to either a public way or a distance away from the building that 
is considered safe, whichever is closest to the building being 
evacuated. (/0/:A.7.8.1.1) 



Table A-4-4.2 Common Path, Dead-End, and Travel Distance Limits (By Occupancy) 





Common Path Limit 


Dead-End Limit 


Travel Distance Limit 




Unsprinklered 


Sprinklered 


Unsprinklered Sprinklered 


Unsprinklered Sprinklered 


Type of Occupancy 


ft(m) 


ft(m) 


ft(m) 


ft(m) 


ft(m) 


ft(m) 


Assembly 














New 


20/75 a * 
(6.1/23) 


20/75 a * 
(6.1/23) 


20 b (6.1) 


20 b (6.1) 


150 c (45) 


200 c (60) 


Existing 


20/75 a ' b 
(6.1/23) 


20/75 a > b 
(6.1/23) 


20 b (6.1) 


20 b (6.1) 


150 c (45) 


200 c (60) 


Educational 














New 


75 (23) 


75 (23) 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


150 (45) 


200 (60) 


Existing 


75 (23) 


75 (23) 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


150 (45) 


200 (60) 


New day-care center 


N.RA<= 


N.R> e 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Existing day-care center 


N.RA e 


N.R. d > e 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Health Care 














New 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


30 (9.1) 


30 (9.1) 


N.A.8 


200 f (60) 


Existing 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


New ambulatory care 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


30 (9.1) 


30 (9.1) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Existing ambulatory care 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Detention and Correctional 














New use conditions 














ii, in, rv 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


V 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


20 (6.1) 


20 (6.1) 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Existing use conditions 














II, III, rv, V 


50 b (15) 


100 h (30) 


N.R. 


N.R. 


150 f (45) 


200 f (60) 


Residential 














Hotels and dormitories 














New 


35' (10.7) 


50' (15) 


35 (10.7) 


50 (15) 


175 f J (53) 


325 f 'J (99) 


Existing 


35' (10.7) 


50' (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


175 f 'J (53) 


325 f o (99) 


Apartments 














New 


35' (10.7) 


50' (15) 


35 (10.7) 


50 (15) 


l75 f 'J (53) 


325 f -J (99) 


Existing 


35' (10.7) 


50' (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


l75 f J (53) 


325* J (99) 


Board and care 














Small, new and existing 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


Large, new 


35 k (10) 


35 k (10) 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


175 f o (53) 


325 f 'J (99) 


Large, existing 


35 (10) 


35 (10) 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


l75 f 'J (53) 


325* 'J (99) 


Lodging and rooming houses 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R d 


One- and two-family dwellings 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 



(Sheet 1 of 2) 



2000 Edition 



1-152 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table A-4-4.2 Common Path, Dead-End, and Travel Distance Limits (By Occupancy) (Continued) 



Type of Occupancy 



Common Path Limit 
Unsprinklered Sprinklered 



Dead-End Limit 



Travel Distance Limit 



ft(m) 



ft(m) 



Unsprinklered Sprinklered Unsprinklered Sprinklered 
ft(m) ft(m) ft(m) ft (m) 



Mercantile 

Class A, B, C 

New 

Existing 

Open air 

Covered mall 

New 

Existing 



75 (23) 


100 (30) 


20 (6.1) 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


200 (60) 


75 (23) 


100 (30) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


150 (45) 


200 (60) 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


0(0) 


0(0) 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


75 (23) 


100 (30) 


20 (6.1) 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


400 1 (120) 


75 (23) 


100 (30) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


150 (45) 


400 1 (120) 



Business 














New 


75 m (23) 


100 m (30) 


20 (6.1) 


50 (15) 


200 (60) 


300 (91) 


Existing 


75 m (23) 


100 m (30) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


200 (60) 


300 (91) 


Industrial 














General 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


200" (60) 


250" (75) 


Special purpose 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


300P (91) 


400P (122) 



High hazard 

Aircraft servicing hangars, 
ground floor 

Aircraft servicing hangars 
mezzanine floor 



0(0) 
50P (15) 
50P (15) 



0(0) 

50P (15) 
50P (15) 



0(0) 
50P (15) 
50P (15) 



0(0) 

50P (15) 
50P (15) 



75 (23) 
Note o 
75 (23) 



75 (23) 
Note o 
75 (23) 



Storage 














Low hazard 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


N.R. d 


Ordinary hazard 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


50 (15) 


100 (30) 


200 (60) 


400 (122) 


High hazard 


0(0) 


0(0) 


0(0) 


0(0) 


75 (23) 


75 (23) 


Parking garages, open 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


200 (60) 


300 (91) 


Parking garages, enclosed 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


50 (15) 


150 (45) 


200 (60) 


Aircraft storage hangars, ground floor 


50P (15) 


100P (30) 


50P (15) 


50P (15) 


Noteo 


Noteo 


Aircraft servicing hangars, 
mezzanine floor 


50P (15) 


75P (23) 


50P (15) 


50p (15) 


75 (23) 


75 (23) 


Underground spaces 
in grain elevators 


50P (15) 


50P (15) 


N.R. d 'P 


N.R. d 'P 


200 (60) 


400 (122) 



(Sheet 2 of 2) 

a 20 ft (6.1 m) for common path serving > 50 persons; 75 ft (23 m) for common path serving < 50 persons. 

b See Chapters 12 and 13 of NFPA 101 for special considerations for aisle accessways, aisles, and mezzanines. 

c See Chapters 12 and 13 of NFPA 101 for special considerations for smoke-protected assembly seating in arenas and stadia. 

d No requirement. 

e See Sections 14-7 and 15-7 of NFPA 101 for requirement for second exit access based on room capacity or area. 

f This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance 

within the room, and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter. 

SNot applicable. 

h See Chapter 23 of NFPA 101 for special considerations for existing common paths. 

'This dimension is from the room/corridor or suite/corridor exit access door to the exit; thus it applies to corridor common path. 

•ISee appropriate occupancy chapter for special travel distance considerations for exterior ways of exit access. 

k See Section 32-3 of NFPA 101 for requirement for second exit access based on room area. 

'See Sections 36-4 and 37-4 of NFPA 101 for special travel distance considerations in covered malls considered pedestrian ways. 

m See Chapters 38 and 39 of NFPA 101 for special common path considerations for single tenant spaces. 

"See Chapter 40 of NFPA 101 for industrial occupancy special travel distance considerations. 

°See Chapters 40 and 42 of NFPA 101 for special requirements on spacing of door in aircraft hangars. 

PSee Chapters 40 and 42 of NFPA 101 for special requirements if high hazard. 

(/0/:TableA.7.6.1) 



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1-153 



FIGURE A-4-4.4 Common paths of travel and dead-end 
corridors. (101: Figure A.7.5. 1.6) 




rw\ 



Exit x_ 



=n!] 



Mi 






ExitA 



(b) 






h=j 




UjU \U 



T\ 



uy 



Exit 



(c) 



L=rw\ 



^Exit 



KJ 



uy 



\s 



000* 



!r\ 



uy 



Exit 



(d) 



A-4-7 Emergency lighting provided outside the building 
should be to either a public way or a distance away from the 
building that is considered safe, whichever is closest to the 
building being evacuated. (i0i.A.7-9.1.1) 

Table A-4-7 provides a summary of emergency lighting 
requirements from NFPA 101. 

A-4-8.1 Where a main entrance serves also as an exit, it will 
usually be sufficiently obvious to occupants so that no exit sign 
is needed. 

The character of the occupancy has a practical effect on 
the need for signs. In any assembly occupancy, hotel, depart- 
ment store, or other building subject to transient occupancy, 
the need for signs will be greater than in a building subject to 
permanent or semipermanent occupancy by the same people, 
such as an apartment house where the residents are presumed 
to be familiar with exit facilities by reason of regular use 
thereof. Even in a permanent residence-type building, how- 



ever, there is need for signs to identify exit facilities such as 
outside stairs that are not subject to regular use during the 
normal occupancy of the building. 

There are many types of situations where the actual need 
for signs is debatable. In cases of doubt, however, it is desirable 
to be on the safe side by providing signs, particularly as posting 
signs does not ordinarily involve any material expense or 
inconvenience. 

The requirement for the locations of exit signs visible from 
any direction of exit access is illustrated in Figure A-4-8.1. (see 
pg. 1-155) (20/.A.7.1O.1.2) 

A-4-8.3 In stores, for example, an otherwise adequate exit sign 
could be rendered inconspicuous by a high-intensity illumi- 
nated advertising sign located in the immediate vicinity. 

Red is the traditional color for exit signs and is required by 
law in many places. However, at an early stage in the develop- 
ment of NFPA 101, a provision made green the color for exit 
signs, following the concept of traffic lights in which green 
indicates safety and red is the signal to stop. During the period 
when green signs were specified by NFPA 101, many such signs 
were installed, but the traditional red signs also remained. In 
1949, the Fire Marshals Association of North America voted to 
request that red be restored as the required exit sign color, as 
it was found that the provision for green involved difficulties 
in law enactment that were out of proportion to the impor- 
tance of safety. Accordingly, the 10th edition of NFPA 101 
specified red where not otherwise required by law. The 
present text avoids any specific requirement for color on the 
assumption that either red or green will be used in most cases 
and that there are some situations in which a color other than 
red or green could actually provide better visibility. 
(/0I.A.7.1O.1.7) 

A-4-8.4.1 Experience has shown that the word EXIT or other 
appropriate wording is plainly legible at 100 ft (30 m) if the let- 
ters are as large as specified in 4-8.4.1. (202.A.7. 10.6.1) 

A-4-8.5 Illumination methods are defined as follows: 

Electroluminescent. This light source is typically contained in- 
side the device. (20/.A.3.3.5O) 

Externally Illuminated. The light source is typically a dedicat- 
ed incandescent or fluorescent source. (10/.A.3.3.1O6) 

Internally Illuminated. The light source is typically incandes- 
cent, fluorescent, electroluminescent, photo-luminescent, 
light-emitting diodes, or self-luminous. (/0/.A.3.3.1O7) 

Self-Luminous. An example of a self-contained power source 
is tritium gas. Batteries do not qualify as a self-contained 
power source. The light source is typically contained inside 
the device. (702.A.3.3.175) 

A-4-8.5. 1 Some processes, such as manufacturing or handling 
of photosensitive materials, cannot be performed in areas pro- 
vided with the minimum specified lighting levels. The use of 
spaces with lighting levels below 1 ft-candle (10 lux) might 
necessitate additional safety measures, such as written emer- 
gency plans, training of new employees in emergency evacua- 
tion procedures, and periodic fire drills. ( 202 :A 7.8. 1.3 
Exception No. 2) 

A-4-8.5.2 It is the intent to prohibit a freely accessible light 
switch to control the illumination of either an internally or 
externally illuminated exit sign. (202;A.7.1O.5.2) 



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Table A-4-7 Summary of Emergency Lighting Requirements 


Occupancy 

Assembly — new (8-2.9*) 


Emergency lighting 

All 


Exceptions 

Private party tents <1200 ft 2 


Assembly — existing (9-2.9*) 


All 


Private party tents <1200 ft 2 

Class C used exclusively for religious worship 


Educational (10-2.9*, 11-2.9*) 


Interior stairs and corridors, normally occu- 
pied spaces, flexible and open plan, interior 
or windowless portions, shops, and labs 


Exempted from normally occupied spaces are 
administrative areas, general classrooms, mechan- 
ical rooms, and storage rooms 


Day-care occupancies 
(30-2.9*, 31-2.9*) 


All 


None 


Health care — new (12-2.9*) 


All — Life Safety Branch per NFPA 99 


None 


Health care — existing 
(13-2.9*) 


All 


None 


Ambulatory health care cen- 
ters (12-6.2.9*, 13-6.2.9*) 


All — essential electrical per NFPA 99 


Essential electrical not required if (a) battery 
equipment acceptable to the authority having 
jurisdiction or (b) life support equipment is for 
emergency purposes only 


Detention and correctional 
(14-2.9*, 15-2.9*) 


All 


Existing permitted to have 1-hr duration 


Hotels and dormitories 
(16-2.9*, 17-2.9*) 


> 25 rooms 


All rooms direct to grade 


Apartment buildings 
(18-2.9*, 19-2.9*) 


> 12 units or > 3 stories 


All apartments direct to grade 


Large board and care 
(22-3.2.9*, 23-3.2.9*) 


> 25 rooms 


All rooms direct to grade 


Mercantile (24-2.9*, 25-2.9*) 


All Class A and B All malls 


None 


Business — new (26-2.9*) 


2 stories above LED, or 

>50 people above or below LED, or 

>300 people total 


None 


Business — existing (27-2.9*) 


2 stories above LED, or 

>100 people above or below LED, or 

>1000 people total 


None 


Industrial (28-2.9*) 


All 


Special purpose without routine occupancy, or 
daylight operations with windows 


Storage (29-2.9*, 29-8.2.9*) 


All 


Not normally occupied or daylight operation with 
windows 


Windowless or underground 
(32-7.3.2*) 


All 


One-and two-family dwellings 



'Reference to paragraph in NFPA 101. 



A-4-8.5.2 Exception. The flashing repetition rate should be 
approximately one cycle per second, and the duration of the 
off-time should not exceed V 4 second per cycle. During on- 
time, the illumination levels need to be provided in accor- 
dance with 7.10.6.3 of NFPA 101. Flashing signs, when acti- 
vated with the fire alarm system, might be of assistance. 
(10/;A.7.1O.5.2 Exception) 

A-4-8.5.4 Photoluminescent signs need a specific minimum 
level of light on the face of the sign to ensure that the sign is 
charged for emergency operation and legibility in both the 
normal and emergency modes. Additionally, the type of light 
source (for example, incandescent, fluorescent, halogen, 
metal halide) is important. Each light source produces differ- 
ent types of visible and invisible light (for example, UV) that 
might affect the ability of some photoluminescent signs to 
charge and might also affect the amount of light output avail- 
able during emergency mode. This type of sign would not be 



suitable where the illumination levels are permitted to 
decline. The charging light source should not be connected to 
automatic timers, because the continuous illumination of the 
sign is needed; otherwise, the sign illumination would not be 
available because it would be discharged. (101:A.7. 10.7.2) 

A-4-8.6.1.1 A sign complying with 7.10.2 of NFPA 101 indicat- 
ing the direction of the nearest approved exit should be 
placed at the point of entrance to any escalator or moving 
walk. (See A.7. 10.3.) (101.-A.7. 10.2) 

A-4-8.6.1.2 Figure A-4-8.6.1.2 shows examples of acceptable 
locations of directional indicators with regard to left and right 
orientation. Directional indicators are permitted to be placed 
under the horizontal stroke of the letter T, provided that the 
spacing of not less than s / 8 in. (1 cm) is maintained from the 
horizontal and vertical strokes of the letter T (i0i:A.7.1O.6.2) 
(See pg. 1-155.) 



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APPENDIX A 



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FIGURE A-4-8. 1 Location of exit signs. 
(/0i:Figure A.7.10.1.2) 



Direction of exit access travel 
Flow of people 




Exit with sign 
over exit 



Exit 




Exit sign erected perpendicular 
to direction 



-*■ Direction of exit access travel ■*- 

S N 

Flow of people 



Direction of exit access travel - 



Exit signs 



Direction of exit access travel 
Flow of people 



Direction of exit access travel 




FIGURE A-4-8.6.1 .2 Directional indicators. (101: Figure 
A.7.10.6.2) 

EXIT> 
<EXIT 
<EXIT> 



A-4-8.6.2 The likelihood of occupants mistaking passageways 
or stairways that lead to dead-end spaces for exit doors and 
becoming trapped governs the need for exit signs. Thus, such 
areas should be marked with a sign that reads as follows: 

NO EXIT 

Supplementary identification indicating the character of 
the area, such as TO BASEMENT, STOREROOM, LINEN 
CLOSET, or the like, is permitted to be provided. (See A. 7.10.2 
ofNFPA 101.) (J02.A.7.1O.8.1) 

A-4-9.1 A proper means of egress allows unobstructed travel at 
all times. Any type of barrier including, but not limited to, the 
accumulations of snow and ice in those climates subject to 



such accumulations is an impediment to free movement in the 
means of egress. (107.A.7.1.1O.1) 

A-5-4.3 For requirements on the installation of incinerator 
doors, record room doors, and vault doors, see NFPA 82, Stan- 
dard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Handling Systems and 
Equipment, and NFPA 232, Standard for the Protection of Records. 
For requirements on the installation of hoistway doors for ele- 
vators and dumbwaiters, see the applicable sections of ASME/ 
ANSI A17.1 , Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, or CAN 3-B44, 
Safety Code for Elevators. 

A-5-7.2 Exception. An architectural, exposed, suspended- 
grid acoustical tile ceiling with penetrations for sprinklers, 
ducted HVAC supply and return air diffusers, speakers, and 
recessed light fixtures is capable of limiting the transfer of 
smoke. (J0LA.8.2.4.2) 

A-5-7.3 Gasketing of doors should not be necessary as the 
clearances in NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, 
effectively achieve resistance to the passage of smoke if the 
doors are relatively tight fitting. 

A-5-7.3.4 Gasketing of doors should not be necessary, as the 
clearances in NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, 
effectively achieve resistance to the passage of smoke if the 
door is relatively tight-fitting. (/01.A.8.2.4.3.4) 

A-5-7.4.3 An air transfer opening as defined in NFPA 90A, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, is 
an opening designed to allow the movement of environmental 
air between two contiguous spaces. (/02.A.8.2.4.4.3) 

A-6-8 NFPA 92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems, 
provides guidance in implementing systems using pressure 
differentials to accomplish one or more of the following: 

(1) Maintain a tenable environment in the means of egress 
during the time required for evacuation 

(2) Control and reduce the migration of smoke from the fire 
area 

(3) Provide conditions outside the fire zone that assist emer- 
gency response personnel to conduct search and rescue 
operations and to locate and control the fire 

(4) Contribute to the protection of life and reduction of 
property loss 

A-7-3.1.1 This Code contains requirements for automatic 
sprinkler protection that might not be required by other 
NFPA codes or standards. These requirements are included in 
this Code from a property protection standpoint in an effort 
to reduce property damage due to fire, as well as the costs of 
manual fire suppression in years to come. 

A-7-3.2.3 Exception No. 2. It is the intent to permit a single 
multipurpose room of less than 12,000 ft 2 (1100 m 2 ) to have 
certain small rooms as part of the single room. These rooms 
could be a kitchen, office, equipment room, and the like. It is 
also the intent that an addition could be made to an existing 
building without requiring that the existing building be sprin- 
klered, if both the new and existing buildings have indepen- 
dent means of egress and a fire-rated separation is provided to 
isolate one building from the other. 

A school gymnasium with egress independent of and sepa- 
rated from the school would be included in this exception as 
would a function hall attached to a church with a similar 
egress arrangement. (202:A.12.3.5 Ex.2) 



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A-7-3. 2. 7.1 In areas where the replenishment of water sup 
plies is not immediately available from on-site sources, alter- 
nate provisions for the water-fill rate requirements of NFPA 
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and NFPA 22, 
Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, that are 
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction should be pro- 
vided. Appropriate means for the replenishment of these sup- 
plies from other sources, such as fire department tankers, 
public safety organizations, or other independent contractors 
should be incorporated into the overall fire safety plan of the 
facility. 

With automatic sprinkler protection required throughout 
new health care facilities and quick-response sprinklers 
required in smoke compartments containing patient sleeping 
rooms, a fire and its life-threatening byproducts can be 
reduced, thereby allowing the defend-in-place concept to con- 
tinue. The difficulty in maintaining the proper integrity of life 
safety elements has been considered and it has been judged 
that the probability of a sprinkler system operating as 
designed is equal to or greater than other life safety features. 
(i0i:A.18.3.5.1) 

A-7-3. 2.7.2 The requirements for use of quick-response sprin- 
klers intend that quick-response sprinklers be the predomi- 
nant type of sprinkler installed in the smoke compartment. It 
is recognized, however, that quick-response sprinklers might 
not be approved for installation in all areas such as those 
where NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 
requires sprinklers of the intermediate- or high-temperature 
classification. It is not the intent of the 18.3.5.2 of NFPA 101 
requirements to prohibit the use of standard sprinklers in lim- 
ited areas of a smoke compartment where intermediate- or 
high-temperature sprinklers are required. 

Where the installation of quick-response sprinklers is 
impracticable in patient sleeping room areas, appropriate 
equivalent protection features acceptable to the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction should be provided. It is recognized that the 
use of quick-response sprinklers might be limited in facilities 
housing certain types of patients or by the installation limita- 
tions of quick-response sprinklers. (20/.A.18. 3.5.2) 

A-7-3. 2.7.3 For the proper operation of sprinkler systems, cubi- 
cle curtains and sprinkler locations need to be coordinated. 
Improperly designed systems might obstruct the sprinkler spray 
from reaching the fire or might shield the heat from the sprin- 
kler. Many options are available to the designer including, but 
not limited to, hanging the cubicle curtains 18 in. (46 cm) 
below the sprinkler deflector; using a 1 / 2 -in. (1.3-cm) diagonal 
mesh or a 70 percent open weave top panel that extends 18 in. 
(46 cm) below the sprinkler deflector; or designing the system 
to have a horizontal and minimum vertical distance that meets 
the requirements of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of 
Sprinkler Systems. The test data that forms the basis of the NFPA 
13 requirements is from fire tests with sprinkler discharge that 
penetrated a single privacy curtain. (20/.A.18.3.5.5) 

A-7-3.2.8.2 It is intended that any valve that controls auto- 
matic sprinklers in the entire building or portions of the build- 
ing, including sectional and floor control valves, be electrically 
supervised. Valves that control isolated sprinkler heads, such 
as in laundry and trash chutes, are not required to be electri- 
cally supervised. Appropriate means should be taken to ensure 
that valves that are not electrically supervised remain open. 
(702.A.19.3.5.2) 



A-7-3.2.8.3 The exceptions to 7-3.2.8.3 are not intended to 
supplant NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, which requires that residential sprinklers with more than 
a 10°F (5.6°C) difference in temperature rating not be mixed 
within a room. Currently there are no additional prohibitions 
in NFPA 13 on the mixing of sprinklers having different ther- 
mal response characteristics. Conversely, there are no design 
parameters to make practical the mixing of residential and 
other types of sprinklers. (202.A.19.3.5.3) 

A-7-3.2.8.5 For the proper operation of sprinkler systems, cubi- 
cle curtains and sprinkler locations need to be coordinated. 
Improperly designed systems might obstruct the sprinkler spray 
from reaching the fire or might shield the heat from the sprin- 
kler. Many options are available to the designer including, but 
not limited to, hanging the cubicle curtains 18 in. (46 cm) 
below the sprinkler deflector; using Vr m - (1-3-cm) diagonal 
mesh or a 70 percent open weave top panel that extends 18 in. 
(46 cm) below the sprinkler deflector; or designing the system 
to have a horizontal and minimum vertical distance that meets 
the requirements of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of 
Sprinkler Systems. The test data that forms the basis of the NFPA 
13 requirements is from fire tests with sprinkler discharge that 
penetrated a single privacy curtain. (20/.A.19.3.5.5) 

A-7-3.2.10.1 Where the openings in ceilings or partitions 
are l / i in. (0.6 cm) or larger in the smallest dimension, 
where the thickness or depth of the material does not 
exceed the smallest dimension of the openings, and where 
such openings constitute not less than 70 percent of the 
area of the ceiling or partition material, the disruption of 
sprinkler spray patterns is permitted to be disregarded. 
(70/.A.23.3.5.2) 

A-7-3.2.12.1 Although not required by NFPA 101, the use of 
residential sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers is encour- 
aged for new installations of sprinkler systems within dwelling 
units, apartments, and guest rooms. Caution should be exer- 
cised, as the system needs to be designed for the sprinkler 
being used. (20/;A.29.3.5.1) 

A-7-3.2.14.1 Although not required by NFPA 101, the use of 
residential sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers is encour- 
aged for new installations of sprinkler systems within dwelling 
units, apartments, and guest rooms. Caution should be exer- 
cised, as the system needs to be designed for the sprinkler 
being used. (/0/.A.31.3.5.1) 

A-7-3.2.14.6 Exception No. 2. This system might consist of a 
combination of any or all of the following systems: 

(1) Partial automatic sprinkler protection 

(2) Smoke detection alarms 

(3) Smoke control 

(4) Compartmentation or other approved systems, or both 
(202.A.31.3.5.6) 

A-7-3.2.15.1 The decision to permit the use of the criteria 
from NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, in 
these occupancies is based on the following: 

(1) The desire to obtain a level of fire suppression and con- 
trol that is approximately equivalent to that delivered by 
residential facilities protected by such systems (see the 
appendix statement in NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and 
Manufactured Homes) 



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1-157 



(2) The fact that potential fire exposure and challenge to the 
suppression system in a small lodging and rooming occu- 
pancy is of the same nature and no more severe than that 
found in residences (iW:A.26.3.5.1) 

A-7-3.2.16.1.1 It is intended that this requirement apply to 
existing small facilities that are converted to large facilities. 

Chapter 32 permits the use of NFPA 13D, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings 
and Manufactured Homes, and NFPA 13R, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and 
Including Four Stories in Height, outside of their scopes. This per- 
mission is based on a review of the occupancy and a recogni- 
tion that the fires in board and care facilities are similar to 
those of other residential occupancies and that the level of 
protection is appropriate. In some circumstances, such as 
those for impractical evacuation capabilities, the require- 
ments of NFPA 13D and NFPA 13R have been supplemented 
with requirements for additional water supplies to compen- 
sate for the special needs of the board and care occupancy. 
(/02.-A.32.3.3.5.1) 

A-7-3.2. 16.2.2 The decision to allow the use of the criteria 
from NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, in 
these occupancies is based on (1) the desire of the Safety to 
Life Committee to obtain a level of fire suppression and con- 
trol approximately the same as that delivered by residential 
facilities protected by such systems (see the appendix state- 
ment in NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes) , 
and (2) the fact that potential fire exposure and challenge to 
the suppression system in a small board and care facility are of 
the same nature and no more severe than that found in resi- 
dences. (iW:A.32.2.3.5.2) 

A-7-3.2.16.2.2 Exception No. 1. NFPA 13D, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings 
and Manufactured Homes, states the following provisions for a 
multipurpose piping system. 

A piping system serving both sprinkler and domestic needs 
shall be acceptable where: 

(a) In common water supply connections serving more 
than one dwelling unit, 5 gpm (19 L/min) is added to the 
sprinkler system demand to determine the size of common 
piping and the size of the total water supply requirements. 

(b) Smoke detectors are provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. 

(c) All piping in the system conforms to the piping speci- 
fications of NFPA 1 3D. 

(d) Permitted by the local plumbing or health authority. 
(ifli:A.32.2.3.5.2 Ex. 1) 

A-7-3.2.17.1.1 It is intended that this requirement apply to 
existing small facilities that are converted to large facilities. 

Chapter 33 permits the use of NFPA 13D, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings 
and Manufactured Homes, and NFPA 1 3R, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and 
Including For Stories in Height, outside of their scopes. This per- 
mission is based on a review of the occupancy and a recogni- 
tion that the fires in board and care facilities are similar to 
those of other residential occupancies and that the level of 
protection is appropriate. In some circumstances, such as 
those for impractical evacuation capabilities, the require- 
ments of NFPA 13D and NFPA 13R have been supplemented 



with requirements for additional water supplies to compen- 
sate for the special needs of the board and care occupancy. 
(10/.-A.33.3.3.5.1) 

A-7-3.2.17.2.1 The decision to permit the use of the criteria 
from NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 
in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, in 
these occupancies is based on the following: 

(1) The desire to obtain a level of fire suppression and con- 
trol approximately equivalent to that delivered by resi- 
dential facilities protected by such systems (see the 
appendix statement in NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and 
Manufactured Homes) 

(2) The fact that potential fire exposure and challenge to the 
suppression system in a small board and care facility are 
of the same nature and are no more severe than those 
found in residences. 

Chapter 33 permits the use of NFPA 13D and NFPA 13R, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occu- 
pancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, outside of their 
scopes. This permission is based on a review of the occupancy 
and a recognition that the fires in board and care facilities are 
similar to those of other residential occupancies and that the 
level of protection is appropriate. In some circumstances, such 
as those for impractical evacuation capabilities, the require- 
ments of NFPA 13D and NFPA 13R have been supplemented 
with requirements for additional water supplies to compen- 
sate for the special needs of the board and care occupancy. 
(1W.-A.33.2.3.5.2) 

A-7-3.2.21.2 The enabling legislation adopting this Code 
should specify a specific date for compliance with 7-3.2.21.2. 
Building owners and managers should be notified of this 
requirement within 180 days of code adoption. The following 
items should be considered by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion as guidance in evaluating compliance plans: 

(1) Shortage of qualified contractors to install sprinkler 
systems 

(2) Impact on owners and tenants as a result of existing con- 
ditions contained in lease agreements 

(3) Environmental constraints resulting from contaminated 
material being removed from limited areas of the build- 
ing during installation of sprinklers and attendant activity 

(4) Available time to install sprinklers in the occupied spaces 

(5) Financial constraints of owners being able to fund the 
cost of installing automatic sprinklers with associated 
costs 

(6) Ability of the owner to coordinate general building 
remodeling with the actual sprinkler retrofit process 

A-7-3.3.5 Testing of the waterflow alarm on wet pipe systems 
should be completed by opening the inspector's test connec- 
tion. This simulates activation of a sprinkler. Where freezing 
weather conditions or other circumstances prohibit using the 
inspector's test connection, the bypass test connection may be 
permitted to be used. (25:A-2-3.3) 

A-7-3.3.9 Corrosion-resistant or specially coated sprinklers 
should be installed in locations where chemicals, moisture, or 
other corrosive vapors exist. (25:A-2-4.1.8) 

A-7-3.3.11 Conversion of dry pipe systems to wet pipe systems 
causes corrosion and accumulation of foreign matter in the 
pipe system and loss of alarm service. (25:A-2-4.2) 



2000 Edition 



1-158 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-7-3.3.12 Where pressure-testing listed CPVC piping, the 
sprinkler systems should be filled with water and air should be 
bled from the highest and farthest sprinkler before test pres- 
sure is applied. Air or compressed gas should never be used 
for pressure-testing. (25:A-2-4.3) 

A-7-4.1.3 A fire pump that is inoperative for any reason at any 
time constitutes an impairment to the fire protection system. 
It should be returned to service without delay. 

Rain and intense heat of the sun are adverse conditions to 
equipment not installed in a completely protective enclosure. 
At a minimum, equipment installed outdoors should be 
shielded by a roof or deck. (20:A-2-7.1) 

A-7-4.1.4 The centrifugal pump is particularly suited to boost 
the pressure from a public or private supply or to pump from 
a storage tank where there is a positive static head. (20:A-3-l .2) 

A-7-4.1.6 Proper engine temperature when the engine is not 
running can be maintained through the circulation of hot 
water through the jacket or through heating of engine water 
by electric elements inserted into the block. As a general rule, 
water heaters and oil heaters are required for diesel engines 
below 70°F (21°C). The benefits to be gained are as follows: 

(1) Quick starting (fire pump engines may have to carry full 
load as soon as started) 

(2) Reduced engine wear 

(3) Reduced drain on batteries 

(4) Reduced oil dilution 

(5) Reduced carbon deposits, so that the engine is far more 
likely to start every time (20:A-8-6.5) 

A-7-4.1.8 Isolation valves and control valves are considered to 
be identical when used in conjunction with a backflow preven- 
tion assembly. (20:A-2-ll) 

A-7-4.2.6 Pump rooms and pump houses should be dry and 
free of condensate. To accomplish a dry environment, heat 
can be required. (20:A-2-7.6) 

A-7-4.3.1 If the controller must be located outside of the 
pump room, a glazed opening should be provided in the 
pump room wall for observation of the motor and pump dur- 
ing starting. The pressure-control pipeline should be pro- 
tected against freezing and mechanical injury. (20:A-9-2.1) 

A-7-4.3.3(3) The following trouble signals should be moni- 
tored remotely from the controller. 

(1) A common signal can be used for the following trouble 
indications: items in 9-4. 1.3 (a) through (e) of NFPA 20 
and loss of output of battery charger on the load side of 
the dc overcurrent protective device. 

(2) If there is no other way to supervise loss of power, the con- 
troller can be equipped with a power failure circuit, which 
should be time delayed to start the engine upon loss of cur- 
rent output of the battery charger. [20-A-9-4.2(3) ] 

A-7-4.4.2 In addition, representatives of the installing contrac- 
tor and owner should be present. (20:A-1 1-2.2) 

A-7-4.5.3.1 Care should be taken to prevent water damage by 
verifying there is adequate drainage for the high pressure 
water discharge from hoses. (25:A-5-3.3.1) 

A-7-4.5.3.1 Exception. Peak flow for a fire pump is 150 per- 
cent of the rated flow. Minimum flow for a pump is the churn 
pressure. (25:A-5-3.3.1) 



A-7-4.5.5.2 Where comparing the test plot with the original 
acceptance test plot, it should be recognized that the accep- 
tance test plot could exceed the minimum acceptable pump 
requirements as indicated by the rated characteristics for the 
pump. While a reduction in output is a matter of concern, this 
condition should be evaluated in light of meeting the rated 
characteristics for the pump. (See Figure A-5-3.5.2.) (25:A-5-3.5.2) 

A-7-4.7.2 See NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance ofWater-Based Fire Protection Systems, for proper mainte- 
nance of engine (s), batteries, fuel supply, and environmental con- 
ditions. (20:A-8-6.2) 

A-7-4.7.5 It is important to provide proper bearing lubrica- 
tion and to keep bearings clean. Some bearings are the sealed 
type and need no relubrication. Couplings with rubber drive 
parts do not need lubrication; other types generally do. The 
following practices are recommended: 

(a) Lubricant fittings should be cleaned before relubricat- 
ing with grease. 

(b) The proper amount of lubricant should be used. Too 
much lubricant results in churning, causing excessive power 
loss and overheating. 

(c) The correct lubricant should be used. 

Engine Maintenance. Engines should be kept clean, dry, and 
well lubricated. The proper oil level in the crankcase should 
be maintained. 

Battery Maintenance. Only distilled water should be used in 
battery cells. Plates should be kept submerged at all times. 

An automatic battery charger is not a substitute for proper 
maintenance of the battery and charger. Periodic inspection 
ensures that the charger is operating correctly, the water level 
in the battery is adequate, and the battery is holding its proper 
charge. 

Fuel Supply Maintenance. The fuel storage tank should be 
kept at least two-thirds full. Fuel should be maintained free of 
water and foreign material by draining water and foreign 
material from the tank sump annually. This necessitates drain- 
ing approximately 5 gal (19 L). 

Temperature Maintenance. The temperature of the pump 
room, pump house, or area where engines are installed should 
never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine 
manufacturer. The manufacturer's temperature recommenda- 
tions for water and oil heaters should be followed. (25:A-5-5.1 ) 

A-7-5.3 The installation of backflow prevention devices on ser- 
vices supplying water to existing fire protection systems can 
result in excessive pressure losses. Therefore, installation of 
backflow prevention devices to protect public health must be 
accomplished with due regard for the implications on fire pro- 
tection. The provisions of AWWA Manual 14, Backflow Preven- 
tion and Cross Connection Control, should be used as a guide for 
determining the appropriate protection for public health. 
Hydraulic calculations and water supply analysis should be 
conducted prior to installation to determine the impact on 
fire protection. 

A-7-6.1.9 Acceptable means of identifying the fire extin- 
guisher locations could include arrows, lights, signs, or coding 
of the wall or column. (10:A-l-6.6) 

A-7-6.1.10 In situations where it is necessary that fire extin- 
guishers be temporarily provided, a good practice is to provide 
portable stands, consisting of a horizontal bar on uprights with 
feet, on which the fire extinguishers can be hung. (10:A-1 -6.7) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-159 



A-7-6.1.16 Vented fire extinguisher cabinets should utilize 
tinted glass and should be constructed to prevent the entrance 
of insects and the accumulation of water. Vented fire extin- 
guisher cabinets constructed in this manner will lower the 
maximum internal temperature 10°F to 15°F (5.6°C to 8.3°C). 
(10:A-1-6.13) 

A-7-6.1.17 The following precautions should be noted where 
fire extinguishers are located in areas that have temperatures 
outside the range of 40°F to 120°F (4°C to 49°C). 

(a) AFFF and FFFP fire extinguishers cannot be protected 
against temperatures below 40°F (4°C) by adding an anti- 
freeze charge because it will tend to destroy the effectiveness 
of the extinguishing agent. 

(b) Plain water fire extinguishers should not be protected 
against temperatures below 40°F (4°C) with ethylene glycol 
antifreeze. Calcium chloride solutions should not be used in 
stainless steel fire extinguishers. 

(c) Fire extinguishers installed in machinery compart- 
ments, diesel locomotives, automotive equipment, marine 
engine compartments, and hot processing facilities can easily 
be subjected to temperatures above 120°F (49°C). Selection of 
fire extinguishers for hazard areas with temperatures above 
the listed limits should be made on the basis of recommenda- 
tions by manufacturers of this equipment. (10:A-1-6.14) 

A-7-6.1.18 The manual can be specific to the fire extinguisher 
involved or it can cover many types. (10:A-1-6.15) 

A-7-6.2.1 Conditions of Selection. 

(a) Physical Conditions that Affect Selection. 

(1) Gross Weight. In the selection of a fire extinguisher, the 
physical ability of the user should be contemplated. 
When the hazard exceeds the capability of a hand porta- 
ble fire extinguisher, wheeled fire extinguishers or fixed 
systems (see Section 1-1) should be considered. 

(2) Corrosion. In some fire extinguisher installations, there 
exists a possibility of exposing the fire extinguisher to a 
corrosive atmosphere. Where this is the case, consider- 
ation should be given to providing the fire extinguishers 
so exposed with proper protection or providing fire 
extinguishers that have been found suitable for use in 
these conditions. 

(3) Agent Reaction. The possibility of adverse reactions, con- 
tamination, or other effects of an extinguishing agent on 
either manufacturing processes or on equipment, or 
both, should be considered in the selection of a fire 
extinguisher. 

(4) Wheeled Units. Where wheeled fire extinguishers are used, 
consideration should be given to the mobility of the fire 
extinguisher within the area in which it will be used. For 
outdoor locations, the use of proper rubber-tired or wide- 
rimmed wheel designs should be considered according 
to terrain. For indoor locations, the size of doorways and 
passages should be large enough to permit ready passage 
of the fire extinguisher. 

(5) Wind and Draft. If the hazard is subject to winds or draft, 
the use of fire extinguishers and agents having sufficient 
range to overcome these conditions should be considered. 



(6) Availability of Personnel. Consideration should be given to 
the number of persons available to operate the fire extin- 
guishers, the degree of training provided, and the physi- 
cal capability of the operators. 

(b) Health and Safety Conditions that Affect Selection. 
When a fire extinguisher is being selected, consideration 
should be given to the health and safety hazards involved in its 
maintenance and use, as described in items (1) through (8). 

(1) For confined spaces, prominent caution labels on the fire 
extinguisher, warning signs at entry points, provision for 
remote application, extra-long-range fire extinguisher 
nozzles, special ventilation, provision of breathing appa- 
ratus and other personal protective equipment, and ade- 
quate training of personnel are among the measures that 
should be considered. 

(2) Halogenated agent-type fire extinguishers contain 
agents whose vapor has a low toxicity. However, their 
decomposition products can be hazardous. When using 
these fire extinguishers in unventilated places, such as 
small rooms, closets, motor vehicles, or other confined 
spaces, operators and others should avoid breathing the 
gases produced by thermal decomposition of the agent. 

(3) Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers contain an extinguish- 
ing agent that will not support life when used in sufficient 
concentration to extinguish a fire. The use of this type of 
fire extinguisher in an unventilated space can dilute the 
oxygen supply. Prolonged occupancy of such spaces can 
result in loss of consciousness due to oxygen deficiency. 

(4) Fire extinguishers not rated for Class C hazards (e.g., 
water, antifreeze, soda acid, loaded stream, AFFF, FFFP, 
wetting agent, foam, and carbon dioxide with metal 
horns) present a shock hazard if used on fires involving 
energized electrical equipment. 

(5) Dry chemical fire extinguishers, when used in a small 
unventilated area, can reduce visibility for a period of up 
to several minutes. Dry chemical, discharged in an area, 
can also clog filters in air-cleaning systems. 

(6) A dry chemical fire extinguisher containing ammonium 
compounds should not be used on oxidizers that contain 
chlorine. The reaction between the oxidizer and the 
ammonium salts can produce an explosive compound 

(NCL 3 ). 

(7) Halon extinguishers should not be used on fires involv- 
ing oxidizers, since they can react with the oxidizer. 

(8) Most fires produce toxic decomposition products of com- 
bustion, and some materials, upon burning, can produce 
highly toxic gases. Fires can also consume available oxygen 
or produce dangerously high exposure to convected or 
radiated heat. All of these can affect the degree to which a 
fire can be safely approached with fire extinguishers. (See 
Bulletin of Research No. 53, "Survey of Available Information on 
the Toxicity of Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products 
of Certain Building Materials Under Fire Conditions. ") 

Table A-7-6.2.1 summarizes the characteristics of fire extin- 
guishers and can be used as an aid in selecting fire extinguishers 
in accordance with Chapter 2 of NFPA 10. The ratings given are 
those that were in effect at the time that NFPA 10, Standard for 
Portable Fire Extinguishers, was prepared. Current listings should 
be consulted for up-to-date ratings. (10:A-2-l) 



2000 Edition 



1-160 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table A-7-6.2.1 Characteristics of Extinguishers 












Protection 










Horizontal 


Approximate 


Required below 


ULor 


Extinguishing 


Method of 




Range of 


Time of 


40°F (4°C) 


ULC 


Agent 


Operation 


Capacity 


Stream 


Discharge 




Classifications* 


Water 


Stored-pressure 
or pump 


2 Vagal 


30 to 40 ft 


1 min 


Yes 


2-A 




Pump 


4 gal 


30 to 40 ft 


2 min 


Yes 


3-A 




Pump 


5 gal 


30 to 40 ft 


2 to 3 min 


Yes 


4-A 


Water 


Stored-pressure 


1 y s gal 


20 ft 


30 sec 


Yes 


2-A 


(wetting agent) 
















Carbon dioxide 


25 gal 


35 ft 


1 V 2 min 


Yes 


10-A 




cylinder 


(wheeled) 












Carbon dioxide 


45 gal 


35 ft 


2 min 


Yes 


30-A 




cylinder 


(wheeled) 












Carbon dioxide 


60 gal 


35 ft 


2V 2 min 


Yes 


40-A 




cylinder 


(wheeled) 










Loaded stream 


Stored-pressure 
or cartridge 


2'/ 2 gal 


30 to 40 ft 


1 min 


No 


2 to 3-A1-B 




Carbon dioxide 


33 gal 


50 ft 


3 min 


No 


20-A 




cylinder 


(wheeled) 










AFFF, FFFP 


Stored-pressure 


2% gal 


20 to 25 ft 


50 sec 


Yes 


3-A20 to 40-B 




Nitrogen cylin- 


33 gal 


30 ft 


1 min 


Yes 


20-A160-B 




der 












Carbon 


Self-expelling 


2 V 2 to 5 lb 


3 to 8 ft 


8 to 30 sec 


No 


1 to 5-B:C 


dioxide** 
















Self-expelling 


10 to 15 lb 


3 to 8 ft 


8 to 30 sec 


No 


2 to 10-B:C 




Self-expelling 


201b 


3 to 8 ft 


10 to 30 sec 


No 


10-B:C 




Self-expelling 


50 to 100 lb 
(wheeled) 


3 to 10 ft 


10 to 30 sec 


No 


10 to 20-B:C 


Dry chemical 


Stored-pressure 


lto2V 2 lb 


5 to 8 ft 


8 to 12 sec 


No 


2 to 10-B:C 


(sodiumbicar- 














bonate) 
















Cartridge or 


2% to 5 lb 


5 to 20 ft 


8 to 25 sec 


No 


5 to 20-B:C 




stored-pres- 














sure 














Cartridge or 


6 to 30 lb 


5 to 20 ft 


10 to 25 sec 


No 


10 to 160-B:C 




stored-pres- 














sure 














Stored-pressure 


501b 
(wheeled) 


20 ft 


35 sec 


No 


160-B:C 




Nitrogen cylin- 


75 to 350 lb 


15 to 45 ft 


20 to 105 sec 


No 


40 to 320-B:C 




der or stored- 


(wheeled) 












pressure 












Dry chemical 


Cartridge or 


2 to 5 lb 


5 to 12 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


5 to 30-B:C 


(potassium 


stored-pres- 












bicarbonate) 


sure 














Cartridge or 


5V 2 to 10 lb 


5 to 20 ft 


8 to 20 sec 


No 


10 to 80-B:C 




stored-pres- 














sure 














Cartridge or 


16 to 30 lb 


10 to 20 ft 


8 to 25 sec 


No 


40tol20-B:C 




stored-pres- 














sure 














Cartridge or 


48 to 50 lb 


20 ft 


30 to 35 sec 


No 


120 to 160-B:C 




stored-pres- 


(wheeled) 












sure 













(Sheet 1 of 3) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-161 



Table A-7-6.2.1 Characteristics of Extinguishers (Continued) 


Extinguishing 
Agent 


Method of 
Operation 


Capacity 


Horizontal 

Range of 

Stream 


Approximate 

Time of 

Discharge 


Protection 

Required below 

40°F (4°C) 


ULor 

ULC 

Classifications* 




Nitrogen cylin- 
der or stored- 


125 to 315 lb 
(wheeled) 


15 to 45 ft 


30 to 80 sec 


No 


80 to 640-B:C 


Dry chemical 


pressure 
Cartridge or 


2 to 5 lb 


5 to 8 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


5 to 10-B:C 


(potassium 
chloride) 


stored-pres- 
sure 
Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 
sure 


5 to 9 lb 


8 to 12 ft 


10 to 15 sec 


No 


20 to 40-B:C 




Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 
sure 

Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 


9V 2 to 20 lb 
197a to 30 lb 


10 to 15 ft 
5 to 20 ft 


15 to 20 sec 
10 to 25 sec 


No 
No 


40 to 60-B.C 
60 to 80-B:C 




sure 
Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 


125 to 200 lb 
(wheeled) 


15 to 45 ft 


30 to 40 sec 


No 


160-B:C 


Dry chemical 
(ammonium 


sure 
Stored-pressure 


1 to 5 lb 


5 to 12 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


1 to 5-At and 2 
to 10-B:C 


phosphate) 


Stored-pressure 
or cartridge 

Stored-pressure 
or cartridge 


27a to 9 lb 
9 to 17 lb 


5 to 12 ft 
5 to 20 ft 


8 to 15 sec 
10 to 25 sec 


No 
No 


1 to 4-A and 
10 to 40-B:C 
2 to 20-A and 
10 to 80-B:C 




Stored-pressure 
or cartridge 

Stored-pressure 
or cartridge 


17 to 30 lb 

45 to 50 lb 
(wheeled) 


5 to 20 ft 
20 ft 


10 to 25 sec 
25 to 35 sec 


No 
No 


3 to 20-A and 

30 to 120-B:C 

20 to 301-A 

and 80 to 160- 

B:C 




Nitrogen cylin- 
der or stored- 


110 to 315 lb 
(wheeled) 


15 to 45 ft 


30 to 60 sec 


No 


20to40-Aand 
60 to 320-B.C 


Dry chemical 


pressure 
Cartridge or 


4V 4 to 9 lb 


5 to 20 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


10 to 20-B-.C 


(foam compati- 
ble) 


stored-pres- 
sure 

Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 
sure 

Cartridge or 
stored-pres- 


9 to 27 lb 
18 to 30 lb 


5 to 20 ft 
5 to 20 ft 


10 to 25 sec 
10 to 25 sec 


No 
No 


20 to 30-B:C 
40 to 60-B:C 




sure 
Nitrogen cylin- 
der or stored- 


150 to 350 lb 
(wheeled) 


15 to 45 ft 


20 to 150 sec 


No 


80 to 240-B:C 


Dry chemical 
(potassium 
bicarbonate 


pressure 
Stored-pressure 


5 to 11 lb 


11 to 22 ft 


18 sec 


No 


40 to 80-B:C 


urea based) 


Stored-pressure 


9 to 23 lb 


15 to 30 ft 


17 to 33 sec 


No 


60 to 160-B:C 



(Sheet 2 of 3) 



2000 Edition 



1-162 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table A-7-6.2.1 < 


Characteristics of Extinguishers (Continued) 








Extinguishing 
Agent 


Method of 
Operation 


Capacity 


Horizontal 

Range of 

Stream 


Approximate 

Time of 

Discharge 


Protection 

Required below 

40°F (4°C) 


ULor 

ULC 

Classifications* 


Wet chemical 

Halon 1211 
(bromochlo- 
rodi-fluo- 
romethane) 


Stored-pressure 
Stored-pressure 


1751b 
(wheeled) 
6 L2V 2 gal 

0.9 to 2 lb 


70 ft 

8tol2ft8to 

12 ft 

6 to 10 ft 


62 sec 

35 to 45 sec75 

to 85 sec 

8 to 10 sec 


No 

NoNo 
No 


480-B:C 

1-B:C2-A:1-B:C 

1 to 2-B:C 







2 to 3 lb 


6 to 10 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


5-B:C 






5V 2 to 9 lb 


9 to 15 ft 


8 to 15 sec 


No 


1-A:10-B:C 






13 to 22 lb 


14 to 16 ft 


10 to 18 sec 


No 


2 to 4-A and 
20 to 80-B:C 






501b 


35 ft 


30 sec 


No 


10-A:120-B:C 






1501b 


20 to 35 ft 


30 to 44 sec 


No 


30-A:160to 






(wheeled) 








240-B:C 


Halon 1211/ 


Stored-pressure 


0.9 to 5 lb 


3 to 12 ft 


8 to 10 sec 


No 


1 to 10-B:C 


1301 (bromo- 


or self-expel- 












chlorodifluo- 


ling 












romethanebro- 














motrifluorome 














thane) mix- 














tures 
















Stored-pressure 


9 to 20 lb 


10 to 18 ft 


10 to 22 sec 


No 


1-A:10-B:C to 
4-A:80-B:C 


Halocarbon type 


Stored-pressure 


3 to 33 lb 


6 to 18 ft 


9 to 18 sec 


No 


2B:C to 

2A:10B:C 



(Sheet 3 of 3) 

Note: Halon should be used only where its unique properties are deemed necessary. 

*UL and ULC ratings checked as of July 24, 1987. Readers concerned with subsequent ratings should review the pertinent lists and supplements 

issued by these laboratories: Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, or Underwriters Laboratories of Canada, 

7 Crouse Road, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MIR 3A9. 

"Carbon dioxide extinguishers with metal horns do not carry a C classification. 

tSome small extinguishers containing ammonium phosphate-based dry chemical do not carry an A classification. 

(10:TableA-2-l) 



A-7-6.2.1. 1 Halon agent is highly effective for extinguishing 
fire and evaporates after use, leaving no residue. Halon agent 
is, however, included in the Montreal Protocol list of con- 
trolled substances developed under the United Nations Envi- 
ronment Program. If agents other than halon can satisfactorily 
protect the hazard, they should be used instead of halon. 
Halon use should be limited to extinguishment of unwanted 
fire; halon should not be used for routine training of person- 
nel. (10:A-2-l.l) 

A-7-6.2.1. 3 It is recommended that inverting types of fire 
extinguishers be replaced with currently available models. 
Manufacture of inverting types of fire extinguishers and their 
listing by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. was discontinued in 
1969. As the availability of suitable replacement parts and 
recharge materials diminishes, it has become increasingly dif- 
ficult to maintain these types of fire extinguishers in a safe and 
reliable operating condition. Inverting-type fire extinguishers 
(e.g., soda acid, foam, and cartridge-operated water) are now 
considered obsolete and are required to be removed from ser- 



vice no later than the next required date for hydrostatic test- 
ing. (10:A-2-2.1.1) 

A-7-6.2.1.5 The use of dry chemical fire extinguishers on wet 
energized electrical equipment (such as rain-soaked utility 
poles, high-voltage switch gear, and transformers) could 
aggravate electrical leakage problems. The dry chemical in 
combination with moisture provides an electrical path that 
can reduce the effectiveness of insulation protection. The 
removal of all traces of dry chemical from such equipment 
after extinguishment is recommended. 

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers equipped with metal 
horns are not considered safe for use on fires in energized 
electrical equipment and, therefore, are not classified for use 
on Class C hazards. (10.-A-2-2.1.3) 

A-7-6.2.1. 6 Extinguishers and Extinguishing Agents for Class 
D Hazards. 

(a) Chemical reaction between burning metals and many 
extinguishing agents (including water) can range from explo- 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-163 



sive to inconsequential, depending in part on the type, form, 
and quantity of metal involved. In general, the hazards from a 
metal fire are significandy increased when such extinguishing 
agents are applied. 

The advantages and limitations of a wide variety of commer- 
cially available metal fire extinguishing agents are discussed in 
Section 6, Chapter 26, of the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook. 
Consult the MSDS of the Class D hazard being protected or 
the extinguisher manufacturer. 

(b) The agents and fire extinguishers discussed in this sec- 
tion are of specialized types, and their use often involves spe- 
cial techniques peculiar to a particular combustible metal. A 
given agent will not necessarily control or extinguish all metal 
fires. Some agents are valuable in working with several metals; 
others are useful in combating only one type of metal fire. The 
authorities having jurisdiction should be consulted in each 
case to determine the desired protection for the particular 
hazard involved. 

(c) Certain combustible metals and reactive chemicals 
require special extinguishing agents or techniques. If there is 
doubt, applicable NFPA standards should be consulted or ref- 
erence made to NFPA 49, Hazardous Chemicals Data, or NFPA 
325, Guide to Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, 
and Volatile Solids. 

(d) Reference should be made to the manufacturer's rec- 
ommendations for use and special technique for extinguish- 
ing fires in various combustible metals. 

(e) Fire of high intensity can occur in certain metals. Igni- 
tion is generally the result of frictional heating, exposure to 
moisture, or exposure from a fire in other combustible materi- 
als. The greatest hazard exists when these metals are in the mol- 
ten state, in finely divided forms of dust, turnings, or shavings. 

The properties of a wide variety of combustible metals and 
the agents available for extinguishing fires in these metals are 
discussed in Section 4, Chapter 16, and Section 6, Chapter 26, 
of the NFPAFire Protection Handbook. (10:A-2-2.1.4) 

A-7-6.3.1.2 If fire extinguishers intended for different classes 
of fires are grouped, their intended use should be marked 
conspicuously to aid in the choice of the proper fire extin- 
guisher at the time of a fire. In an emergency, the tendency is 
to reach for the closest fire extinguisher. If this fire extin- 
guisher is of the wrong type, the user could endanger himself 
or herself and the property he or she is endeavoring to pro- 
tect. Wherever possible, it is preferable to have only those fire 
extinguishers available that can be safely used on any type of 
fire in the immediate vicinity. (10rA-3-1.2.2) 

A-7-6.3.4 For dip tanks containing flammable or combustible 
liquids exceeding 150 gal (568 L) liquid capacity or having a 
liquid surface exceeding 4 ft 2 (0.38 m 2 ) , see NFPA 34, Standard 
for Dipping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or Combustible 
Liquids, for requirements of automatic extinguishing facilities. 

A-7-6.3.4. 1 Where such personnel are not available, the haz- 
ard should be protected by fixed systems. (10:A-3-4.1) 

A-7-6.3.5 Electrical equipment should be de-energized as 
soon as possible to prevent reignition. (10:A-3-5) 

A-7-6.4.1.2 A fire equipment servicing agency is usually the 
most reliable means available to the public for having mainte- 
nance and recharging performed. Large industries could find 
it desirable to establish their own maintenance and recharge 
facilities, training personnel to perform these functions. Ser- 
vice manuals and parts lists should be obtained from the fire 
extinguisher manufacturer. (10:A-4-1.4) 



A-7-6.4.1.3 Frequency of fire extinguisher inspections should 
be based on the need of the area in which fire extinguishers 
are located. The required monthly inspection is a minimum. 
An inspection should be more frequent if any of the following 
conditions exist: 

( 1 ) High frequency of fires in the past 

(2) Severe hazards 

(3) Susceptibility to tampering, vandalism, or malicious mis- 
chief 

(4) Possibility of, or experience with, theft of fire extinguishers 

(5) Locations that make fire extinguishers susceptible to 
mechanical injury 

(6) Possibility of visible or physical obstructions 

(7) Exposure to abnormal temperatures or corrosive atmo- 
spheres 

(8) Characteristics of fire extinguishers, such as susceptibility 
to leakage (10:A-4-3.1) 

A-7-6.4.2.3 Under special circumstances or where local 
requirements are in effect, additional information can be 
desirable or required on record tags. (10:A-4-4.4) 

A-7-6.4.2.7(l) A condemned cylinder or fire extinguisher can 
only be destroyed by its owner or at the owner's direction. It is 
strongly recommended that a record be kept of cylinders or 
fire extinguishers that are recommended to be destroyed. 
(10:A-5-1.4) 

A-7-7.2.5.2 Exception No. 3. A typical nurses' station would 
normally contain one or more of the following with associated 
furniture and furnishings: 

(1) Charting area 

(2) Clerical area 

(3) Nourishment station 

(4) Storage of small amounts of medications, medical equip- 
ment and supplies, clerical supplies, and linens 

(5) Patient monitoring and communication equipment 

(101.-A. 18.3.6.1 Ex. 3) 

A-7-7.2.5.3 The requirement for smoke detectors in spaces 
open to the corridors eliminates the requirement contained 
in 18.3.6.1 of NFPA 101 for direct supervision by the facility 
staff of nursing homes. (J02.-A.18.3.4.5.3) 

A-7-7.2.6.3 Exception No. 3. A typical nurses' station would 
normally contain one or more of the following with associated 
furniture and furnishings: 

(1) Charting area 

(2) Clerical area 

(3) Nourishment station 

(4) Storage of small amounts of medications, medical equip- 
ment and supplies, clerical supplies, and linens 

(5) Patient monitoring and communication equipment 
(i0i:A.19.3.6.1 Ex. 3) 

A-7-7.2.6.3 Exception No. 6(b). A typical nurses' station would 
normally contain one or more of the following with associated 
furniture and furnishings: 

(1) Charting area 

(2) Clerical area 

(3) Nourishment station 

(4) Storage of small amounts of medications, medical equip- 
ment and supplies, clerical supplies, and linens 

(5) Patient monitoring and communication equipment 
[/07.-A.19.3.6.1 Ex. 3(b)] 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-7-7.2.6.3 Exception No. 7. This exception permits waiting 
areas to be located across the corridor from each other, pro- 
vided that neither area exceeds the 600-ft 2 (55.7-m 2 ) limitation. 
(i02.A.19.3.6.1 Ex. 7) 

A-7-7.2.7.2 Examples of contiguous common spaces are gal- 
leries and corridors. (iW:A.22.3.4.4) 

A-7-7.2.7.2.3 An open dormitory is a dormitory that is arranged 
to allow staff to observe the entire dormitory area at one time. 
(20i:A.22.3.4.4.3) 

A-7-7.2.8.2.3 An open dormitory is a dormitory that is arranged 
to allow staff to observe the entire dormitory area at one time. 
(70/:A.23.3.4.4.3) 

A-7-7.2.9.3 Caution needs to be exercised in locating smoke 
detectors with regard to their proximity to bathrooms, cook- 
ing facilities, and HVAC outlets in order to prevent nuisance 
alarms. (10/.-A.28.3.4.5) 

A-7-7.2.11.2 Previous editions of NFPA 101 permitted the sin- 
gle-station smoke detector required by 30.3.4.5.1 of NFPA 101 
to be omitted from each apartment where a complete auto- 
matic smoke detection system was installed throughout the 
building. With such a system, when one detector is activated, an 
alarm is sounded throughout the building. Experience with 
complete smoke detection systems in apartment buildings has 
shown that numerous nuisance alarms are likely to occur. 
Where there is a problem with frequent nuisance alarms, occu- 
pants ignore the alarm, or the system is either disconnected or 
otherwise rendered inoperative. (102.-A.3O.3.4.5.1) 

A-7-7.2.16.1.2 Most often smoke alarms sounding an alarm at 
85 dBA or greater, installed outside the bedroom area, will 
meet the intent of this requirement. Smoke alarms remotely 
located from the bedroom might not be loud enough to 
awaken the average person. In such cases, it is recommended 
that smoke alarms be interconnected so that the activation of 
any smoke alarm will cause all smoke alarms to activate. 
(J0/.-A.33.2.3.4.3) 

A-7-7.2.27.2.1 The need for voice communication can be 
based on a decision regarding staged or partial evacuation ver- 
sus total evacuation of all floors. The determination of need is 
a function of occupancy classification and building height. 
(J0/.A.11.8.3.1) 

A-7-7.3.1.1 Fire alarm system annunciation should, as a mini- 
mum, be sufficiendy specific to identify the origin of a fire 
alarm signal in accordance with the following. 

(a) If a floor exceeds 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ) in area, the floor 
should be subdivided into detection zones of 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ) 
or less, consistent with the existing smoke and fire barriers on the 
floor. 

(b) If a floor exceeds 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ) in area and is 
undivided by smoke or fire barriers, detection zoning should 
be determined on a case-by-case basis in consultation with the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

(c) Waterflow switches on sprinkler systems that serve mul- 
tiple floors, areas exceeding 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ), or areas 
inconsistent with the established detection system zoning 
should be annunciated individually. 

(d) In-duct smoke detectors on air-handling systems that 
serve multiple floors, areas exceeding 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ), or 
areas inconsistent with the established detection system zon- 
ing should be annunciated individually. 



(e) If a floor area exceeds 20,000 ft 2 (1860 m 2 ), additional 
zoning should be provided. The length of any zone should not 
exceed 300 ft (91 m) in any direction. If the building is pro- 
vided with automatic sprinklers throughout, the area of the 
alarm zone should be permitted to coincide with the allowable 
area of the sprinkler zone. (72:A-1-5.7.1.2) 

A-7-7.3.2.1 The requirements of Chapter 7 should be used to 
perform the installation wiring and operational acceptance 
tests required when completing the record of completion. 

The record of completion form shall be permitted to be 
used to record decisions reached prior to installation regard- 
ing intended system type(s), circuit designations, device types, 
notification appliance type, power sources, and the means of 
transmission to the supervising station. (72:A-1 -6.2.1) 

A-7-7.3.3.4 It is not the intent of 2-8.2.4 to require manual fire 
alarm boxes to be attached to moveable partitions or to equip- 
ment, nor to require the installation of permanent structures 
for mounting purposes only. (72^-2-8.2.4) 

A-7-7.3.3.5 Recommended coded signal designations for 
buildings that have four floors and multiple basements are 
provided in Table A-7-7.3.3.5. (72:A-2-8.3) 

Table A-7-7.3.3.5 Recommended Coded Signal Designations 



Location 



Coded Signal 



Fourth floor 
Third floor 
Second floor 
First floor 
Basement 
Sub-basement 



2-4 
2-3 
2-2 
2-1 
3-1 
3-2 



(72:Table A-2-8.3) 

A-7-7.3.5.3 Though a trouble signal is required when a plug- 
in initiating device is removed from its base, it is not consid- 
ered as a trouble condition within the device and the require- 
ment of 7-7.3.5.2 shall not apply. (72:A-3-8.3.2.3.1) 

A-7-7.3.6.5 The waterflow device should be field adjusted so 
that an alarm is initiated no more than 90 seconds after a sus- 
tained flow of at least 10 gpm (40 L/min) . 

Features that should be investigated to minimize alarm 
response time include the following: 

( 1 ) Elimination of trapped air in the sprinkler system piping 

(2) Use of an excess pressure pump, 

(3) Use of pressure drop alarm-initiating devices 

(4) A combination thereof 

Care should be used when choosing waterflow alarm-initi- 
ating devices for hydraulically calculated looped systems and 
those systems using small orifice sprinklers. Such systems 
might incorporate a single point flow of significandy less than 
10 gpm (40 L/min) . In such cases, additional waterflow alarm- 
initiating devices or the use of pressure drop-type waterflow 
alarm-initiating devices might be necessary. 

Care should be used when choosing waterflow alarm-initi- 
ating devices for sprinkler systems that use on-off sprinklers to 
ensure that an alarm is initiated in the event of a waterflow 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-165 



condition. On-off sprinklers open at a predetermined tem- 
perature and close when the temperature reaches a predeter- 
mined lower temperature. With certain types of fires, 
waterflow might occur in a series of short bursts of a duration 
of 10 seconds to 30 seconds each. An alarm-initiating device 
with retard might not detect waterflow under these condi- 
tions. An excess pressure system or a system that operates on 
pressure drop should be considered to facilitate waterflow 
detection on sprinkler systems that use on-off sprinklers. 

Excess pressure systems can be used with or without alarm 
valves. The following is a description of one type of excess 
pressure system with an alarm valve. 

An excess pressure system with an alarm valve consists of an 
excess pressure pump with pressure switches to control the 
operation of the pump. The inlet of the pump is connected to 
the supply side of the alarm valve, and the oudet is connected 
to the sprinkler system. The pump control pressure switch is 
of the differential type, maintaining the sprinkler system pres- 
sure above the main pressure by a constant amount. Another 
switch monitors low sprinkler system pressure to initiate a 
supervisory signal in the event of a failure of the pump or 
other malfunction. An additional pressure switch can be used 
to stop pump operation in the event of a deficiency in water 
supply. Another pressure switch is connected to the alarm out- 
let of the alarm valve to initiate a waterflow alarm signal when 
waterflow exists. This type of system also inherently prevents 
false alarms due to water surges. The sprinkler retard chamber 
should be eliminated to enhance the detection capability of 
the system for short duration flows. (72:A-2-6.2) 

A-7-7.3.7.1 The provision of a double loop or other multiple 
path conductor or circuit to avoid electrical monitoring is not 
acceptable. (72.-A-1 -5.8.1) 

A-7-7.3.7.1 Exception No. 7. NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm 
Code, does not have jurisdiction over monitoring integrity of 
conductors within equipment, devices, or appliances. 
(72:A-1-5.8.1 Exception No. 7) 

A-7-7.3.8 A trouble signal is not required where operating 
power is being supplied by either of the two sources of power 
indicated in Exceptions No. 1 and No. 2, if they are capable of 
providing the hours of operation required by 1-5.2.6 of NFPA 
72, National Fire Alarm Code, and loss of primary power is other- 
wise indicated (e.g., by loss of building lighting). (72:A-l-5.2.3) 

A-7-7 .4.2.4 Figure A-7-7. 4.2.4 illustrates the proper mounting 
placement for detectors. (72:A-2-2.2.1) 

A-7-7.4.2.7 Figure A-7-7.4.2.7 illustrates under-floor mounting 
installations. (72:A-2-3.4.3.2) 

A-7-7.4.4 Detectors that cause unwanted alarms should be 
tested at their lower listed range (or at 0.5 percent obscuration 
if unmarked or unknown). Detectors that activate at less than 
this level should be replaced. (72-.A-7-3.2.1) 

A-8-1.2.2 Exception No. 3(a). Securely supported altar can- 
dles in churches that are well separated from any combustible 
material are permitted. On the other hand, lighted candles 
carried by children wearing cotton robes present a hazard too 
great to be permitted. There are many other situations of 
intermediate hazard where the authority having jurisdiction 



will have to exercise judgment. [10i:A.12.7.2 Ex. 3(a); 
102.-A.13.7.2 Ex. 3(a)] 

FIGURE A-7-7 .4.2.4 Example of proper mounting for 
detectors. (72:Figure A-2-2.2.1) 



Ceiling 



U— 4 in. — 
| (0.1m) 



^^\\^^W\^W^\Np^^W^ 



Acceptable here 



Never here 



Top of detector . 
acceptable here 




\\6 



Note: 

Measurements shown are to the 

closest edge of the detector 



T 



12-in. 

(0.3-m) 

maximum 



\W, 4-in. 

\% (0.1 -m) 
; /r, minimum 

r 

/O Sidewall 

I 



A-8-1.2.3.2 Testing per NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests 
for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films, applies to textiles and 
films used in a hanging configuration. If the textiles and films 
are to be applied to surfaces of buildings or backing materials 
as interior finishes for use in buildings, they should be treated 
as interior wall and ceiling finishes in accordance with Section 
10.2 of this Code, and they should then be tested for flame 
spread rating and smoke development values in accordance 
with NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Char- 
acteristics of Building Materials, or for flame spread and flash- 
over in accordance with NFPA 265, Standard Methods of Fire 
Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile Wall 
Coverings. 

The test results from NFPA 701 are suitable for classifica- 
tion purposes but should not be used as input into fire models, 
because they are not generated in units suitable for engineer- 
ing calculations. (102.-A.1O.3.1) 

A-8-1 .2.3.3 Christmas trees not effectively flame-retardant 
treated, ordinary crepe paper decorations, and pyroxylin plas- 
tic decorations might be classified as highly flammable. 
(/0/.A.1O.3.5) 

A-8-1. 2.5 The training program in crowd management 
should develop a clear appreciation of factors of space, 
energy, time, and information, as well as specific crowd man- 
agement techniques such as metering. Published guidelines 
on these factors and techniques are found in the SFPE Hand- 
book of Fire Protection Engineering, Section 3, Chapter 13. 
(10/.-A.12.7.5; 101:A. 13.7.5) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE A-7-7.4.2.7 Mounting installations permitted (top) and not permitted (bottom). (72:Figure A-2-3.4.3.2) 



Raised floor 
panel \ 



Steel angle or 
channel support 



Junction box secured 
at floor support 



(r=£^ 



" (to til x fo 

Smoke detector -U I 




Underfloor mounting arrangements — permitted 



Raised floor 
panel N. 




i i 
."■■■-■ 



FMC or EMT 



Underfloor mounting arrangements — not permitted 




A-8-2.2.1.1 The requirements are, of necessity, general in 
scope, as it is recognized that, they apply to all types of educa- 
tional occupancies as well as conditions of occupancies, such 
as truant schools; schools for the mentally handicapped, vision 
impaired, hearing impaired, and speech impaired; and public 
schools. It is fully recognized that no one code can meet all the 
conditions of the various buildings involved, and it will be nec- 
essary for site administrators to issue supplements to these 
requirements, but all supplements should be consistent with 
these requirements. (/0/:A.14.7.1.1; 201.-A.15.7.1.1) 

A-8-2.2.1.3 If an emergency egress and relocation drill is con- 
sidered merely as a routine exercise from which some persons 
are allowed to be excused, there is a grave danger that, in an 
actual emergency, the evacuation and relocation will not be 
successful. However, there might be circumstances under 
which all occupants do not participate in an emergency egress 
and relocation drill; for example, infirm or bedridden 
patients in a health care occupancy. (202.A.4.7.2) 

A-8-2.2.2.1 Particular attention should be given to keeping all 
doors unlocked; keeping doors that serve to protect the safety 
of paths of egress closed and under no conditions blocked 
open, such as doors on stairway enclosures; keeping outside 
stairs and fire escape stairs free from all obstructions and clear 
of snow and ice; and allowing no accumulation of snow or ice 
or materials of any kind outside exit doors that might prevent 
the opening of the door or interfere with rapid escape from 
the building. 

Any condition likely to interfere with safe egress should 
be corrected immediately, if possible, or otherwise should be 
reported at once to the appropriate authorities. 
(I0I.-A.14.7.2.1; 101.-A.15.7.2.1) 

A-8-2.2.3.2 Testing per NFPA 701 , Standard Methods of Fire Tests 
for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films, applies to textiles and 



films used in a hanging configuration. If the textiles and films 
are to be applied to surfaces of buildings or backing materials 
as interior finishes for use in buildings, they should be treated 
as interior wall and ceiling finishes in accordance with Section 
10.2 of this Code, and they should then be tested for flame 
spread rating and smoke development values in accordance 
with NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Char- 
acteristics of Building Materials, or for flame spread and flash- 
over in accordance with NFPA 265, Standard Methods of Fire 
Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile Wall 
Coverings. 

The test results from NFPA 701 are suitable for classifica- 
tion purposes but should not be used as input into fire models, 
because they are not generated in units suitable for engineer- 
ing calculations. (101:A. 10.3.1) 

A-8-2.2.3.3 Christmas trees not effectively flame-retardant 
treated, ordinary crepe paper decorations, and pyroxylin plas- 
tic decorations might be classified as highly flammable. 
(707.A.1O.3.5) 

A-8-3.3.2 The requirements are, of necessity, general in 
scope, as it is recognized that they apply to all types of day-care 
occupancies as well as conditions of occupancies, such as tru- 
ant day-care occupancies; occupancies for the mentally hand- 
icapped, vision impaired, hearing impaired, and speech 
impaired; adult day-care; care of infants; and day-care occu- 
pancies. It is fully recognized that no one code can meet all the 
conditions of the various buildings involved, and it will be nec- 
essary for site administrators, through the written fire emer- 
gency response plan, to issue supplements to these 
requirements; however, all supplements should be consistent 
with these requirements. Additionally, it is recommended that 
fire safety be a part of the educational programs of the occu- 
pancy for clients. 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-167 



Fire emergency response plans need to be written and 
made available to all employees, including temporary or sub- 
stitute staff, so that all employees know what is expected of 
them during a fire emergency. The elements needed in the 
written plan should be identified in coordination with the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

The facility fire emergency response plan might be a mod- 
ule of a facility disaster plan that covers other emergencies. 

The proper safeguarding of clients during a fire emergency 
requires prompt and effective response by the facility employ- 
ees in accordance with the fire emergency response plan. 
Duties covered under the plan should be assigned by position 
rather than by employee name. Such assignment ensures that, 
in the absence of an employee, the duties of the position will 
be performed by a substitute or temporary employee assigned 
to the position. Temporary or substitute employees should be 
instructed in advance regarding their duties under the plan 
for the position to which they are assigned. 

Written fire emergency response plans should include, but 
should not be limited to, information for employees regarding 
methods and devices available for alerting occupants of a fire 
emergency. Employees should know how the fire department 
is to be alerted. Even where automatic systems are expected to 
alert the fire department, the written plan should provide for 
backup alerting procedures by staff. Other responses of 
employees to a fire emergency sbould include the following: 

( 1 ) Removal of clients in immediate danger to areas of safety, 
as set forth in the plan 

(2) Methods of using building features to confine the fire 
and its byproducts to the room or area of origin 

(3) The control of actions and behaviors of clients during 
removal or evacuation activities and at predetermined 
safe assembly areas 

The written plan should state clearly the facility policy regard- 
ing the actions staff are to take or not take to extinguish a fire. 

The written fire emergency response plan should incorpo- 
rate the emergency egress and relocation drill procedures set 
forth in 16.7.2 of NFPA 101. (202.A.16.7.1) 

A-8-3.3.3.1.1 The requirements are, of necessity, general in 
scope, as it is recognized that they apply to all types of day-care 
occupancies as well as conditions of occupancies, such as tru- 
ant day-care occupancies; day-care occupancies for the men- 
tally handicapped, vision impaired, hearing impaired, and 
speech impaired. It is fully recognized that no one code can 
meet all the conditions of the various buildings involved, and 
it will be necessary for site administrators to issue supplements 
to these requirements, but all supplements should be consis- 
tent with these requirements. (202:A.16.7.2.1; 202.-A.17.7.2.1) 

A-8-3.3.3.1.3 If an emergency egress and relocation drill is 
considered merely as a routine exercise from which some per- 
sons are allowed to be excused, there is a grave danger that, in 
an actual emergency, the evacuation and relocation will not be 
successful. However, there might be circumstances under 
which all occupants do not participate in an emergency egress 
and relocation drill; for example, infirm or bedridden 
patients in a health care occupancy. (202:A.4.7.2) 

A-8-3.3.3.1.6 Fire is always unexpected. If the drill is always 
held in the same way at the same time, it loses much of its 
value. When, for some reason during an actual fire, it is not 
possible to follow the usual routine of the emergency egress 
and relocation drill to which occupants have become accus- 
tomed, confusion and panic might ensue. Drills should be 



carefully planned to simulate actual fire conditions. Not only 
should drills be held at varying times, but different means of 
exit or relocation areas should be used, based on an assump- 
tion that fire or smoke might prevent the use of normal egress 
and relocation avenues. (101:AA.7.5) 

A-8-3.3.4.2 Particular attention should be given to keeping all 
doors unlocked; keeping doors that serve to protect the safety 
of paths of egress closed and under no conditions blocked 
open, such as doors on stairway enclosures; keeping outside 
stairs and fire escape stairs free from all obstructions and clear 
of snow and ice; and allowing no accumulation of snow or ice 
or materials of any kind outside exit doors that might prevent 
the opening of the door or interfere with rapid escape from 
the building. (202.-A.16.7.3.2; 202.-A.17.7.3.2) 

A-8-3.3.6 It is the intent that the requirement for adequate 
adult staff to be awake at all times when clients are present be 
applied to family day-care and group day-care homes that are 
operated at night, as well as day-care occupancies. 
(202.-A.16.7.5; 202.-A.17.7.5) 

A-8-4.2.5.2 Testing per NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests 
for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films, applies to textiles and 
films used in a hanging configuration. If the textiles and films 
are to be applied to surfaces of buildings or backing materials 
as interior finishes for use in buildings, they should be treated 
as interior wall and ceiling finishes in accordance with Section 
10.2 of NFPA 101, and they should then be tested for flame 
spread rating and smoke development values in accordance 
with NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surf ace Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, or for flame spread and flashover in 
accordance with NFPA 265, Standard Methods of Five Tests for Eval- 
uating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile Wall Coverings. 

The test results from NFPA 701 are suitable for classifica- 
tion purposes but should not be used as input into fire models, 
because they are not generated in units suitable for engineer- 
ing calculations. (202.-A.1O.3.1) 

A-8-5.2.4.1 Smoking regulations should include the following. 

(a) Smoking should be prohibited in any room, compart- 
ment or area where flammable or combustible liquids, com- 
bustible gases, or oxygen is used or stored and in any other 
hazardous location. Such areas should be posted with signs 
that read NO SMOKING or the international symbol for no 
smoking. In residential board and care facilities where smok- 
ing is totally prohibited and signs so indicating are placed at 
all major entrances, secondary signs with language that pro- 
hibits smoking are not required. 

(b) Smoking by residents classified as not responsible with 
regard to their ability to safely use and dispose of smoking 
materials should be prohibited. Where the resident is under 
direct supervision by staff or by a person approved by the 
administration, smoking might be permitted. 

(c) Smoking materials should not be provided to resi- 
dents or maintained by residents without the approval of the 
administration. 

(d) Areas where smoking is permitted should be clearly 
identified. 

(e) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design 
should be provided and required to be used in all areas where 
smoking is permitted. 

(f) Self-closing cover devices into which ashtrays can be 
emptied should be made available to all areas where smoking 
is permitted and should be required to be used. 
(202.-A.32.7.4.1; 202.-A.33.7.4.1) 



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A-8-5.2.5.3 New upholstered furniture within board and care 
homes should be tested for rates of heat release in accordance 
with 10.3.3 of NFPA 101. (20/.A.32.7.5.2; /0/.A.33.7.5.2) 

A-8-5.2.5.4 New mattresses within board and care homes 
should be tested for rates of heat release in accordance with 
10.3.4 of NFPA 101. (101A.52.7.5.3; 101 .A.33. 7. 5. 3) 

A-8-6.2.4 The most rigid discipline with regard to prohibition 
of smoking might not be nearly as effective in reducing incip- 
ient fires from surreptitious smoking as the open recognition 
of smoking, with provision of suitable facilities for smoking. 
Proper education and training of the staff and attendants in 
the ordinary fire hazards and their abatement is unquestion- 
ably essential. The problem is a broad one, varying with differ- 
ent types and arrangements of buildings; the effectiveness of 
rules of procedure, which need to be flexible, depends in 
large part on the management. ( 70i:A.2O.7.4; I0/.A.21.7.4) 

A-8-7.2.1.2 This requirement is permitted to be met by elec- 
tronic or oral monitoring systems, visual monitoring, call sig- 
nals, or other means. (70/.A.22.7.1.2; 70/A.23.7.1.2) 

A-8-7.2.1.3 Periodic, coordinated training should be con- 
ducted and should involve detention and correctional facility 
personnel and personnel of the fire department legally com- 
mitted to serving the facility. (202.A.22. 7.1.3; /0/.A.23.7.1.3) 

A-8-8.2.5.1 In nonsprinklered hotels, dormitories, or apart- 
ment buildings, new upholstered furniture located in corri- 
dors or areas not separated from corridors by corridor walls, 
as specified in NFPA 101, should be tested in accordance with 
NFPA 261, Standard Method of Test for Determining Resistance of 
Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Material Assemblies to Ignition by 
Smoldering Cigarettes. The char length is not to exceed IV2 i n - 
(3.8 cm) and should be labeled to indicate such compliance. 
(i0i:A.28.3.3.4; i07:A.29.3.3.4) 

A-8-15.2.1 The classification of plastics, elastomers, and rub- 
ber can be found in 2-2.4 of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installa- 
tion of Sprinkler Systems. 

A-8-15.5.2 See NFPA 232A, Guide for Fire Protection for Archives 
and Records Centers, where large archives or records storage 
buildings are involved. 

A-8-17.2 See also NFPA 914, Recommended Practice for Fire Protec- 
tion in Historic Structures. 

A-9-1.2(l) An example of an aerosol product that is not flam- 
mable and, therefore, not covered by this code is whipped 
cream: the base product is a water-based material and the pro- 
pellant is nitrous oxide, which is nonflammable. (30B:A-1-1 .2) 



58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 



A-9-1.2(2) See NFPA 
(30B:A-1-1.3) 

A-10-2.2.1 Building construction types are defined in NFPA 
220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. The following 
material is extracted verbatim from NFPA 220, 1995 edition 
and is included here as a convenience for users of this Code. 
Any requests for Formal Interpretations (FIs) or Tentative 
Interim Amendments (TIAs) on the following material should 



be directed to the Technical Committee on Building Con- 
struction. 

3-1 Type I (443 or 332). Type I construction shall be that 
type in which the structural members, including walls, 
columns, beams, girders, trusses, arches, floors, and 
roofs, are of approved noncombustible or limited-com- 
bustible materials and shall have fire resistance ratings 
not less than those specified in Table 3-1 . 
3-2 Type H (222, 1 1 1 , or 000) . Type II construction shall 
be that type not qualifying as Type I construction in which 
the structural members, including walls, columns, beams, 
girders, trusses, arches, floors, and roofs, are of approved 
noncombustible or limited-combustible materials and 
shall have fire resistance ratings not less than those speci- 
fied in Table 3-1. 

3-3 Type IH (21 1 or 200) . Type III construction shall be 
that type in which exterior walls and structural members 
that are portions of exterior walls are of approved non- 
combustible or limited-combustible materials, and inte- 
rior structural members, including walls, columns, 
beams, girders, trusses, arches, floors, and roofs, are 
entirely or partially of wood of smaller dimensions than 
required for Type IV construction or of approved non- 
combustible, limited-combustible, or other approved 
combustible materials. In addition, structural members 
shall have fire resistance ratings not less than those speci- 
fied in Table 3-1. 
34* Type IV (2HH). 

3-4.1 Type IV construction shall be that type in which 
exterior and interior walls and structural members thsat 
are portions of such walls are of approved noncombusti- 
ble or limited-combustible materials. Other interior struc- 
tural members, including columns, beams, girders, 
trusses, arches, floors, and roofs, shall be of solid or lami- 
nated wood without concealed spaces and shall comply 
with the provisions of 3-4.2 through 3-4.6. In addition, 
structural members shall have fire resistance ratings not 
less than those specified in Table 3-1 . 

Exception No. 1: Interior columns, arches, beams, girders, and 
trusses of approved materials other than wood shall be permitted, 
provided they are protected to provide afire resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hr. 

Exception No. 2: Certain concealed spaces shall be permitted by 
the exception to 3-4. 4. 

3-4.2 Wood columns supporting floor loads shall be not 
less than 8 in. (203 mm) in any dimension; wood columns 
supporting roof loads only shall be not less than 6 in. 
(152 mm) in the smallest dimension and not less than 
8 in. (203 mm) in depth. 

3-4.3 Wood beams and girders supporting floor loads 
shall be not less than 6 in. (152 mm) in width and not less 
than 10 in. (254 mm) in depth; wood beams and girders 
and other roof framing, supporting roof loads only, shall 
be not less than 4 in. (102 mm) in width and not less than 
6 in. (152 mm) in depth. 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-169 



Table 3-1 Fire-Resistance Ratings (in Hours) for Type I Through Type V Construction 





Type I 


Type II 


Type III 


Type IV 


TypeV 


443 


332 


222 


111 


000 


211 


200 


2HH 


111 


000 


Exterior Bearing Walls - 

Supporting more than one floor, 

columns, or other bearing walls 

Supporting one floor only. 


4 
4 
4 


3 
3 
3 


2 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 


o 1 
o 1 
o 1 


2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 


. 1 

1 

; 1 


o 1 
o 1 
o 1 


Supporting a roof only. 


Interior Bearing Walls - 

Supporting more than one floor, 

columns, or other bearing walls 

Supporting one floor only. 


4 
3 
3 


3 
2 

2 


2 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 







1 
■ 1 

' 1 


■'■■■: 






2 
1 
1 


1 
i 1 

1 








Supporting roofs only. 




Columns - 

Supporting more than one floor, 
columns, or other bearing walls 


4 
3 
3 


3 
2 
2 


2 
2 

1 


1 
1 
1 







■■■■■: :■ .■■■■:■..■ ■ 

r?> - ■ ■■ ■ *■ ■ • 

1 
" r 

■ 1 


i* . ■ ■ 
. - : :^0i •:•-. ,,;:f :£;' 






H 2 

w ; 

H 2 


'. 1 
1 
1 




■ '■■ 




Supporting roofs only. 




Beams, Girders, Trusses 
& Arches - 

Supporting more than one floor, 
columns, or other bearing walls 

Supporting one floor only. 


4 
3 
3 


3 
2 
2 


2 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 







■ ■ 

1 







H 2 
H 2 
H 2 


• 1 
1 

■■ 1 




■ 



Supporting roofs only. 




Floor Construction 


3 


2 


2 


1 





1 





H 2 


' 1 





Roof Construction 


2 


1^2 


1 


1 





1 





H 2 


■ 1 





Exterior Nonbearing Walls 


o 1 


o 1 


o 1 


o 1 


o 1 


r, 1 






o 1 


o 1 


- V 



Shaded areas represent those members that shall be permitted to be of approved combustible material. 

'Requirements for fire resistance of exterior walls, the provision of spandrel wall sections, and the limitation or protection of wall openings are not related to construction 

type. They need to be specified in other standards and codes, where appropriate, and may be required in addition to the requirements of NFPA 220, Standard on Types 

of Building Construction, for the construction type. 

2 "H" indicates heavy timber members; see NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, for requirements. 



3-4.4 Framed or glued laminated arches that spring from 
grade or the floor line and timber trusses that support floor 
loads shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) in width or 
depth. Framed or glued laminated arches for roof construc- 
tion that spring from grade or the floor line and do not sup- 
port floor loads shall have members not less than 6 in. (152 
mm) in width and not less than 8 in. (203 mm) in depth for 
the lower half of the member height and not less than 6 in. 
(152 mm) in depth for the upper half of the member 
height. Framed or glued laminated arches for roof con- 
struction that spring from the top of walls or wall abutments 
and timber trusses that do not support floor loads shall have 
members not less than 4 in. (102 mm) in width and not less 
than 6 in. (152 mm) in depth. 

Exception: Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of 
two or more pieces not less than 3 in. (76 mm) in thickness where 
blocked solidly throughout their intervening spaces or where such 
spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate not less 
than 2 in. (51 mm) in thickness, secured to the underside of the 
members. 

Splice plates shall be not less than 3 in. (76 mm) in 
thickness. 

3-4.5 Floors shall be constructed of splined or tongued 
and grooved plank not less than 3 in. (76 mm) in thick- 
ness that is covered with 1-in. (25-mm) tongue and groove 



flooring, laid crosswise or diagonally to the plank, or with 
V2-in. (12.7-mm) plywood; or they shall be constructed of 
laminated planks not less than 4 in. (102 mm) in width, 
set close together on edge, spiked at intervals of 18 in. 
(457 mm), and covered with 1-in. (25-mm) tongue and 
groove flooring, laid crosswise or diagonally to the plank, 
or with '/2~ m - (12.7-mm) plywood. 

3-4.6 Roof decks shall be constructed of splined or 
tongued and grooved plank not less than 2 in. (51 mm) 
in thickness; or of laminated planks not less than 3 in. 
(76 mm) in width, set close together on edge, and laid 
as required for floors; or of l'/s-in. (28.6-mm) thick 
interior plywood (exterior glue); or of approved non- 
combustible or limited-combustible materials of equiva- 
lent fire durability. 

NOTE: The dimensions used for sawn and glued lami- 
nated lumber in Section 3-4 are nominal dimensions. 

3-5 Type V ( 1 1 1 or 000) . Type V construction shall be that 
type in which exterior walls, bearing walls, columns, 
beams, girders, trusses, arches, floors, and roofs are 
entirely or partially of wood or other approved combusti- 
ble material smaller than material required for Type IV 
construction. In addition, structural members shall have 
fire resistance ratings not less than those specified in 
Table 3-1. (415:A-2-l.l) 



2000 Edition 



1-170 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-10-2.2.2 Furniture, floor and wall coverings, and other fur- 
nishings in airport terminal occupancies, including passenger 
holding lounges, waiting areas, restaurant dining rooms, bars, 
retail stores, etc., should not be made of materials that have 
high combustibility or smoke-development characteristics, or 
both. Examples of materials that have high combustibility or 
smoke-development characteristics, or both, include some 
plastic foams, latex-rubber foam, some plastics, and some syn- 
thetic fibers. Such materials have a tendency to release com- 
bustible gases at relatively low temperatures, making them 
easily ignitable. These materials also release high amounts of 
heat energy at rapid rates when burning, thereby contributing 
gready to fire propagation. (415:A-2-1.2) 

A-l 0-2.3.1 Examples of points of flammable vapor release are 
fuel tank vent openings and fuel hydrant pits. Air supply intake 
and exhaust openings for air conditioning or ventilating equip- 
ment serving the terminal building should not be located on 
the ramp side of an airport terminal building. Fixed air condi- 
tioning and ventilating equipment serving aircraft only should 
be in a room having no openings communicating with the 
remainder of the terminal building. (415tA-2-2.2) 

A-10-2.3.2 Rooms containing coal-, gas-, or oil-fired equip 
ment, or any room containing any other open flame device, 
should not have openings on the ramp side of the building. 
Combustion and ventilation air should be supplied from the 
street side or roof of the building or through a gravity louver 
from a nonhazardous area in the building. (415:A-2-2. 3) 

A-10-2.4 The hazards to persons from jet intakes and blast, 
noise, propellers, etc., on the ramp should be taken into con- 
sideration in locating emergency exit points leading to ramps 
from the airport terminal building. A means of notification of 
unauthorized usage (such as an alarm system) of these emer- 
gency exits may be desirable. (415:A-2-3.2) 

A-10-3.5 For further information on exit principles, see NFPA 
101, Life Safety Code. (418:A-3-4) 

A-10-3.7.1 Where personnel trained in the operations of the 
equipment are in attendance, a hose line system is preferred. 
The calculations used to develop the minimum extinguish- 
ing agent quantities and discharge rates presented in Table 
A-10-3.7.1 (a) and (b) for rooftop heliports include the follow- 
ing factors: 

(a) Aircraft Size. Reflects the potential level of risk, e.g., pas- 
senger load; the potential fire load, e.g., fuel capacity; and the 
dimensions, i.e., fuselage length and width, that allow the 
identification of a meaningful operational objective, i.e., the 
area to be rendered fire-free (controlled or extinguished). 

(b) Relative Effectiveness of Agent Selected. Represented by the 
specific application rate identified for each of the common 
generic foam concentrate types. 

(c) Time Required to Achieve Control. Large-scale fire tests, 
empirical data, and field experience indicate that 1 minute is 
both a reasonable and a necessary operational objective. 

(d) Time Required to Maintain Controlled Area Fire-Free. An 
operational objective that provides a safety factor for the initial 
fire attack while waiting for the arrival of backup support. 

The calculation method is supported by research and 
experimental work done mainly at the U.S. FAA's Technical 
Center. It was developed by the "Rescue and Firefighting 
Panel II" (RFFP II), a group of international experts in the 
field, convened by the International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion, Montreal Canada, circa 1970. 



The RFFP II initially focused on the "Theoretical Critical 
Fire Area," which was identified in the FAA's large-scale fire 
tests as "... the area adjacent to the fuselage extending outward 
in all directions to a limit beyond which a large fuel fire would 
not melt an aluminum fuselage, regardless of the fire expo- 
sure time." For this concept to be useful, specific information 
about the size of the area was needed. Again, using the FAA 
Technical Center's work as a basis, the RFFP II's working def- 
inition of the Theoretical Critical Fire Area (TC) is "the area 
adjacent to an aircraft in which fire must be controlled." This 
definition implies control of the fire within a specific area. In 
order to achieve this, dimensions need to be determined. For- 
mulas 1 and 2, which follow, were developed from that earlier 
work. Using these formulas, the size of the area of interest can 
be calculated. For example: 

1. Where L<65ft: TC = Lx (40ft + W) 

or 

la. L<20m: TC = Lx(12m + W) 

and 

2 Where L>65 ft: TC = Lx (100 ft + W) 

or 

2a. L>20 m: TC = L x (30 m + W) 

Where L = average aircraft length 

W = average width of aircraft served at 
the airport of interest. 

Conceptually, the TC serves as a means for assessing the 
magnitude of the potential fire hazard of the aircraft accident 
environment. It does not represent the average, maximum, or 
minimum spill fire size associated with a particular aircraft. 
However, it does represent a starting point for determining 
realistic fire extinguishing agent requirements. The formulas 
allow for the calculation of the TC area for different sizes of 
aircraft. They are widely accepted throughout the aircraft fire 
service community and are applied as described in the follow- 
ing paragraphs. 

A 1970 study concluded that in survivable aircraft crashes a 
"practical fire area" should be considered that was smaller 
than the "theoretical area." Detailed criteria for the practical 
fire area and the related quantities of extinguishing agents 
were formulated during the second meeting of the RFFP II. In 
developing its material, the panel's work included a study of 
the quantities of agents used on actual fires. In 99 out of 106 
such fires, the quantities of agents used were less than those 
recommended by the theoretical critical fire area calculations. 

As a result, RFFP II developed material recommending that 
the practical area be approximately two-thirds the theoretical 
area [see Figure A-10-3. 7.1(a)], This principle has been adopted 
by the ICAO, the NFPA, and the U.S. FAA in the development 
of tables that show extinguishing agent volumes for their 
respective standards and recommended practices. The practi- 
cal critical fire area (PC) for fixed-wing aircraft is commonly 
expressed as follows: 

3. (practical critical fire area) = 

(0.67) x (theoretical critical fire area) 



or 



3a. PC = (0.67) (TC) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-171 



FIGURE A-10-3.7.1 (a) Practical critical fire area relative to 
theoretical critical fire area. [418: Figure A-3-6.1(a)] 



3. Therefore: Q= QI + Q2 = 




Theoretical critical 
fire area (TCA) 



Practical critical 
fire area (PCA) 



Fixed-wing aircraft 



In adapting the fixed-wing fire protection methodology to 
helicopters, the committee considered the following addi- 
tional factors that make the fire protection problem of heli- 
copters (rotary-wing aircraft) unique: 

(a) Occupied Space. Relative to its fixed-wing counterpart, a 
smaller portion of the overall aircraft length is occupied. 

(b) Fuel Quantities and Location. Fuel tanks are not located 
in the "wings" or rotor blades, and relatively small quantities 
of fuel are involved. 

(c) Impact Energy. Relative to the fixed-wing counterpart, a 
helicopter accident generally occurs at slow ground speeds. 

(d) Expected Aircraft Size. In general, heliports are designed 
for the largest helicopter expected to utilize the facility, not the 
median size for the category. [See Tables A- 10-3. 7.1(a) and (b).J 

After considering both the factors involved in the fixed- 
wing methodology and those factors that are unique to heli- 
copters, the committee arrived at a "Theoretical Critical Area" 
for helicopters that includes a longitudinal dimension of half 
the overall length of the helicopter and a width equal to three 
times the fuselage width. In addition, in the absence of any 
data that suggested a more appropriate alternative, the "prac- 
tical critical fire area" has been determined to be 100 percent 
of the "theoretical critical area." [See Figure A-10-3. 7.1(b).] 

Another established principle is the distinction between 
control and extinguishment of a fire. Test data and a wide 
range of field experience indicate that the quantities of foam 
agent needed to control and extinguish an aircraft fire should 
be determined separately. This principle is expressed in items 
1 through 6 as follows: 

1. Where Qj = Volume of agent needed for 1- 

minute control of PC 

and 

2. Q2= Volume of agent needed for contin- 

ued control or complete extinguish- 
ment of fire related to PC, or both. 



Minimum agent vol- 
ume for effective fire 
service operations. 



The relationship between Qj and Q9 as they were devel- 
oped by the committee that studied the fixed-wing fire protec- 
tion problem is as follows: 



4. Qi = (application rate) x (practical critical area) 



4a.Q 1 = (AR)(PC) 



Where the "application 
rate" is the unit volume of 
agent applied to a unit 
area of fire in a unit time; 
the exact units such as 
gpm/ft 2 or lpm/m 2 
depend on the units con- 
vention being used. 



Q2 = f (Qi ) And it has been determined that, for all 
categories of heliports, f = 1. 



6. Therefore: Q = 2 [ (AR) (PC) ] 



A sample calculation of the total water quantity, Q needed 
where aqueous film-forming foam concentrate is to be used at 
each of the three categories of heliport is provided in Tables A- 
10-3.7.1 (a) and (b). A similar set of water quantities can be cal- 
culated for any other foam concentrate for which an accepted 
application rate is known. The value for the AFFF application 
rate in column 5 of Tables A-10-3.7.1 (a) and (b) is substituted 
and the indicated calculations are performed to obtain the 
value of Q for the specific foam concentrate to be used. 

FIGURE A-10-3.7. 1 (b) Practical critical fire area for 
helicopters. [418: Figure A-3-6. 1(b)] 



Practical critical 
fire area (PCA) 



Rotary-wing aircraft 



2000 Edition 



1-172 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Table A-10-3.7.1 (a) Method to Determine Helicopter Critical Fire Area and Required Minimum Amount of Water for a Hose 
Line (AFFF) System 



NFPA/ICAO 
Heliport 
Category 



V 2 xO.L. 
of Largest 
Helicopter 



1 



Fuselage 

Width 

Tripled 2 



Crital 
Fire Area 



Application 
Rate 

(gpm/ft 2 ) 



Q : Water to 

Control 
within 1 Min 



Q 2 Reserve 

to 
Extinguish 



Q 

Total Water 
to Extinguish 



H-l Oft < 50 ft 25 ft x 
H-2 50ft < 80 ft 40 ft x 
H-3 80 ft < 120 ft 60 ft x 



15 ft = 375 ft 2 x 0.10 
21ft = 840 ft 2 x 0.10 
24 ft = 1440 ft 2 x 0.10 



= 37.5 U.S. gal + 100% 
= 84 U.S. gal + 100% 
= 144 U.S. gal + 100% 



75 U.S. gal 
168 U.S. gal 
288 U.S. gal 



] O.L.= Overall length, measured from tip of main rotor fully extended to tip of tail rotor fully extended. 
2 Fuselage width = Actual fuselage width (does not include landing gear) measured from outside of cabin. 



Table A-10-3.7.1(b) Method to Determine Helicopter Critical Fire Area and Required Minimum Amount of Water for a Hose 
Line (AFFF) System 



NFPA/ICAO 

Heliport 
Category 



V2 * O.L. Fuselage 

of Largest Width 

Helicopter 1 Tripled 2 



Application 
Practical Rate 

Crital t(L/ 

Fire Area min)m 2 ] 



Qi Water to 

Control 
within 1 Min 



Q 2 Reserve 

to 
Extinguish 



Q 

Total Water 
to Extinguish 



H-l m < 15.2 m 7.6 m x 4.6 m = 34.8 m 2 x 4.1 
H-2 15.2 m < 24.4 m 12.2 m x 6.4 m = 78.0 m 2 x 4.1 
H-3 24.4 m < 36.6 m 18.3 m x 7.3 m = 133.8 m 2 x 4.1 



= 141.9 L + 100% 
= 317.9 L + 100% 
= 545.0 L + 100% 



283.9 L 
635.9 L 
1090 L 



'O.L. = Overall length, measured from tip of main rotor fully extended to tip of tail rotor fully extended. 
2 Fuselage width = Actual fuselage width (does not include landing gear) measured from outside of cabin. 



To fully appreciate the significance and simplicity of this 
methodology as a means of determining levels of fire protec- 
tion, it should be clearly understood that Qj is only that mini- 
mum quantity of fire-fighting agent required for 1-minute fire 
control (90 percent extinguishment) of the anticipated prac- 
tical critical fire area. Therefore, any fire and rescue service 
cannot be expected to perform an effective rescue effort 
where equipped with less than the quantity of primary extin- 
guishing agent specified by the volume of Oj for the specific 
airport/heliport category. Furthermore, a fire suppression/ 
rescue mission that is initiated using the required minimum 
application rate and is continued at that rate, while effectively 
extinguishing fire or securing unburned fuel within the prac- 
tical area, ceases operations at the end of 1 minute. In other 
words, the agent specified by the volume Qi is depleted. There 
is no agent available for mop-up activities, foam blanket 
repair, or standby protection for continued rescue or salvage 
activities. Therefore, while the control volume Qi provides an 
operational significance that is critical to the rescue operation, 
it is, at the same time, limited. 

It should therefore be clear that in order to extend an 
effective fire suppression and rescue operation beyond the ini- 
tial 1-minute fire control period, an additional volume of foam 
agent, Q2, needs to be available. This volume of agent is used 
to repair foam blanket damage that might be caused by evac- 
uees and rescue workers walking through the foamed areas or 
by hot surfaces created by the initial fire. Furthermore, Qg is 
needed to extinguish all fire in the practical critical fire area 
and those fires outside the practical critical area that initially 



are determined to pose no threat to life. Agent quantity in 
accordance with Q2 also provides standby protection before 
total extinguishment during interior aircraft search opera- 
tions and for the removal of immobile survivors after fire con- 
trol. It also is used for securing the fire area during initial 
aircraft salvage operations immediately after total fire extin- 
guishment. Therefore, an aircraft fire service equipped with 
only the 1-minute fire control volume represented by Qj is 
expected to assume a significant level of risk. That risk cannot 
be considered a "calculated risk" unless the manager selecting 
the reduced agent volume knows the nature of the fire area 
and the potential hazard involved. (418:A-3-6.1) 

A-10-3.7.3 The area of application and the duration where 
using a hose line system is reduced because foam is applied 
efficiently and direcdy on the fire by trained personnel. 
(418:A-3-6.3) 

A-13-1.4 See Figures A-l-3.2(a) through (e) in NFPA96, Stan- 
dard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cook- 
ing Operations, which show examples of clearance reduction 
systems. (96:A-l-3.2) 

A-13-1.5.1 Cleaning to bare metal does not mean to remove the 
paint from a painted surface of the exhaust system. (96:A-8-3.1) 

A-l 3-2.1 The system used to rate extinguishers for Class B fires 
(flammable liquids in depth) does not take into consideration 
the special nature of heated grease fires. Cooking grease fires 
are a special hazard requiring agents that saponify (make a 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-173 



soap foam layer to seal the top surface of the grease) for this 
application. (96^-7-10.1) 

A-13-2.3 Fire extinguishers for cooking media (vegetable or 
animal oils and fats) traditionally followed Table 7-6.3.3.1 of 
NFPA 10 for extra (high) hazard, requiring a minimum 40-B 
rated sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate dry chem- 
ical extinguisher. The evolution of high-efficiency cooking 
appliances and the change to hotter-burning vegetable short- 
ening has created a more severe fire hazard. Testing has 
shown that wet chemical extinguishers have several times the 
cooking fire-extinguishing capability of a minimum 40-B 
rated sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate dry chem- 
ical extinguisher, which has prompted the creation of a new 
classification and a new listing test protocol. The listing test 
protocol is described in NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire 
Extinguishers, A-2-3.2(a) through (c). Refer to NFPA 10, Appendi- 
ces C, D, and E for information on Class K and other fire extin- 
guishers used to protect kitchen areas. (10:A-2-3.2) 

A-13-3.3.3 UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for 
Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, primarily addresses self- 
contained chemical extinguishing systems. (96:A-7-2.2) 

A-17-2 NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, con- 
tains additional provisions for design and operations of flam- 
mable and combustible liquid facilities. 

A-17-3.1.1 NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flam- 
mable or Combustible Materials, does not cover spray application 
operations that are conducted outdoors on buildings, bridges, 
tanks, or similar structures. These situations occur only occa- 
sionally for any given structure and overspray deposits are not 
likely to present a hazardous condition. Also, the space where 
there might be an ignitable vapor-air or dust-air mixture is very 
limited due to atmospheric dilution. (33:A-1-1.3) 

For information on specific applications, see the following 
chapters of NFPA 33: Chapter 9 on Fixed Electrostatic Appa- 
ratus (including robots), Chapter 10 on Electrostatic Hand 
Spraying Equipment, Chapter 1 1 on Drying, Curing, or Fusion 
Processes, Chapter 12 on Automobile Undercoating in 
Garages, Chapter 13 on Powder Coatings, and Chapter 14 on 
Organic Peroxides and Plural Component Coatings (includ- 
ing Fiberglass). 

A-l 7-3.4.5 NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, 
contains information about grounding for static electric 
charge. (33:A-4-5) 

A-l 7-3.6.4.2 NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, 
provides information on static protection. (33:6-5.2) 

A-17-4.3 See NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces. 

A-17-4.4 Section 17-4.4 anticipates conditions of average use. 

A-17-6 The authority having jurisdiction should review NFPA 
329, Recommended Practice for Handling Releases of Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids and Gases, for guidance. 

A-18-2.2(3) For additional information on cutting and weld- 
ing of containers that have held flammable materials, see 
NFPA 327, Standard Procedures for Cleaning or Safeguarding Small 
Tanks and Containers Without Entry, and ANSI/AWS F-4.1, Rec- 



ommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting 
Containers and Piping. 

Additional consideration should be given when perform- 
ing hot work in areas near the storage of large quantities of 
exposed, readily ignitible materials such as bulk sulfur, baled 
paper, or cotton. For additional information on welding and 
cutting in storage areas, refer to NFPA 231, Standard for General 
Storage, NFPA 231C, Standard for Rack Storage of Materials, NFPA 
231D, Standard for Storage of Rubber Tires, NFPA 231E, Recom- 
mended Practice for the Storage of Baled Cotton; and NFPA 655, 
Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions. (51B:A-3-2) 

A-18-2.3.2 Examples of hot work permits are shown in Figures 
A-18-2.3.2(a) and A-18-2.3.2(b). These permits can be modi- 
fied to suit local conditions. (51B:A-3-3.1) 

A-18-2.3.3(3) When hot work is performed at an elevated 
level, it should be noted that the sparks or slag can fall at a tra- 
jectory and land further than 35 ft (11 m) horizontally from a 
point directly under the hot work operator. [51B: A-3-3.2(c)] 

A-18-2.3.4 It is advisable that the permit should be issued for 
a maximum period of 24 hours. (51B:A-3-3.3) 

A-18-2.3.5 In some situations, it is advisable to inspect the area 
once per shift if conditions warrant. (51B:A-3-3.4) 

A-18-2.4.1(l) Figure A-3-4.1 (1) demonstrates the hot work 35- 
ft (11-m) rule.[51B:A-3-4.1(a)] 

A-18-2.4.3 Situations where an additional fire watch(es) 
might be necessary include hot work near open shafts, ele- 
vated heights, or where sparks can travel through openings, 
and so on. (51B: A-3-4.3) 

A-18-2.4.7 It is desirable for the fire watch to have experience 

with test fires. (51B:A-2-4.4) 

A-18-3.2.3 For information on marking and labeling of com- 
pressed and liquefied gas cylinders, see CGA C-7, Guide to the 
Precautionary Labeling and Marking of Compressed Gas Containers. 
(51:A-2-1.3) 

A-20-1.1 NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories 
Using Chemicals, contains requirements, but not all-inclusive 
requirements, for handling and storage of chemicals, where 
laboratory-scale operations are conducted. It does not cover 
the special fire protection required when handling explosive 
materials or the special fire protection required when han- 
dling radioactive materials. 

A-20-1.3(6) For information on working with radioactive 
materials, see NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Protection for Facilities 
Handling Radioactive Materials. 

A-21-2.1.2 Prior to April 1, 1967, regulations of the U.S. 
Department of Transportation were promulgated by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. In Canada, the regulations of 
the Canadian Transport Commission apply. Available from 
the Canadian Transport Commission, Union Station, Ottawa, 
Canada. 

Construction of containers to the API-ASME Code, has not 
been authorized after July 1, 1961. (58:A-2-2.1.3) 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE A-18-2.3.2(a) Sample of a hot work permit [51B:Figure A-3-3.1(a)] 



Sidel 

PERMIT 

FOR CUTTING AND WELDING 

WITH PORTABLE GAS OR ARC EQUIPMENT 



Date 

Building 
Dept. 



Floor 



Work to be done 



Special precautions . 



Is fire watch required? 

The location where this work is to done has been examined, 
necessary precautions taken, and permission is granted 
for this work. (See other side.) 

Permit expires 



Signed . 



(Individual responsible for 
authorizing welding and cutting) 



Time Started . 



Completed 



FINAL CHECK 

Work area and all adjacent areas to which sparks and heat 
might have spread (including floors above and below and 
on opposite side of wall(s) were inspected 30 minutes after 
the work was completed and were found firesafe. 



Signed . 



(Supervisor of Fire Watcher) 



Side 2 

ATTENTION 

Before approving any cutting and welding permit, the fire 
safety supervisor or appointee shall inspect the work area 
and confirm that precautions have been taken to prevent 
fire in accordance with NFPA 51 B. 

PRECAUTIONS 

□ Sprinklers in service 

□ Cutting and welding equipment in good repair 

WITHIN 35 FT OF WORK 

□ Floors swept clean of combustibles 

□ Combustible floors wet down, covered with damp sand, 
metal, or other shields. 

□ All wall and floor openings covered 

□ Covers suspended beneath work to collect sparks 

WORK ON WALLS OR CEILINGS 
Q Construction noncombustible and without combustible 
covering 

□ Combustibles moved away from opposite side of wall 

WORK ON ENCLOSED EQUIPMENT 
(Tanks containers, ducts, dust collectors, etc.) 

□ Equipment cleaned of all combustibles 

□ Containers purged of flammable vapors 

FIRE WATCH 

□ To be provided during and 30 minutes after operation 

□ Supplied with extinguisher and small hose 

□ Trained in use of equipment and in sounding fire alarm 

FINAL CHECK 

□ To be made 30 minutes after completion of any 
operation unless fire watch is provided. 

Signed 



(Supervisor) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-175 



FIGURE A-18-2.3.2(b) Sample of a hot work permit. [51B:Figure A-3-3.1 (b)] 



HOT WORK PERMIT 



BEFORE INITIATING HOT WORK, ENSURE PRECAUTIONS ARE IN PLACE! 
MAKE SURE AN APPROPRIATE FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS READILY AVAILABLE! 



This Hot Work Permit is required for any operation involving open flames or producing 
heat and/or sparks. This includes, but is not limited to: Brazing, Cutting, Grinding, 
Soldering, Thawing Pipe, Torch Applied Roofing, and Cadwelding. 



INSTRUCTIONS 

A. Verify precautions listed at right (or do not 
proceed with the work). 

B. Complete and retain PART 1. 

C. Issue PART 2 to person doing job. 



PART1 



HOT WORK BEING DONE BY 
Q EMPLOYEE 
□ CONTRACTOR 



DATE 



JOR NO. 



LOCAI ION/BUILDING & FLOOR 



NATURE OF JOB/OBJECT 



NAME OF PERSON DOING HOT WORK 



I verify the above location has been examined, the 
precautions checked on the Required Precautions 
Checklist have been taken to prevent fire, and 
permission is authorized for work. 



PERMIT 
EXPIRES: 



DATE 



AM 
PM 



NOTE EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION ON BACK OF FORM. 
USE AS APPROPRIATE FOR YOUR FACILITY. 



THIS PERMIT IS GOOD FOR 
ONE DAY ONLY! 



Required Precautions Checklist 



□ Available sprinklers, hose streams and 
extinguishers are in service/operable. 

□ Hot Work equipment in good repair. 
Requirements within 35 ft (10 m) of work 

□ Flammable liquids, dust, lint and oil deposits 
removed. 

□ Explosive atmosphere in area eliminated. 

□ Floors swept clean. 

□ Combustible floors wet down, covered with damp 
sand or fire-resistant sheets. 

□ Remove other combustibles where possible. 
Otherwise protect with fire-resistant tarpaulins 
or metal shields. 

□ All wall and floor openings covered. 

□ Fire-resistant tarpaulins suspended beneath work. 



Work on walls or ceilings/enclosed equipment 

□ Construction is noncombustible and without 
combustible covering or insulation. 

□ Combustibles on other side of walls moved away. 

□ Danger exist by conduction of heat into another 
area. 

□ Enclosed equipment cleaned of all combustibles. 

□ Containers purged of flammable liquids/vapors. 
Fire watch/Hot Work area monitoring 

□ Fire watch will be provided during and for 

(30 minutes) after work, including any coffee or 
lunch breaks. 

□ Fire watch is supplied with suitable extinguishers. 

□ Fire watch is trained in use of this equipment 
and in sounding alarm. 

□ Fire watch may be required for adjoining areas, 
above, and below. 

□ Monitor Mot Work area for 30 minutes after job 
is completed. 

Other Precautions Taken 

Q Confined space entry permit required. 

□ Is area protected with smoke or heat detection. 

□ Ample ventilation to remove smoke/vapor from 
work area. 

□ Lockout/tagout required. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



FIGURE A-18-2.4.1(l) The hot work 35-ft (11-m) rule. [51B:Figure A-3-4.1(a)] 



Fire wall 




• Remove or shield from 
sparks all potential fuels 
within 35 ft (11 m) of the 
work area. In this case, the 
paint cart and palletized 
storage. 

• Empty racks on which the 
work is to be done of all 
storage 

• Close fire doors and seal 
floor openings such as the 
area surrounding process 
piping with noncombustible 
caulking. 

• Cover heavy combustible 
storage that is impractical 
to move with the fire- 
resistive tarpaulin. 



A-21-3.1. 1.6(3) For information on determination of flash 
points, see NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 
[58:3-2.2.7(c) Note] 

A-21-3.1. 1.6(6) Also, see NFPA 50, Standard for Bulk Oxygen Sys- 
tems at Consumer Sites, and NFPA51, Standard for the Design and 
Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding Cutting and 
Allied Processes, for oxygen systems and NFPA 50A, Standard for 
Gaseous Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites, for gaseous hydro- 
gen systems. [58: 3-2.2.7(f) Note] 

A-21-3.1. 1.7 The presence of such structures can create signif- 
icant hazards, e.g., pocketing of escaping gas, interference 
with application of cooling water by fire departments, redirec- 
tion of flames against containers, and impeding egress of per- 
sonnel in an emergency. (58: 3-2.2.9 Note) 

A-21-3.1.2(6) Generally, a light reflecting color paint is pre- 
ferred unless the system is installed in an extremely cold cli- 
mate. [58:A-3-2.4.1(f)] 

A-21-3.3.7.3 The weight will be affected by the specific gravity 
of the liquefied petroleum (LP) gas. Weights varying from 
16.0 oz (454 g) to 16.8 oz (476 g) are recognized as being 
within the range of what is nominal. (58:A-3-4.8.3) 

A-21-3.4.1.2 The National Fire Protection Association, Ameri- 
can Petroleum Institute, and National Propane Gas Associa- 
tion publish material, including visual aids, useful in such 
planning. (58:A-3-10.2.2) 

A-2 1-3.4. 1.3 In recent years the concept of total product con- 
trol systems has been developed. Facilities that have redun- 
dant automatic product controls systems provide a high level 
of confidence that propane will not be released during an 
emergency. Therefore, not only will the storage be protected 
from a fire that could lead to container rupture, but major 
fires at the facility would be prevented. The public would be 
protected, fire fighting operations would be safer, and appli- 
cations of large quantities of water would not be needed to 
prevent tank failure. 

A fire safety analysis should include the following: 

(a) An analysis of local conditions of hazard within the 
container site 



(b) Exposure to or from other properties, population den- 
sity, and congestion within the site 

(c) The probable effectiveness of plant fire brigades or 
local fire departments based on adequate water supply, 
response time, and training 

(d) Consideration for the adequate application of water by 
hose stream or other method for effective control of leakage, 
fire, or other exposures (58: A-3-10.2.3) 

A-21-3.4.1.3 Exception No. 2. Special protection is a means 
of limiting the temperature of an LP-Gas container for pur- 
poses of minimizing the possibility of failure of the con- 
tainer as the result of fire exposure. Special protection 
consists of applied insulating coatings, mounding, burial, 
water spray fixed systems, or fixed monitor nozzles that 
meet the criteria specified in 21-4.3.2 or any means listed 
for this purpose. (58: A-3-10.2.3 Exception 2) 

A-21-3.4.2.1 For LP-Gas fixed storage facilities of 60,000-gal 
(227-m 3 ) water capacity or less, a competent fire safety analysis 
(see 21-3.4.1.3) could indicate that applied insulating coatings 
are quite often the most practical solution for special protec- 
tion. 

It is recommended that insulation systems be evaluated on 
the basis of experience or listings by an approved testing labo- 
ratory. (58: A-3-10.3.1) 

A-21-5.5.1 The filling process in (e) refers to the time period 
beginning when a cylinder or cylinders are brought to a dis- 
pensing station to be filled and ending when the last cylinder 
is filled and all the cylinders are removed from the filling area. 
This is meant to define a continuous process with the cylinders 
being unattended for only brief periods, such as operator 
breaks or lunch. (58: A-5-4.1) 

A-22-1.1 NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and 
Boatyards, recognizes the following circumstances: 

(1) Electrical wiring on and about piers and floats and con- 
nected to craft presents exceptional fire and shock haz- 
ard. NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marines and 
Boatyards, emphasizes, and in some cases exceeds, the 
requirements of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX A 



1-177 



(2) Marinas and related facilities frequently are located in 
remote areas, isolated from public protection, or with 
dock areas that are not easily accessible to community fire 
equipment. Hence, the selection, location, and mainte- 
nance of fire-fighting equipment, and adequate training 
in its use, are essential. 

(3) Continuing operations such as fiberglassing, woodwork- 
ing, painting and paint removing, welding and cutting, 
and handling gasoline and other highly flammable liq- 
uids are hazardous operations that require careful vigi- 
lance and fire prevention effort by management. 

A-22-2.3(l) See NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas 
and Boatyards. (307:A-1-1 .2) 

A-22-2.3(2) See NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. (307:A-1-1.3) 

A-22-2.3(3) See NFPA 59A, Standard for the Production, Storage, 
and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), or NFPA 58, Liq- 
uefied Petroleum Gas Code. (307:A-1-1.4) 

A-22-3.1 Due to the quantity and character of combustible 
materials used, many vessels undergoing construction, conver- 
sion, or repairs, and vessels laid up in a shipyard or elsewhere 
are readily vulnerable to fire. Long passageways, unenclosed 
stairways, hatches, and hoistways facilitate the rapid spread of 
fire throughout the vessel. The location of the vessel is often 
so isolated that private protection is the main source of fire- 
fighting services. Even where major municipal protection is 
available, the possible delayed response due either to lateness 
in the discovery of the fire or the absence of means for quick 
notification, lack of special equipment in many municipal fire 
departments for combating shipboard fires, or an unfamiliar- 
ity with ship construction due to the transitory nature of the 
risk can cause material damage or complete destruction 
before effective means of extinguishment can be brought into 
action. Therefore, every reasonable means of preventing fire 
shall be provided and supplemented by means of detection 
and protection equipment that permit the prompt discovery, 
retard the spread, and permit extinguishment of any fire 
before it has passed the incipient stage. This includes full coor- 
dination and cooperation with municipal fire departments. 
(312: Introduction) 

A-23-4 Emergency discharge systems for ammonia and other 
refrigerants should comply with the requirements of ASHRAE 
15, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration. 

Where discharge to atmosphere endangers life or the envi- 
ronment, manually controlled discharge of refrigerant vapor 
to a water diffusion system should be considered. 

A-24-2.2(3) The term contamination in this definition means 
minor contamination that can occur if the material is spilled 
or placed into improperly cleaned equipment. It does not 
mean gross contamination with large quantities of combusti- 
bles or incompatible materials. [430:A-l-6(c)] 

A-24-2.2(4) SeeA-24-2.2(3). 

A-24-2.5. 1 . 1 Recommended retail store arrangements for mutu- 
ally incompatible oxidizers are shown in Figures A-24-2.5.1.1 (a) 
and (b) . These two diagrams illustrate arrangements that mini- 
mize the chance of contamination between incompatible mate- 
rials. Wherever possible, vertical separation should be 
maintained between incompatible materials. (430-A-7-2.1) 



FIGURE A-24-2.5. 1 . 1 (a) Recommended retail store 
arrangement for mutually incompatible oxidizers. 
[430:FigureA-7-2.1(a)] 

Solid partitions 



\ 


\/ 


s 




\ 


\vShelf 






Shelf 

4 


"\ 






v. 

Shelf 

7 ^ 


\. Shelf 
\2 






Shelf 
5 




\ 




Shelf 
8 "v 


>s. Shelf 
\3 


\ 


^% 


Shelf ^ 
6 


"S, 


N. 

Shelf 



Shelf 1: Oxidizer A 
Shelf 2: Oxidizer A 
Shelf 3: Oxidizer A 



Shelf 4: Oxidizer B 
Shelf 5: Oxidizer B 
Shelf 6: Oxidizer B 



Shelf 7: Oxidizer C 
Shelf 8: Oxidizer C 
Shelf 9: Oxidizer C 



Oxidizers A, B, and C are mutually incompatible. 



FIGURE A-24-2.5. 1 . 1 (b) Recommended retail store 
arrangement for mutually incompatible oxidizers and other 
incompatible materials. [430:Figure A-7-.2.1(b)] 

Solid partitions 



^\ 


%/ 


lis 

;p.<-;: . 






\vShelf 






Shelf 
4 








-s 

Shelf 

7 ^ 

*• 






\v Shelf 






Shelf 
5 








Shelf 

8 ^ 


\. Shelf 
\3 


-« 


Shelf \v. 

6 ^. •: 


s* 

Shelf 

9 "v 



Shelf 1: 


Oxidizer A 


Shelf 4: 


Oxidizer B 


Shelf 7: 


Oxidizer C 


Shelf 2: 


Oxidizer A 


Shelf 5: 


Oxidizer B 


Shelf 8: 


Oxidizer C 


Shelf 3: 


Oxidizer A 


Shelf 6: 


Oxidizer B 


Shelf 9: 


Oxidizer C 



Oxidizers A, B, and C are mutually incompatible. 

A-24-2.5.1.5 For certain oxidizers in combustible containers, 
(e.g., calcium hypochlorite in plastic containers) automatic 
sprinkler protection is effective only for control of exposure 
fires. (430:A-7-2.5) 

A-24-2.7.3 Only the building limit, not the pile limit, height, 
or width, can be increased by this provision. (430:A-3-2.3 
Note) 



2000 Edition 



1-178 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



A-24-2.8.4 Only the building limit, not the pile limit, height, 
or width, can be increased by this provision. (430:A-4-2.4 
Note) 

A-24-2.9.5 Only the building limit, not the pile limit, height, 
or width, can be increased by this provision. (430:A-5-2.5 

Note) 

A-24-3.6.1.3 In the venting equation, use the fuel characteris- 
tic constant for "gases with fundamental burning velocity less 
than 1.3 times that of propane." See NFPA 68, Guide for Venting 
of Deflagrations, for information on vent design. Refer to man- 
ufacturers' technical data for information on organic perox- 
ide formulations that give off flammable gases upon 
decomposition. (432:A-2-10.1.3) 

A-24-3.7.3.3 For information on combustible or limited-com- 
bustible construction, see NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Build- 
ing Construction. (432:A-3-4.3) 

A-24-3.8.1.4 In the venting equation, use the fuel characteris- 
tic constant for "gases with fundamental burning velocity less 
than 1 .3 times that of propane." See NFPA 68, Guide for Venting 
of Deflagrations, for information on vent design. Refer to man- 
ufacturers' technical data for information on organic perox- 
ide formulations that give off flammable gases upon 
decomposition. (432:A-4-3.4) 

A-24-3.8.2 For information on combustible or limited-com- 
bustible construction, see NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Build- 
ing Construction. (432:A-4-4) 

A-26-1.1 Additional examples of agricultural pesticides cov- 
ered by this Code can be found in the Farm Chemicals Hand- 
book. (434:A-1-1.2) 

A-27-1.2 NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing, covers 
the equipment and installations used in the design, construc- 
tion, transportation, fire safety, plumbing, heat-producing, 
and electrical systems of manufactured homes that are 
designed to be used as dwelling units. 

A-27-2.2 NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles, is a com- 
panion standard to NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle 
Parks and Campgrounds, and covers the fire and life safety crite- 
ria for recreational vehicles considered necessary to provide a 
reasonable level of protection from loss of life due to fire and 
explosion. 



A-28-2.2.1.5 API 1621, Recommended Practice for Bulk Liquid 
Stock Control at Retail Outlets, provides information on this sub- 
ject. (30A:A-2-1.5) 

A-28-2.2.4.1 PEI RP200, Recommended Practices for Installation of 
Aboveground Storage Systems for Motor Vehicle Fueling, provides 
information on this subject. (30A:A-2-4.1) 

A-28-2.8.2.2 There have been many instances of fires at ser- 
vice stations involving customers filling portable gasoline con- 
tainers in pickup trucks with plastic bed liners. In 
investigations of these incidents, it appears that static electric- 
ity of the bed liner prevents the static charge from dissipating 
to ground. The static charge in the portable container arcs to 
the dispensing nozzle causing a spark that ignites the gasoline 
vapor at the mouth of the container. The following steps can 
be taken to prevent the danger: 

(1) Use an approved portable container. 

(2) Do not fill any portable container while it is inside a vehi- 
cle, a vehicle's trunk, a pickup truck bed, or any surface 
other than ground. 

(3) Remove portable containers from the vehicle and place 
them on the ground to fill. 

(4) Keep the nozzle in contact with the portable container 
during filling. 

(5) Never use a latch open device to fill a portable container. 

(6) Follow all other safety procedures, including no smoking. 
(30A:A-9-2.2) 

A-28-4.6.2 NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, con- 
tains information on bonding and grounding. (30A:A-1 0-7.2) 

A-28-5.2 For information on on-site storage of LNG in ASME 
tanks larger than 70,000 gal (265 m s ) and tanks built to API or 
other standards, see NFPA 59A, Standardfor the Production, Stor- 
age, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). 

At the time NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular 
Fuel Systems Code, was developed, the use of LNG as an aviation 
fuel, fueling site liquefaction facilities, and the use of residen- 
tial LNG fueling facilities were not being considered actively. 
The Technical Committee on Natural Gas Vehicular Fuel Sys- 
tems intends to provide coverage for these applications at the 
appropriate time. 

A-29-1 .3 See also NFPA 241 , Standardfor Safeguarding Construc- 
tion, Alteration, and Demolition Operations. (102:A.4.6.1O.2) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX B 



1-179 



Appendix B Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 

This appendix is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA doc- 
ument but is included for informational purposes only. 

B-l This appendix provides information, explanations, and ex- 
amples to illustrate and clarify the hazard categories contained 
in Chapter 24 of this Code. The hazard categories are based on 
29 CFR. Where numerical classifications are included, they are 
in accordance with nationally recognized standards. 

B-2 Oxidizers. 

B-2.1 General. The oxidizers on the following lists are typical 
for their class. Each oxidizer is undiluted unless a concentra- 
tion is specified. 

B-2.2 Typical Class 1 Oxidizers. 

All inorganic nitrates (unless otherwise classified) 

All inorganic nitrites (unless otherwise classified) 

Ammonium persulfate 

Barium peroxide 

Calcium peroxide 

Hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 8 percent up to 
27.5 percent) 

Lead dioxide 

Lithium hypochlorite (39 percent or less available chlorine) 

Lithium peroxide 

Magnesium peroxide 

Manganese dioxide 

Nitric acid (40 percent concentration or less) 

Perchloric acid solutions (less than 50 percent by weight) 

Potassium dichromate 

Potassium percarbonate 

Potassium persulfate 

Sodium carbonate peroxide 

Sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate 

Sodium dichromate 

Sodium perborate (anhydrous) 

Sodium perborate monohydrate 

Sodium perborate tetrahydrate 

Sodium percarbonate 

Sodium persulfate 

Strontium peroxide 

Trichloro-s-triazinetrione (trichloroisocyanuric acid) 
all forms) 

Zinc peroxide 

B-2.3 Typical Class 2 Oxidizers. 

Barium bromate 

Barium chlorate 

Barium hypochlorite 

Barium perchlorate 

Barium permanganate 

l-Bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (BCDMH) 

Calcium chlorate 



Calcium chlorite 

Calcium hypochlorite (50 percent or less by weight) 

Calcium perchlorate 

Calcium permanganate 

Chromium trioxide (Chromic acid) 

Copper chlorate 

Halane (1 ,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin) 

Hydrogen peroxide (greater than 27.5 percent up to 52 
percent) 

Lead perchlorate 

Lithium chlorate 

Lithium hypochlorite (more than 39 percent available 
chlorine) 

Lithium perchlorate 

Magnesium bromate 

Magnesium chlorate 

Magnesium perchlorate 

Mercurous chlorate 

Nitric acid (more than 40 percent but less than 86 percent) 

Nitrogen tetroxide 

Perchloric acid solutions (more than 50 percent but less 
than 60 percent) 

Potassium perchlorate 
Potassium permanganate 
Potassium peroxide 
Potassium superoxide 
Silver peroxide 

Sodium chlorite (40 percent or less by weight) 
Sodium perchlorate 
Sodium perchlorate monohydrate 
Sodium permanganate 
Sodium peroxide 
Strontium chlorate 
Strontium perchlorate 
Thallium chlorate 
Urea hydrogen peroxide 
Zinc bromate 
Zinc chlorate 
Zinc permanganate 
B-2.4 Typical Class 3 Oxidizers. 
Ammonium dichromate 

Calcium hypochlorite (over 50 percent by weight) 
Chloric acid (10 percent maximum concentration) 

Hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 52 percent up 
to 91 percent) 

Mono-(trichloro)-tetra-(monopotassium dichloro)-penta- 
s-triazinetrione 

Nitric acid, fuming (more than 86 percent concentration) 

Perchloric acid solutions (60 percent to 72 percent by 
weight) 

Potassium bromate 



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1-180 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Potassium chlorate 

Potassium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (Potassium dichlor- 
oisocyanurate) 

Sodium bromate 

Sodium chlorate 

Sodium chlorite (over 40 percent by weight) 

Sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (sodium dichloroisocya- 
nurate) 

B-2.5 Typical Class 4 Oxidizers. 

Ammonium perchlorate (particle size greater than 15 mi- 
crons) 

Ammonium permanganate 

Guanidine nitrate 

Table B-3.1.2 Class Index of Organic Peroxide Formulations 



Hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 91 percent) 
Tetranitromethane 

NOTE: Ammonium perchlorate less than 15 microns is clas- 
sified as an explosive and, as such, is not covered by this Code. 
(SeeNFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code.) (430: Appendix B) 

B-3 Organic Peroxide Formulations. 

B-3.1 General. 

B-3. 1.1 The assignment of the organic peroxide formulation 
classifications shown in Tables B-3.1.2, B-3.2.3, B-3.3.3, B-3.4.3, 
B-3.5.3, and B-3.6.3 in this Appendix are based on the con- 
tainer sizes shown. A change in the container size could affect 
the classification. 

B-3.1.2 Table B-3.1.2 is an alphabetical listing of typical 
organic peroxide formulations. 



Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Concentration 


Diluent 


Container 


Class 


t-Amyl Hydroperoxide 


88 


Water 


55 gal (208 L) 


III 


t-Amyl Peroxyacetate 


60 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


III 


t-Amyl Peroxybenzoate 


96 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


II 


t-Amyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


96 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


III 


t-Amyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


III 


t-Amyl Peroxypivalate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


III 


t-Butyl Cumyl Peroxide 


95 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


rv 


n-Butyl 4,4-Di(t-butylperoxy) Valerate 


98 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


90 


Water & t-BuOH 


5 gal (19 L) 


i 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


70 


DTBP & t-BuOH 


55 gal (208 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


70 


Water 


55 gal (208 L) 


rv 


t-Butyl Peroxyacetate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


i 


t-Butyl Peroxyacetate 


60 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


i 


t-Butyl Peroxybenzoate 


98 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


97 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


m 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


97 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


50 


DOP or OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


50 


DOP or OMS 


55 gal (208 L) 


m 


t-Butylperoxy 2-Ethylhexyl Carbonate 


95 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


t-Butyl Peroxyisobutyrate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


t-Butylperoxy Isopropyl Carbonate 


92 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


i 


t-Butylperoxy Isopropyl Carbonate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Peroxymaleate 


98 


— 


50 x 1 lb (50 x 0.5 kg) 


i 


t-Butyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


m 


t-Butyl Peroxypivalate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


t-Butyl Peroxypivalate 


45 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Cumyl Hydroperoxide 


88 


Cumene 


55 gal (208 L) 


in 


Cumyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Cumyl Peroxyneoheptanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Diacetyl Peroxide 


25 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


l,l-Di(t-amylperoxy) Cyclohexane 


80 


OMS or BBP 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


1 lb (0.5 kg) 


i 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


78 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 


ii 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


75 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 


m 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


70 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 


rv 



(Sheet 1 of 2) 



2000 Edition 





APPENDIX B 




1-181 


Table B-3.1.2 Class Index of Organic Peroxide Formulations (Continued) 


Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Concentration 


Diluent 


Container 


Class 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


55 


Plasticizer 


350 lb (160 kg) 


III 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


55 


Plasticizer & Water 


350 lb (160 kg) 


rv 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


50 


Plasticizer 


380 lb (170 kg) 


in 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


50 


Plasticizer & Water 


380 lb (170 kg) 


rv 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide slurry 


40 


Water & Plasticizer 


3801b (170 kg) 


rv 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide slurry 


40 


Water 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide powder 


35 


Dicalcium Phosphate 

Dihydrate or Calcium 

Sulfate Dihydrate 


100 lb (45 kg) 


V 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide powder 


35 


Starch 


1001b (45 kg) 


rv 


Di (4-t-butylcyclohexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


88 lb (40 kg) 


in 


Di-t-butyl Peroxide 


99 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


in 


2,2-Di (t-butylperoxy) Butane 


50 


Toluene 


lgal(4L) 


i 


1 , 1-Di (t-butylpeoxy) Cyclohexane 


80 


OMS or BBP 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


Di-sec-butyl Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


lgal(4L) 


ii 


Di-sec-butyl Peroxydicarbonate 


75 | 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


Di (2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl) Benzene 


96 


— 


100 lb (45 kg) 


in 


Di (2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl) Benzene 


40 


Clay 


100 lb (45 kg) 


V 


Di(butylperoxy) Phthalate 


40 


DBP 


30 gal (1 10 L) 


rv 


l,l-Di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane 


7595 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


ii 


l,l-Di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane 


40 


Calcium Carbonate 


100 lb (45 kg) 


v 


Dicetyl Peroxydicarbonate 


85 


— 


20 kg (44 lb) 


rv 


2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl Peroxide 


50 


DBP & Silicone 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Dicumyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


rv 


Dicumyl Peroxide 


40 


Clay or Calcium Carbonate 


100 lb (45kg) 


v 


Didecanoyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


50 lb (23 kg) 


hi 


Di(2-ethylhexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


97 


— 


lgal(4L) 


II 


Di(2-ethylhexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


40 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate 


99 


— 


10 lb (4.5 kg) 


i 


Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate 


30 


Toluene 


5 lb (2.3 kg) 


in 


Di-n-propyl Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


1 gal (4 L) 


i 


Di-n-propyl Peroxydicarbonate 


85 


OMS 


lgal(4L) 


i 


Dilauroyol Peroxide 


98 


— 


1101b (50 kg) 


rv 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di ( benzoylperoxy) Hexane 


95 


— 


4 x 5 lb (4 x 2.3 kg) 


ii 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di(t-butylperoxy)Hexane 


92 


— 


30 gal (110 L) 


in 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di( t-butylperoxy) Hexane 


47 


Calcium Carbonate or Silica 


100 lb (45 kg) 


V 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di(2-ethylhexanoylperoxy) Hexane 


90 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-dihydroperoxyhexane 


70 


Water 


100 lb (45 kg) 


ii 


Ethyl 3,3-Di(t-amylperoxy)Butyrate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Ethyl 3,3-Di(t-amylperoxy)Butyrate 


40 


Clay or Calcium Silicate 


100 lb (45 kg) 


V 


p-Menthyl Hydroperoxide 


54 


Alcohols & Ketones 


55 gal (208 L) 


rv 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


9%AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


5.5% AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


9%AO 


Water & Glycols 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and Cyclohexanone 
Peroxide mixture 


9%AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 


in 


2,4-Pentanedione Peroxide 


4%AO 


Water & Solvent 


5 gal (19 L) 


rv 


Peroxyacetic Acid 


43 


Water, HOAc, & H 2 2 


30 gal (110 L) 


ii 



(Sheet 2 of 2) 

Note: Diluents: OMS — odorless mineral spirits; t-Bu-OH — Tertiary Butanol; DTBP — Di-tertiary-butylperoxide; DOP — Dioctyl Phthalate; BBP 
— Butyl Benzyl Phthalate; DBP — Dibutyl Phthalate; DMP — Dimethyl Phthalate; HOAc — Acetic Acid; H 2 2 — Hydrogen Peroxide. 
(432:TableB-l) 



2000 Edition 



1-182 



FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



B-3.2 Class I Formulations. 

B-3.2.1 Fire Hazard Characteristics. Class I formulations 
present a deflagration hazard through easily initiated, rapid 
explosive decomposition. Class I includes some formulations 
that are relatively safe only under closely controlled tempera- 
tures. Either excessively high or low temperatures can increase 
the potential for severe explosive decomposition. (432:B-2.1) 

B-3.2.2 Fire-Fighting Information. The immediate area 
should be evacuated and the fire should be fought from a 
remote location. Some damage to structures from overpres- 
sure can be expected should a deflagration occur. (432:B-2.2) 

B-3.2.3 Typical Class I Formulations. See Table B-3.2.3. 

B-3.3 Class II Formulations. 

B-3.3.1 Fire Hazard Characteristics. Class II formulations 
present a severe fire hazard similar to Class I flammable liq- 
uids. The decomposition is not as rapid, violent, or complete 
as that produced by Class I formulations. As with Class I formu- 
lations, this class includes some formulations that are relatively 
safe when under controlled temperatures or when diluted. 
(432:B-3.1) 

B-3.3.2 Fire-Fighting Information. Fires should be fought 
from a safe distance, because a hazard exists from rupturing 
containers. (432:B-3.2) 

B-3.3.3 Typical Class II Formulations. See Table B-3.3.3. 



B-3.4 Class HI Formulations. 

B-3.4.1 Fire Hazard Characteristics. Class III formulations 
present a fire hazard similar to Class II combustible liquids. 
They are characterized by rapid burning and high heat libera- 
tion, due to decomposition. (432:B-4.1) 

B-3.4.2 Fire-Fighting Information. Caution should be 
observed due to possible unexpected increases in fire 
intensity. (432:B-4.2) 

B-3.4.3 Typical Class HI Formulations. See Table B-3.4.3. 

B-3.5 Class IV Formulations. 

B-3.5.1 Fire Hazard Characteristics. Class IV formulations 
present fire hazards that are easily controlled. Reactivity has 
little effect on fire intensity. (432:B-5.1) 

B-3.5.2 Fire-Fighting Information. Normal fire-fighting pro- 
cedures can be used. (432:B-5.2) 

B-3.5.3 Typical Class IV Formulations. See Table B-3.5.3. 

B-3.6 Class V Formulations. 

B-3.6.1 Fire Hazard Characteristics. Class V formulations do 
not present severe fire hazards. Those that do burn, do so with 
less intensity than ordinary combustibles. (432:B-6.1) 

B-3.6. 2 Fire-Fighting Information. Fire-fighting procedures 
need primarily consider the combustibility of containers. 
(432:B-6.2) 

B-3.6.3 Typical Class V Formulations. See Table B-3.6.3. 



Table B-3.2.3 Typical Class I Formulations 



Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Nominal 
Concentration, 
Weight Percent 


Diluent 


Individual 
Container Size 


Temp. 
Control 


Hazard Identification 1 












Health 


Flamm. 


Reactivity 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


90 


Water & t-BuOH 


5 gal (19 L) 




3 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxyacetate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxyacetate 


60 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


t-Butylperoxy Isopropyl Carbonate 


92 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxymaleate 


98 


— 


50 x 1 lb 

(50 x 0.5 kg) 




2 


3 


3 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


1 lb (0.5 kg) 




1 


3 


4 


2,2-Di (t-butylperoxy) Butane 


50 


Toluene 


lgal(4L) 




1 


3 


3 


Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate 


99 


— 


10 lb (4.5 kg) 


R 


2 


3 


4 


Di-n-propyl Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


1 gal (4 L) 


R 


2 


3 


4 


Di-n-propyl Peroxydicarbonate 


85 


OMS 


lgal(4L) 


R 


2 


3 


3 



R — Refrigeration required to reduce fire hazard; OMS — Odorless mineral spirits; t-BuOH — tertiary-Butanol. 

JThe column refers to NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, hazard ratings for health, flam- 

inability, and reactivity. See NFPA 704 for details. 

(432:Table B-2.3) 



2000 Edition 







APPENDIX B 










1-183 


Table B-3.3.3 Typical Qass II Formulations 


Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Nominal 
Concentration, 
Weight Percent 


Diluent 


Individual 
Container Size 


Temp. 
Control 


Hazard Identification 1 












Health 


Flamm. 


Reactivity 


t-Amyl Peroxybenzoate 


96 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


3 


2 


n-Butyl 4,4-Di(t-butylperoxy) Valerate 


98 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


3 


2 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


70 


DTBP & t-BuOH 


55 gal (208 L) 




3 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxybenzoate 


98 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


97 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


R 


1 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxyisobutyrate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


3 


3 


t-Butylperoxy Isopropyl Carbonate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


t-Butyl Peroxypivalate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


3 


3 


Diacetyl Peroxide 


25 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 


T 


2 


3 


3 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


78 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 




1 


2 


3 


1 , 1-Di (t-butylperoxy) Cyclohexane 


80 


OMS or BBP 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


3 


Di-sec-butyl Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


lgal(4L) 


R 


1 


3 


3 


Di-sec-butyl Peroxydicarbonate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


3 


3 


l,l-Di(t-butylperoxy)-3,3>5- 
trimethylcyclohexane 


7595 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


3 


3 


Di(2-ethylhexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


97 


— 


lgal(4L) 


R 


1 


3 


3 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di- 
(benzoylperoxy) Hexane 


95 


— 


451b 
(42.3 kg) 




2 


3 


3 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-dihydroperoxyhexane 


70 


Water 


100 lb (45 kg) 




2 


3 


3 


Peroxyacetic Acid 


43 


Water HOAc 
&H 2 O a 


30 gal (110 L) 




3 


2 


3 



R — Refrigeration required to reduce fire hazard. 

T — Temperature control should be considered to reduce fire hazard depending on packaging size and recommendations in manufacturers' 

literature. 

BBP — Butyl Benzyl Phthalate 

DMP — Dimethyl Phthalate 

DTBP — Di-tertiary-butyl Peroxide 

HOAc — Acetic Acid 

H 2 C>2 — Hydrogen Peroxide 

OMS — Odorless Mineral Spirits 

t-BuOH — tertiary-Butanol 

] The column refers to NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, hazard ratings for health, 

flammability, and reactivity. See NFPA 704 for details. 

(432:Table B-3.3) 



2000 Edition 



1-184 


FIRE PREVENTION CODE 










Table B-3.4.3 Typical Class HI Formulations 


Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Nominal 
Concentration, 
Weight Percent 


Diluent 


Individual 
Container Size 


Temp. 
Control 


Hazard Identification 1 












Health 


Flamm. 


Reactivity 


t-Amyl Hydroperoxide 


88 


Water 


55 gal (208 L) 




3 


3 


2 


t-Amyl Peroxyacetate 


60 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


3 


2 


t-Amyl Peroxy-2-ethyl Hexanoate 


96 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 


R 





3 


2 


t-Amyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


3 


2 


t-Amyl Peroxypivalate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


3 


2 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


97 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


3 


2 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


50 


DOP or OMS 


55 gal (208 L) 


R 


1 


2 


2 


t-Butylperoxy 2-Ethylhexyl Carbonate 


95 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


2 


t-Butyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


3 


2 


Cumyl Hydroperoxide 


88 


Cumene 


55 gal (208 L) 




3 


2 


2 


Cumyl Peroxyneodecanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


3 


2 


Cumyl Peroxyneoheptanoate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


3 


2 


1 ,1-Di (t-amylperoxy) cyclohexane 


80 


OMSorBBP 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


3 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


75 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 




1 


2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


55 


Plasticizer 


3501b 
(160 kg) 


T 


1 


2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


50 


Plasticizer 


3801b 
(170 kg) 


T 


1 


2 


2 


Di (4-t-butylcyclohexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


98 


— 


88 lb (40 kg) 




1 


3 


2 


Di-t-butyl Peroxide 


99 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 




1 


3 


2 


Di (2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl) Benzene 


96 


— 


100 lb (45 kg) 




1 


2 


2 


2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl Peroxide 


50 


DBP& 
Silicone 


5 gal (19 L) 


T 


1 


2 


2 


Didecanoyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


50 lb (23 kg) 


R 


1 


3 


2 


Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate 


30 


Toluene 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


3 


2 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di-(2-ethyl 
hexanoylperoxy) Hexane 


90 


— 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 





3 


2 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di-(t-butylperoxy)Hexane 


92 


— 


30 gal (110 L) 




2 


3 


2 


Ethyl 3,3-Di (t-amylperoxy) Butyrate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




1 


3 


2 


Ethyl 3,3-Di (t-butylperoxy) Butyrate 


75 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 




2 


2 


2 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


9%AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 




3 


2 


2 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and 
Cyclohexanone Peroxide mixture 


9% AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 




3 


2 


2 



R — Refrigeration required to reduce fire hazard. 

T — Temperature control shall be considered to reduce fire hazard depending on packaging size and recommendations in manufacturers' 

literature. 

AO — Active Oxygen 

BBP — Butyl Benzyl Phthalate 

DBP— Dibutyl Phthalate 

DMP — Dimethyl Phthalate 

DOP — Dioctyl Phthalate 

OMS — Odorless Mineral Spirits 

J The column refers to NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, hazard ratings for health, 

flammability, and reactivity. See NFPA 704 for details. 

(432:Table B-4.3) 



2000 Edition 







APPENDIX B 










1-185 


Table B-3.5.3 Typical Class IV Formulations 


Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Nomina] 
Concentration, 
Weight Percent 


Diluent 


Individual 
Container Size 


Temp. 
Control 


Hazard Identification 1 












Health 


Flamm. 


Reactivity 


t-Butyl Cumyl Peroxide 


95 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 




2 


2 


2 


t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 


70 


Water 


55 gal (208 L) 




3 


2 


2 


t-Butyl Peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 


50 


DOP or OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


1 


2 


2 


t-Butyl Peroxypivalate 


45 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 


2 


2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


70 


Water 


25 lb (11 kg) 






2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


50 


Plasticizer & Water 


3801b 
(170 kg) 


T 




2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide paste 


55 


Plasticizer & Water 


3501b 
(160 kg) 


T 




2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide slurry 


40 


Water & Plasticizer 


80 lb (170 kg) 


T 




2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide slurry 


40 


Water 


5 gal (19 L) 






2 


2 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide powder 


35 


Starch 


100 lb (45 kg) 






2 


2 


Dicetyl Peroxydicarbonate 


85 


— 


20 kg drums 
(44 lb) 


T 




2 


2 


Dicumyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


55 gal (208 L) 




2 


2 


2 


Di(2-ethylhexyl) Peroxydicarbonate 


40 


OMS 


5 gal (19 L) 


R 




2 


2 


Dilauroyl Peroxide 


98 


— 


1101b (50 kg) 






2 


2 


Di(t-butylperoxy) Phthalate 


40 


DBP 


30 gal (110 L) 




2 


2 


2 


p-Menthyl Hydroperoxide 


54 


Alcohols & Ketones 


55 gal (208 L) 


T 


3 


2 


2 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


5.5% AO 


DMP 


5 gal (19 L) 




3 


2 


2 


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 


9%AO 


Water & Glycols 


5 gal (19 L) 




3 


2 


2 


2,4-Pentanedione Peroxide 


4%AO 


Water & Solvent 


5gal (19 L) 




2 


1 


1 



R — Refrigeration required to reduce fire hazard. 

T — Temperature control should be considered to reduce fire hazard depending on packaging size and recommendations in manufacturers' 

literature. 

AO — Active Oxygen 

DBP — Dibutyl Phthalate 

DMP — Dimethyl Phthalate 

DOP — Dioctyl Phthalate 

OMS — Odorless Mineral Spirits 

'The column refers to NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, hazard ratings for health, 

flammability, and reactivity. See NFPA 704 for details. 

(432:Table B-5.3) 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 










Table B-3.6.3 Typical Class V Formulations 


Organic Peroxide Formulation 


Nominal 
Concentration, 
Weight Percent 


Diluent 


Individual 
Container Size 


Temp. 
Control 


Hazard Identification 1 












Health 


Flamm. 


Reactivity 


Dibenzoyl Peroxide 


35 


Dicalcium Phosphate 

Dihydrate or Calcium 

Sulfate Dihydrate 


100 lb (45 kg) 












Di-(2-t-butylperoxyisopropyl)- 
Benzene 


40 


Clay 


100 lb (45 kg) 











1 ,l-Di-(t-butylperoxy)- 
3,3 , 5-trime thylcyclohexane 


40 


Calcium Carbonate 


100 lb (45 kg) 








1 


Dicumyl Peroxide 


40 


Clay or 
Calcium Carbonate 


100 lb (45 kg) 








1 


2,5-Dimethyl-2,5-di- 
(t-butylperoxy) Hexane 


47 


Calcium Carbonate 
or Silica 


100 lb (45 kg) 








1 


Ethyl 3,3-Di- 
(t-butylperoxy) Butyrate 


40 


Clay or 
Calcium Silicate 


100 lb (45 kg) 








1 



AO — Active Oxygen 

1 The column refers to NFPA 704, Standard for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, hazard ratings for health; flamraability, 

and reactivity. See NFPA 704 for details. 

(432:Table B-6.3) 



2000 Edition 



APPENDIX C 



1-187 



Appendix C Sample Ordinance Adopting the Fire 
Prevention Code 

This appendix is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA doc- 
ument but is included for informational purposes only. 

The following sample ordinance is provided to assist ajuris- 
diction in the adoption of this Code and is not part of this 
Code. 

ORDINANCE NO. 



for each and every such violation and noncompliance, respec- 
tively, be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not 
less than $ nor more than $ or by impris- 



An ordinance of the [jurisdiction J adopting the [year] edi- 
tion of NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code, documents listed in Chap- 
ter 32 of that Code; prescribing regulations governing 
conditions hazardous to life and property from fire or explo- 
sion; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of 
fees; repealing Ordinance No. of the f jurisdiction 1 and 

all other ordinances and parts of ordinances in conflict there- 
with; providing a penalty; providing a severability clause; and 
providing for publication; and providing an effective date. 

BE IT ORDAINED BY THE [governing body] OF THE [juris- 
diction! : 

SECTION 1: That the [Fire Prevention Code] and documents 
adopted by Chapter 32, three (3) copies of which are on file 
and are open to inspection by the public in the office of the 
[jurisdiction , 's keeper of records ! of the f jurisdiction! , are hereby 
adopted and incorporated into this ordinance as fully as if set 
out at length herein, and from the date on which this ordi- 
nance shall take effect, the provisions thereof shall be control- 
ling within the limits of the [jurisdiction !. The same are hereby 
adopted as the code of the [jurisdiction ! for the purpose of pre- 
scribing regulations governing conditions hazardous to life 
and property from fire or explosion and providing for issu- 
ance of permits and collection of fees. 

SECTION 2: Any person who shall violate any provision of 
this code or standard hereby adopted or fail to comply there- 
with; or who shall violate or fail to comply with any order made 
thereunder; or who shall build in violation of any detailed 
statement of specifications or plans submitted and approved 
thereunder; or failed to operate in accordance with any certif- 
icate or permit issued thereunder; and from which no appeal 
has been taken; or who shall fail to comply with such an order 
as affirmed or modified by or by a court of com- 
petent jurisdiction, within the time fixed herein, shall severally 



onment for not less than 
than 



days nor more 

days or by both such fine and imprisonment. 
The imposition of one penalty for any violation shall not 
excuse the violation or permit it to continue; and all such per- 
sons shall be required to correct or remedy such violations or 
defects within a reasonable time; and when not otherwise 
specified the application of the above penalty shall not be held 
to prevent the enforced removal of prohibited conditions. 
Each day that prohibited conditions are maintained shall con- 
stitute a separate offense. 

SECTION 3: Additions, Insertions, and Changes. — That 
the [year] edition of NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code, is amended 
and changed in the following respects: 
[List. Amendments ] 

SECTION 4: That ordinance No. of Jjimsdiit 

lion! entitled ffill in the title of the ordinance or ordinances in effect, 
at the present time! and all other ordinances or parts of ordi- 
nances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

SECTION 5: That if any section, subsection, sentence, 
clause, or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to 
be invalid or unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect 
the validity or constitutionality of the remaining portions of 
this ordinance. The [governing body ] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and eacb section, subsec- 
tion, clause, or phrase hereof, irrespective of the fact that any 
one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses, and 
phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

SECTION 6: That the fjurisdictixm.'s keeper of records! is 
hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be 
published. [NOTE: An additional provision may be required to 
direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to spec- 
ify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may 
also be required.] 

SECTION 7: That this ordinance and the rules, regula- 
tions, provisions, requirements, orders, and matters estab- 
lished and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force 
and effect [time period ! from and after the date of its final pas- 
sage and adoption. 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



Appendix D Referenced Publications 

D-l The following documents or portions thereof arc refer- 
enced within this code for informational purposes only and 
are thus not considered part of the requirements of this code 
unless also listed in Chapter 32. The edition indicated here for 
each reference is the current edition as of the date of the 
NFPA issuance of this code. 

D-l.l NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion, 1 Batterymarch Park, PO. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269- 
9101. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 13, Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using 
Flammable or Combustible Liquids, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 50, Standard for Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, 
1996 edition. 

NFPA 50A, Standard for Gaseous Hydrogen Systems at Consumer 
Sites, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen- 
Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, 1997 
edition. 

NFPA 57, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems 
Code, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 59A, Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling 
of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 1996 edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, 1993 edition. 

NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems, 
1996 edition. 

NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 232A, Guide for Fire Protection for Archives and Records 
Centers, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, 
1995 edition. 

NFPA 326, Standard for the Safeguarding of Tanks and Contain- 
ers forEntry, Cleaning, or Repair, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 329, Recommended Practice for Handling Releases of Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids and Gases, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing 1996 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing, 1999 edition. 



NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Protection for Facilities Handling 
Radioactive Materials, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 914, Recommended Practice for Fire Protection in Historic 
Structures, 1994 edition. 

NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Camp- 
grounds, 1999 edition. 

SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 2nd edition. 

D-1.2 Other Publications. 

D-l.2.1 API Publication. American Petroleum Institute, 1220 
L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. 

API RP 1621, Recommended Practice for Bulk Liquid Stock Con- 
trol at Retail Outlets, 1993. 

D-l. 2.2 ASHRAE Publication. American Society of Heating, 
Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tul- 
lie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329-2305. 

ANSI/ASHRAE 15, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, 
1994. 

D-l. 2.3 AWS Publication. American Welding Society, 550 
N.W. Lejeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. 

ANSI/AWS F-4.1, Recommended Safe Practices for the Prepara- 
tion for Welding and Cutting of Containers and Piping, 1994. 

D-l. 2.4 AWWA Publication. American Water Works Associa- 
tion Inc., 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. 

AWWA Ml 4, Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Con- 
trol, 1990 edition. 

D-l. 2.5 CGA Publication. Compressed Gas Association, 1725 
Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202-4100. 

CGA G7, Guide to the Precautionary Labeling and Marking of 
Compressed Gas Containers, 1992. 

D-l. 2.6 CSA Publication. Canadian Standards Association, 
178 Rexdale Boulevard, Rexdale (Toronto) Ontario, Canada 
M9W 1R3. 

CAN 3-B44, Safety Code for Elevators, including Supplement 
No. 1, 1987. 

D-l .2.7 PEI Publication. Petroleum Equipment Institute, P.O. 
Box 2380, Tulsa, OK 74101. 

PEI RP200, Recommended Practices for Installation of Above- 
ground Storage Systems for Motor Vehicle Fueling, 1996. 

D-l. 2.8 U.S. Government Publication. U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC, 20402. 

Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Labor. 

D-l. 2.9 Additional Publications. 

Farm Chemicals Handbook, Meister Publishing Co., Willoughby, 
OH, 1997. 

Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety, Society of Fire 
Protection Engineers, 7315 Wisconsin Avenue, No. 1225W, 
Bethesda, MD 20814-3202, 2000. 



2000 Edition 



INDEX 



1-189 



Index 



I National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved. 

The copyright in this index is separate and distinct from the copyright in the document that it indexes. The licensing provisions set forth for the 
document are not applicable to this index. This index may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the express written per- 
mission of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc. 



Aboveground tanks, at service stations . 
28-2.2.4, A-28-2.2.4.1 



28-2.2.1.1(3), (7), 



Corrosion protection 28-2.2.4.8 

Definition 2-.1.1 

Fire resistant 28-2.2.4.5 

Location and capacity 28-2.2.4.2 

Marine service stations 28-4.2.1 (2) 

Physical protection 28-2.2.4.7 

Piping and ancillary equipment 28-2.2.4.6 

Spillage control 28-2.2.4.3 

Tank filling operations 28-2.2.4.9 

Vaults 28-2.2.4.4 

Access, fire fighting 

Bridges 3-5.3 

Heliports, roof-top 10-3.6 

LP-Gas systems 21-3.4.1.4 

Access box 3-6 

Definition 2-1.2 

Addition 1-5.8; see also Buildings, Under construction 

Definition 2-1.3 

Aerosol products Chap. 9, A-9-1.2 

Air conditioning see Heating, ventilating, and 

air conditioning (HVAC) systems 

Aircraft fuel servicing 28-3 

Airport fueling systems 28-3.2 

Bonding 28-3.1.4 

Fueling ramp drainage 28-3.3 

Heliports, rooftop 28-3.4 

Internal combustion engine equipment near 28-3.1.6 

Locations 28-3.1.8 

Open flames 28-3.1.7 

Operation of aircraft engines, auxiliary power units, 

and heaters 28-3.1.5 

Personnel 28-3.1.2 

Spills, prevention and control of 28-3.1.3 

Aircraft hangars 10-1 

Airport fueling systems 28-3.2 

Airport ramp 

Definition 2-1.4 

Drainage 28-3.3 

Airport terminal building 10-2 

Definition 2-1, 5-, A-2.1.5 

Air-sampling type detectors 7-7.4.2.9, 7-7.4.2.11.2 

Definition 2-1.50.1 

Alarm systems 7-7, 8-2.2.2 see also Waterflow alarms 

Central station 7-7.3.4, 7-7.3.7.1, 7-7.3.7.4 

Cooking equipment 13-3.7 to 13-3.8 

Detection and 7-7.3.5, A-7-7.3.5.2 

Fire pump operation 7-4.1.8 

Health care occupancies 8-4.2.2 

Heliports, roof-top 10-3.9 



Inspection, testing, and maintenance 7-7.3.2 

Integrity, monitoring for 7-7.3.7, A-7-7.3.7 

Manual fire alarm boxes 7-7.3.3, 10-2.5.4, 10-3.9, 17-3.7.1.2 

Permits 1-16.16(14) 

Power sources 7-7.3.8, A-7-7.3.8 

Spray application operations 17-3.7.1.1 to 17-3.7.1.2, 17-3.7.7 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.4.2 

Stock or equipment trailers 3-10.5 

Vacant buildings 3-8.2 to 3-8.3 

Alarms, door 4-1.7.1, 4-1.9, A-4-1.9 

Alarms, false 1-14, 7-3.3.3 

Alternate fuels 28-5 

Alternatives to code 1-6 

Definition 2-1.6 

Ambulatory health care occupancy 8-6 

Definition 2-1.7 

Ammonia refrigerant, emergency discharge of 23-4, A-23-4 

Ammonium nitrate 16-9, Chap. 19 

Amusement parks 1-16.16(1) 

ANSI/ASME (definition) 2-1.8 

Apartment building 8-9 

Definition 2-1.9, A-2-1.9 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems . .7-7.2.11 to 7-7.2.12 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.2.12 to 7-3.2.13 

Appeals 

Board of 1-8 

Definition 2-1.17 

Means of 1-8.6 

Application of code 1-5 

Approvals 1-16, A-l-16.14 

Approved (definition) 2-1.10, A-2-1.10 

Architects, professional (definition) 2-1.127 

Areas of refuge 8-7.2.1.3 

Arson 3-1.3 

Artwork 8-2.2.4.5, 8-3.3.2.3.3 

ASME containers or tanks 21-2.1.8 to 21-2.1.9, 21-3.1.2(4) 

Definition 2-1.12 

Location 21-3.1.1.1(6), 21-3.1.1.1(8) 

Markings 21-2.1.10.3 

ASME (definition) 2-1.11 

Assemblies, fire-retardant 5-3 

Assembly occupancies 8-1, A-8-1.2.9 

Definition 2-1.13, A-2-1.13 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems. . . 7-7.2.1 to 7-7.2.2 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.2.2 to 7-3.2.3, A-7-3.2.2 

Attendants see Staff 

Attended self-service stations 28-2.8.4 

Authority having jurisdiction 1-4 

Definition 2-1.14, A-2-1.14 

Fire protection systems, approval of 7-1.1, 13-3.1.2 

Automatic fire extinguishing system see Extinguishing systems 

Automotive fuel servicing 28-2, A-28-2 

Automotive service stations see Service stations 



2000 Edition 



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FIRE PREVENTION CODE 



-B- 

Backflow prevention devices 7-4.1.8, 7-5.3, A-7-5.3 

Balconies 

Charcoal burners on 3-4.7 

LP-Gas systems on 21-3.3.1.3, 21-3.3.8 

Basement parking structure 25-1.1 

Definition 2-1.118.1 

Basement 3-7.3.7 

Definition 2-1.16 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.2.1 

Batteries, fire pumps 7-4.7.3 

Bedding 

Board and care occupancies 8-5.2.5 

Detention and correctional occupancies 8-7.2.2 

Health care occupancies 8-4.2.5 

Bleachers see Grandstands 

Board and care occupancies, residential . . .see Residential board and 
care occupancies 

Board of appeals 1-8 

Definition 2-1.17 

Boatyards 22-1, 22-3, A-22-1.1, A-22-3 

Bonding, electrical 

Aircraft fuel servicing 28-3.1.4 

Marine service stations 28-4.6, 28-4.10.7(4), A-28-4.6.2 

Spray application operations 17-3.4.5 

Bonfires 1-16.16(3) 

Bowling lanes 1-16.16(4) 

Bridges, fire fighting access 3-5.3 

Building services Chap. 6, A-6-8 

Buildings see also Apartment buildings 

Under construction 1-9.3, 21-3.3.2 to 21-3.3.3, 29-1 

to 29-2, A-l-9.3 

Definition 2-1.18, A-2-1.18 

Existing see Existing buildings 

Historical 8-17, A-8-17.2 

Loose house 12-2.2.5 

Definition 2-1.97 

Private (definition) 2-1.125 

Vacant 3-8 

Bulk merchandising retail buildings 

Definition 2-1.19 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems 7-7.2.17.3, 

7-7.2.18.3 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.2.18.2 

Bulk storage 

Elevators 8-15.3 

Oxidizers 24-2.7.4, 24-2.9.7, 24-2.10.3 

Burners, kerosene 6-5.2 

Bus repair garages see Repair garages 

Business occupancies 8-13 

Definition 2-1.20, A-2-1.20 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems 7-7.2.19 to 

7-7.2.20 
Butane gas containers 21-3.3.7.4 



Campgrounds 27-2, A-27-2.2 

Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems 17-3.7.5 

Carbon dioxide portable fire extinguishers 7-6.2.1.4, A-7-6.2.L5 

Cargo tank fueling facilities 28-4.9 

Cargo vehicles, LP-Gas 21-4.3.2 to 21-4.3.3, 21-6 

Extinguishers, portable fire 21-6.1.2 



Parking and garaging 21-6.2 

Portable LP-Gas containers 21-6.1 

Carnivals 1-16.16(34), 3-10 

Cellulose nitrate film 1-16.16(6), 8-15.6 

Central station fire alarm systems 7-7.3.4, 7-7.3.7.1 , 7-7.3.7.4 

Certificate of fitness 1-17 

Definition 2-1.21 

CFR (definition) 2-1.22 

Charcoal burners 3-4.7 

Chemical, peroxide forming (definition) 2-1.121 

Chemical extinguishing systems 13-3.4, 17-3.7.5 

Christmas trees 3-9 

Circuits, initiating device (definition) 2-1 .88 

Class A fires 

Definition 2-1.23 

Extinguishers for 7-6.2.1.3, 7-6.3.2 

Class B fires 

Definition 2-1.24 

Extinguishers for 7-6.2.1.4, 7-6.3.3 to 7-6.3.4, A-7-6.3.4 

Class C fires 

Definition 2-1.25 

Extinguishers for 7-6.2.1.5, 7-6.3.5, A-7-6.3.5 

Class D fires 

Definition 2-1.26 

Extinguishers for 7-6.2.1.6, 7-6.3.6 

Class K fires 

Definition 2-1.27 

Extinguishers for 7-6.2.1.7, 7-6.3.7 

Clean zones 11-1 

Definition 2-1.29 

Cleaning, cooking equipment 13-1.4, A-13-1. 3 

Cleaning solvents 17-3.8.7 

Cleanrooms Chap. 11 

Definition 2-1.30 

Closed containers 17-3.6.4.1, 28-2.2.1.1(1) 

Definition 2-1.31 

Clothing storage 

Assembly occupancies 8-1 .2.8 

Day-care occupancies 8-3.3.2.3.2 

Detention and correctional occupancies 8-7.2.1.5 

Educational occupancies 8-2.2.4.4, 8-3.3.2.3.2 

Spray application operations 17-3.8.6 

Coating processes 17-4 

Code 

Definition 2-1.32, A-2-1.32 

Sample ordinance adopting App. C 

Combustible (definition) 2-1.33 

Combustible dusts 15-1 

Definition 2-1.34, A-2-1.34 

Combustible fibers see Fibers, combustible 

Combustible liquids see Flammable and combustible liquids 

Combustible refuse see Refuse, combustible 

Combustible vegetation 3-9 

Combustible waste see Waste, combustible 

Combustibles, storage of. 8-15.2 

Combustion (definition) 2-1 .39 

Commercial garages see Repair garages 

Common path of travel 4-4.2, A-4-4 

Definition 2-1.40, A-2-1.40 

Communication systems 7-7 

Compartments 

Fire (definition) 2-1.63, A-2-1.63 



2000 Edition 



INDEX 



1-191 



Smoke (definition) 2-1.144, A-2.1.144 

Compatible materials (definition) 2-1.99 

Compressed gases 1-16.16(8) 

Compressed natural gas 28-5.1 

Construction 

Airport terminal buildings 10-2.2.1 

Buildings under 1-9.3, 21-3.3.2 to 21-3.3.3, 29-1 

to 29-2, A-l-9.3 

Documents (definition) 2-1.41 

Fire safety features Chap. 5 

Heliports, roof-top 10-3 

Occupancy during 1-9.3, A-l-9.3 

Organic peroxide storage areas 24-3.8.1, 24-3.9.2, A-24-3.8.1.4 

Oxidizer storage areas 24-2.8.7, 24-2.9.8, 24-2.10.4 

Repair garages 30-2.2 

Roofing kettles 29-5.4 

Safeguards during Chap. 29 

Consumer fireworks 16-10 

Definition 2-1.42, A-2.1.42 

Containers see also Closed containers 

Butane gas 21-3.3.7.4 

Definition 2-1.43 

Flammable and combustible liquids 17-3.6.3.1, 17-3.6.4 

Location 21-5.2 

LP-Gas see LP-Gas containers 

Portable 

Fuel 28-2.8.2, 28-4.8, A-28-2.8.2 

LP-Gas 21-2.1.7, 21-2.1.9, 21-5, 21-6.1 

Controllers, fire pump 7-4.3 

Controls, ovens and furnaces 19-3 

Conveyors 6-3.4 

Cooking equipment 

Commercial 13-1, A-13-1.4.1 

Extinguishing systems for 13-2 to 13-3, A-13-2.2 

LP-Gas 21-3.3.6.2, 21-3.3.7.4 

Portable, in assembly occupancies 8-1.2.3 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.3.10 

Correctional occupancies 8-7 

Definition 2-1.51, A-2-1.51 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems . . .7-7.2.7 to 7-7.2.8 

Sprinkler systems 7-3.2.8 to 7-3.2.9, A-7-3.2.8.1 

Corrosion protection, tanks 28-2.2.4.8 

Covered mall buildings 1-16.16(9) 

Covered plane-loading positions 10-2.6 

Crowd managers 8-1.2.9, A-8-1.2.9 

Cutting and welding see Welding and cutting 

Cylinders see also Containers 

Definition 2-1.44 

LP-Gas 21-5.4.1, 21-6.1.1 

Oxygen-fuel gas systems 18-3.2 

-D- 

Day-care homes 

Definition 2-1.45, A-2-1.45 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems 7-7.2.23.3, 

7-7.2.24.3 

Day-care occupancies 8-3, A-8-3.3, A-8-3.3.2.1 

Definition 2-1.46, A-2-1.46 

Detection, alarm, and communication systems. . 7-7.2.23 to 7-7.2.24 

Decorations 5-6 

Assembly occupancies 8-1 .2.5 



Board and care occupancies 8-5.2.5 

Day-care occupancies 8-3.3.2.3 

Detention and correctional occupancies 8-7.2.2 

Educational occupancies 8-2.2.4 

Health care occupancies 8-4.2.5 

Hotels and dormitories 8-8.2.5 

In means of egress 4-9.2 

Dedicated smoke control systems (definition) 2-1.47 

Deep fat fryers 13-1.5, 13-3.2.2 

Definitions Chap. 2, A-2 

Deflagrations (definition) 2-1.48 

Delayed egress locks 4-1.10.1 

Demolition, safeguards during 29-3 

Detached storage 

Definition 2-1.49, 2-1.115.2 

Organic peroxide formulations 24-3.9 

Oxidizers 24-2.6, 24-2.7.1, 24-2.8.1, 24-2.8.9, 

24-2.9.10, 24-